Chetverikov Sergei Ivanovich( Well-known entrepreneur)
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Biography Chetverikov Sergei Ivanovich
(1851 - 1929) October Revolution set Chetverikova before the tragic choice - exile or death in prison. Sergei Ivanovich was not only well-known entrepreneur, therefore, "class-alien elements", but also marked a political figure with a reputation as a moderate-liberal activist. Chetverikov worked in the county zemstvos, was the provincial vowel. The peak of his political career was to take part in the creation in 1912. Progressive Party, which includes representatives of Russia's largest business. This person had no place in Bolshevik Russia.
December evening 1871. in the office of one of the suburban woolen mills tragedy: settled accounts with the life of the owner of the plant. The cause of unhappiness was no mystery to the Moscow business world, with its usual calmness who watched the inevitable ups and downs of the business of fortune. On the eve of the factory cash was issued last ruble to cover emergency bills, and the next day was to new charges. On this sad story would probably have been forgotten (columns criminal chronicles Moscow newspapers of the time were filled with reports of numerous bankruptcies and suicides), if it had continued.
At the end of 1907. Muscovites, who believed irretrievably gone golden age of the merchants, when in the dark of the old barn yard Gostinui million-dollar businesses were at a "fair merchant word" were very surprised. One of the most famous Moscow industrialists placed in a newspaper ad: he was looking for lenders, which his father was unable to pay debts. This was the son of a suicide manufacturer. Was this famous Moscow entrepreneur Sergei Chetverikov. As an old man of seventy, he recalled: "I am passionately fond of his father and his tomb has promised to dedicate his life to restore the good name of this so. It took me 36 years to fulfill the promise. Over these 36 years the majority of creditors peremerlo, and long ago forgotten about it, but I have not forgotten.
Sergei Chetverikov place of merchant family who had settled in Moscow in the middle of the XVIII century. One of his grandfather (paternal) was founded near Moscow Gorodischenskogo textile factory (now - factory Sverdlov Schelkovo district, Moscow region), . other - the bells plant, . thundering glory of the whole of Russia: the enterprise of the merchant Samgin were cast many bells Moscow, . including a particularly large - thousanders "(1000 pounds) for the churches of St. Sergius in Rogozhskoy parts and Trinity in Vishnjakov at Pyatnitskaya,
. Chetverikov were related matrimonial ties with the most first-class merchant family in Moscow: Sergei Ivanovich and his brother were married to sisters Alekseev (through his wife's uncle Chetverikov had known a native dynasty Alekseeva - K. S. Stanislavsky).
True, the music almost prevented Sergei Ivanovich embark on the path of the ancestors. Italian Opera, toured in Moscow, has made an indelible impression on him. He decided to take lessons from a famous music teacher on. Riba, and soon became one of his best students. In 1867, Mr.. Sergei Chetverikov finished third Moscow real school. In contrast to the classical, she did not give the right to enter the university, dreamed Sergey. He had, at the insistence of his father, go to St. Petersburg for an internship in the office representative Gorodischenskogo factory Mueller. But in St. Petersburg the main hobby of the young merchant remained Music. Chetverikov composed nocturnes and ballads on fashion-sensitive texts and performed them in the evenings in front of friends. Passion for music was so strong, and clerical classes were before, no matter what the old man, a German, the chief accountant of the office, in the end, very unflattering described the intern: "Never good merchant will not". It seemed that all of this and went - the young son of a factory owner did not miss a single presentation of the Mariinsky Opera and thinking about the beginning of his own artistic career.
No one knows how his life would be formed next, but a letter arrived from Moscow. The father reported that the case at the factory are getting worse and worse, and asked to come. "I am passionately fond of his father - remembering Sergei Ivanovich, - and his word was law to me ... Music receded ". What he saw at the factory until deeply shocked him: outdated equipment, heavy manual labor, appalling living conditions. Workers from distant places slept under their machines. For women are the greatest rewards go to the foam cleaning building, where they could keep the cradle and sleep on the floor on the scattered pieces of cloth severe.
. First, his father sent Sergei in business study tour abroad for the inspection of the best European companies pile
. From the Austrian city of Brunn (now z. Brno in the Czech Republic) was issued a master and several modern looms. In the best shops of Moscow was put up a new collection of woolen products. She made a good impression, so that soon the factory has received orders from Moscow's largest wholesalers. Sergey has developed a plan of reorganization, it is true, this would have found more than 100 thousand rubles. When the estimates were shown to his father, he visibly embarrassed, but he sent his son abroad to order the machine on the best factories in Germany. With great expectations come back Sergei in Russia, and here he was expecting a terrible blow. He returned to Moscow on Dec. 5, 1871, and before his father committed suicide.
Dealer CODE OF HONOR
Cass was empty. I had to telegraph immediately cancel all orders. At this tragic moment to fully manifest Moscow entrepreneur solidarity zameshennaya on kinship. Worked Code "merchant of honor". Creditors at the meeting agreed to "not close" family of the bankrupt manufacturer, not insist on immediate payment of bills and allow time somehow arrange it. Factory took the form of mutual partnership, amounting to 260 thousand rubles were issued to units taken in pledge Moscow Merchant Bank. Chetverikov, Jr. could buy them for 10 years. Helped and relatives. Alekseeva assume some responsibility for the debts of the factory, and received from them financial assistance allowed Sergei Ivanovich buy in Germany, the car and proceed to the reorganization of the enterprise.
. But Chetverikov understood that a technical upgrade is not enough for success
. And then he was the first of Russian industrialists, went to the radical improvement of working and living conditions of workers: reduced working hours from 12 to 9 hours, abolished night work for women and the girl ... Among the manufacturers of these measures have caused a lot of complaints. Many predicted a complete failure "newfangled venture". At first it seemed that their predictions are coming true. Gorodischenskogo factory continued to remain low-income. The profit amounted to only 5%. It was connected with the successful activity in the 80-ies. XIX century. main competitors in Moscow textile - manufakturistov Lodz. Polish products are not very high quality, cheap, with good figure, used in high demand (to reduce the cost of production, the Poles in the wool in a large number of low value added impurities). Russian manufacturers are inclined to "Polish version". But Chetverikov decided otherwise: the main thing - money! What has brought and will soon brilliant results. It turned out that the market is overflowing with cheap and not very good quality products and quality goods for which demand has grown, could produce a few among them - Gorodischenskogo Factory. It is significant that in the 90-ies. XIX century. none prestigious shop in Poland, even in the textile "capital" of Lodz, could not do without the products of the Association Chetverikov.
Finally came the success. Then Sergei able to pay all creditors of the father. By the way, this noble gesture was totally unforeseen consequences. Association Chetverikov was used in the business world unlimited credit. This allowed for three years to modernize production and to equip its most sophisticated machines. Gorodischenskogo factory before 1917 and became a sverhdohodnyh to Russia. How proudly said Sergei Ivanovich: "I do not only get back the amounts paid to cover the debt of his father, but on the day the Bolsheviks seized power could consider himself a rich man."
. FIRST IN THE WORLD
. Chetverikov understood that the success of the enterprise depends not only on technical modernization
. In 1907 he was among the first in the world and the first in Russia to make the workers party in the profits of the factory. He began to allot them 20%, and the senior employee personnel and senior officials 10% of net profit. However, this is not confined. High yield plants allowed the board of the Association, with the consent of the shareholders who decide to continue to be content-income units only in 10%, expel all the excess profits to expand production, and welfare workers. The latter implies a complete reorganization "kamorochnyh bedrooms (dorms), the construction of individual houses for family workers, nursery schools, trade schools, baths, laundry, a large Public House with theater and club for senior officials ... Complete all scheduled anticipated by 1919, a 50-year anniversary of the Chetverikov enterprise.
Sergei was engaged not only the affairs of family firms. After the tragic death in 1893 his cousin and close friend, . known Moscow mayor Alekseeva, . he took his place and became chairman of the boards of the Association, Vladimir Alexeev and Danilovskaya worsted spinning, . which in the early 90-ies enjoyed the unenviable reputation,
. Customers, even if they bought the yarn here, then gave her a little, because they do not know for sure what sort of order they will deliver. It could not arrange a new owner of the factory, which has always acted on principle: the basis of successful business - reputation of the company, backed by strict standards and high quality goods. After becoming chairman of the board, he immediately made a number of proposals for technical modifications of production and offered to personally take up the purchase of wool. Offers by Sergey Ivanovich had been taken, and after a few years, products Danilovskaya factory was estimated at the market's most expensive high-quality foreign brands
. SIBERIAN Sheep
. But the chief merit of his life Chetverikov considered the creation of a new branch of the national economy of Russia - Siberian Sheep
. "If I had success in the dispensation headed by me, factories, and Gorodischenskogo Danilovskaya, in this dispensation, I was still Torney ways. Not so in the Siberian venture. It was all a solid creative, because there was no precedent. That was the reason for the tremendous moral satisfaction that it gave me ". Company "Vladimir Alexeyev" in the Caucasus belonged merino flock in 65-70 thousand heads, which deliver a better fine-fleeced wool for worsted spinning Danilovskaya. In 1908, Mr.. expired and could not be renewed term of the lease by the partnership of land in the North Caucasus and the question on the Elimination of elite herds. Find new pastures in European Russia failed. Then Chetverikov decided on a bold step
He carries a herd of endless steppes of the Altai. It was believed that this land is unsuitable for livestock due to long winters and lack of water. However, Sergei Ivanovich with energy set to a new business: pre-built brick plant, equip special winter road for the cattle, laying in the arid steppes of the wells, gives loans to farmers, instructing them to harvest forage for winter. By 1917, Mr.. Siberian Chetverikova herd numbered 50 thousand heads, and, contrary to predictions, the wool was of high quality. But in October 1919. company has suffered an irreparable blow: the economy took the "red". As a result, all employees are scattered, and the sheep who were left without supervision and feed, were scattered across the steppes, peremerzli or were exterminated. "With the loss of his fortune, the result of 50 years of activity, I resigned - wrote already become the most elderly Chetverikov - but the destruction of Siberian sheep - a wound that'll carry him to open his grave."
. CLASS foreign element
. October Revolution set Chetverikova before the tragic choice - exile or death in prison
. Sergei Ivanovich was not only well-known entrepreneur, therefore, "class-alien elements", but also marked a political figure with a reputation as a moderate-liberal activist. Chetverikov worked in the county zemstvos, was the provincial vowel. The peak of his political career was to take part in the creation in 1912. Progressive Party, which includes representatives of Russia's largest business. This person had no place in Bolshevik Russia. Winter 1918. it was transmitted from his estate in Bogorodsky prison, however, was soon released, but he was not left alone - began periodic "checks" of the Cheka. In January 1919. He even spent several days on death row awaiting execution. After his release the next daughter of Sergei Ivanovich made the authorities permission to take his father in his family living in Switzerland, where he died in 1929
Emigration Chetverikov engaged in literary work. He worked on his memoirs and has even written a small novel. In his articles at that time he expressed the hope that the NEP will be the first assignment of Bolshevism in Russia, and soon will the revival of industry and enterprise and the protagonist will be renewed peasant. Articles were signed by the initials. Sergei feared for the fate of their children, . remaining in the Soviet Union and became outstanding scientists, . - Sergey, . one of the founders of population genetics, . and Dmitry, . MSU Professor, . created a number of original works in the field of probability theory and mathematical statistics.,
. Rhode Chetverikov continued.