Morozova Dobroselov( Kapitalistka merchant origin, known Maecenas)
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Biography Morozova Dobroselov
Barbara Alekseevnu Morozov - kapitalistku merchant origin, known patron, emancipated beauty with liberal views, besides the mother of five children - can be considered the prototype of today's businesswomen. An iron hand, she managed a "cotton" empire Morozov, uttered one of the most progressive newspapers in Russia and donated a huge sum for education of the proletariat.
. Stereotypes - a terrible thing! Recall the classical literature: there is unlikely to find at least one character merchant without estate baked
. In a frock coat and a gold watch on the belly, if he's drunk, then drops dead, if the playing cards, then drops his every last penny. A merchant's wife - very often in aging Kabanihi kustodievskom body. Meanwhile another Nemirovich-Danchenko in his memoirs "From the past Moscow, wrote that the nobility envied merchants, flaunting its desire for civilization and culture. Merchant children, though educated in the spirit of old, domostroevskih orders grew most educated people of Russia. Wives subscribed dresses from Paris, went to the French Riviera, and some seriously engaged in the business, such as Barbara Frost
"Calico fate, it seems, was determined Varenka Hludovoj from birth. Her father, Alexei Ivanovich, owned one of the first Russian spinning mills with steam engines. When she was seventeen, in love with her director of the Association of Tver Manufactory "Abram Morozov. It was he and his brother got Tver textile factories in the next, the fourth section of the famous Morozov property.
Abram Abramovich was older than his lady, and education did not shine. Barbara grew up as a beauty, read a lot, played music on the piano, is fluent in French. And time and again rejected a proposal muzhikovatogo groom. But then intervened in the matter Alexei Ivanovich.
Khludov man incorruptible honesty, hardworking and intelligent, was a supporter of absolute patriarchal despotism in the family - any disobedience on the part of children suppressed the most rigorous way. Rich merchant Morozov, in terms of not less than Khludov a wealthy merchant, was a brilliant match for his daughter. But as hard hludovskie children inherited his father's character, had his own daughter put under lock and key, to not stubborn. A son of Michael, which demanded independence, generally put the house.
About a year spent Barbara in a locked room and only surrendered in exchange for forgiveness of his beloved brother. So the future entrepreneur Barbara Morozova was struck first major deal.
Love and duty
After the wedding the family cotton-spinning case was deployed Abram Morozov with a vengeance. He wrote out the latest weaving equipment from England and Sweden, has invited foreign experts. Device Krasilov and other auxiliary facilities made it manufactory smoothly operating mechanism, turned his cotton and raw silk in the fabric for every taste and wealth. Abram Abramovich lived only work, which was given to all without reserve, and adored Varenka. He adored his wife, but she was hardly happy with it.
. From excessive congestion and hell mode uphill entrepreneur, when ten or twenty years' work done couple of centuries, the nervous system workaholic Morozova failed.
. Mental illness Abram Abramovich lasted for five years
. Barbara refused to identify her husband spetskliniku, as required by the nature of the disease, and nursed him until his death. In this, perhaps the most difficult and dark period in her life she has helped the professor Sergei Korsakov, who treated the patient at home. The founder of the Moscow school of psychiatry, Dr. Korsakov was renowned for being the first canceled the abuse of mentally ill, then prevailed in hospitals, and sharply opposed the sterilization and castration of their patients.
. Barbara was able to remember the good
. Part of the huge state, . which fell to her after her husband's death, . She referred to the construction of hospitals: psychiatric clinic, . which appropriated the name of the deceased spouse, . Cancer Institute and the Virgin field, . renamed later in the Cancer Institute of P,
. A. Herzen.
Intelligent and strong-willed widow took the "Association of Tver Manufactory" in their own hands. Expansion of sales, competitive procurement of raw materials, cheap labor - all this has brought huge profits. Morozova tools allow not only to live in a big way, but be generous patron. The autumn of 1883 Barbara turned to the mayor with a statement in which he expressed a desire to make an initial contribution - 10 thousand rubles - to organize in Moscow reading rooms memory of Ivan Turgenev. Free Library was a rarity for that time and good п©п+я+пTп+п+п+. Soon after Morozov, one after another began to open reading rooms named after Ostrovsky, Pushkin, Gogol ...
Philanthropic Barbara worked enthusiastically, but with the mind. She firmly adhered to the rules: only need to sacrifice in order to "teach or treat people". Well-educated, business and practical Morozov led a strict account of every ruble and never allowed themselves to be drawn into a useless, from her point of view, this charity event. In such cases, Barbara refused firmly and decisively, regardless of title of petitioner.
. Once Stanislavsky and Nemirovich-Danchenko stopped to discuss plans for the upcoming Morozova theater season, of course, in the hope of financial support
. But they said, unconvincingly, to crumple, as if ashamed of his own ideas. "In her eyes was respectfully attentive cold, so that all our ardor quickly frozen and all the good words froze in the language ... She cold polite smile refused ". However, this did not prevent them from considering the Barbarian Alekseevnu very liberal philanthropist.
Indeed, the name Morozova was among the first patrons, supporting the work of women's courses, research laboratories. Barbara, build and maintain schools in various provinces of Russia, where children were given free textbooks and fed hot meals. One of her most famous creations were the so-called Prechistenskiy courses for workers, which eventually became a center of enlightenment in Moscow proletarians. Lectures came to listen to one and a half thousand people.
. Kapitalistka Morozova helped farmers affected by floods; suited hospitals for the wounded at the front, allocated funds for the publication of the Populist magazine "Russian Wealth" and even worked with the Social Democrats.
. Barbara, of course, was the black sheep in the merchant class
. What influenced the treatment of rich fabrikantshi in the classic type of progressive philanthropist Moscow "- Emotional or rapid turns in personal life
. Very pretty from childhood, the years Barbara has become one of the first capital of beauties
. Her huge dark brown eyes with a velvety sable eyebrows deprived of rest is not one man's heart.
Morozov did not like the merchant environment and are always stretched to the "enlightened intellectuals". Once at a dinner Barbarian Alekseevnu acquainted with the editor of "Russian Gazette" - the most progressive newspaper in those years. This meeting proved fateful for both. Vasily M. Sobolewski immediately fell in love with Morozov, and admired her until her death. And Barbara for many years to actually become the publisher of the newspaper and its editor-law wife, active and energetic advocate of advanced ideas of his time. Now in her house was going to Moscow all the liberal professors, often looked well-known writers and directors.
Morozova never married in the Sobolev. Supporters of equality, the founder of the first women's club, she defended their own independence. However, the issue of formal marriage had no direct relation to its emansipirovannosti - religious marriage would deprive her name, and hence Morozov inheritance. (For this same reason, her children by Sobolev, Hleb and Natalia wore name Morozov.) But the audacity Barbara Alekseevny consisted in the fact discussed and condemned by society "cohabitation", which she did not hide from anyone.
. Lifestyles Barbara Alekseevny aroused her sons from a marriage with Morozov open rejection
. "Assembled, or something, that something was wrong in her sons liberals - Misha, Vanya and Arseny, but hated their fierce hatred of liberalism and, it seems, at the same time mother" - recalled the artist Sergei Vinogradov.
. Indeed, the relations in the Morozov family evolved quite difficult
. And it was primarily in the hard nature of the Barbarians Alekseevny: always smart, business, and it is with their own children kept strictly and dry. Morozovskij boys arhimillionery from birth to adulthood received from his mother's harsh 75 rubles per month. Covetousness, suggesting upbringing personality. But the sons did not understand. Unforgiven left and extraordinary, natural talent mother, her fanaticism at work.
. The eldest son Michael, the chief opponent Barbara, has made his election to the mayor of the ancient Cathedral of the Assumption in the Kremlin, which crowned all Russia's monarchs
. Rejoiced almost like a boy: "Now mother and her liberalishki rage at the tails of the whirl of anger". The appeal rights, a country in childhood parental neglect and does not realize that emotional restraint Morozova helped lead a huge variety of cases and thus to keep afloat.
. "In the morning in the office clicks knuckles on the accounts, the evening draws the same magic fingers Chopin melodies, talked about the theory of Karl Marx and read the latest philosophies" - wrote about it a contemporary
. At the piano, she played every day, razuchivaya more and more new plays favorite composers. In fifty years, began studying the German language and will soon have free reading.
Barbara, died Sept. 6, 1917, bequeathing a large portion of the state - pie factory - its workers. In the same year "for counterrevolutionary propaganda, the Bolsheviks closed down her favorite" Russian Gazette ". In the late 30-ies magazine "Red Archive" unmasked "and the very Morozov: it turns out, her philanthropy, she only tried to" hide the exploitative activities of entrepreneurs ". A popular among Muscovites library name and. S. Turgenev was wiped from the face of the earth relatively recently, in 1972, when paving Novokirovskogo Avenue