LEAR William (Powell)( Developed by jet)
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Biography LEAR William (Powell)
The media gave this 'storm Genius' title 'King Lear', since, as he earned a reputation as a man fully controlling their own destiny in the face of fiercely played out around him strife. He was a true Renaissance man and inventor of the modernist. Lear became known, thanks to jet Lear, who created in the sixty years. Overall, . his account of the first radio for the car (1924), . transceiver (1935), . Aircraft compass system (1946), . autopilot (1949) and, . comparable in significance to innovation in jet Lear (1963), . First vosmidorozhechnaya stereo (1967).,
. Lear has been volatile, impatient, resourceful and extremely passionate in everything, no matter what he did.
. Lear has received more than 150 patents, most of which - in the field of high-tech electronics and aviation technology
. He achieved this, having in its arsenal vosmiklassnoe education, innate creativity and colossal appetite for risk. One of the favorite expressions used them less passionate exhortations to employees was: "Do not tell me that this can not be done" (Reshk, 1985). Released in the 60's book 'Lear jet' contained a few, perhaps, daring, but very accurate epithets, which allows us to imagine how employees Lear saw its passionate and bright Boss:
. Description of Bill: evil, . genius, . unpredictable, . good, . dynamic, . genius, . noble, . berserk, . resourceful, . genius, . happy, . funny, . friendly, . genius, . mad, . knows, . absurd, . restless and brilliant (Reshk, . 1985).,
. When Lear asked what prompted him to invent a jet plane, he said, as a true innovator: "I created a Lear jet, because I wanted"
. The first double-decker he bought in 1931 for money received as royalties for radio 'Motorola'. Flights across the country, committed to this plane, gave the inventive mind of Lear ground for thought. Once this stubborn inventor / entrepreneur lost in the air and was pretty scared because I did not imagine how you can determine its location and direction. He solved this problem by creating liroskop. This device, like most of his inventions, has become the industry standard - more than half of all U.S. aircraft are equipped with the invention made by Lear in 1939.
. Draft Lear jet
. Bill organized 'Lear, Inc.' in Grand Rapids, Michigan, in 1939, in order to produce a miniature autopilot
. In 1940 this device has dominated the market, and during the war years they were released more than 100 million. dol. American pilots of jet aircraft used exclusively to produce. Lear had amassed a decent condition and has acquired ownership in Switzerland 'Le Ranch', an area of 27000 square feet. He spent much time. During one of his trips to Switzerland, Lear was driving past an abandoned Swiss fighter, which was the basis of the project Lear jet.
. By the time Bill decided to build a 'Lear Jet' (Lear jet), he was chairman of a successful enterprise
. Board of Directors 'Lear, Inc.' reconciled with the rapid naturoyBilla and his desire to rush into the implementation of various projects, without waiting for their approval. But Lear's intention to withdraw support to the business jet market, the Council flatly refused, even if the aircraft will be able to compete with the products of the largest manufacturers. This position was maintained and aircraft makers, who thought that the idea to produce the aircraft is very risky and most likely he will never fly. For the organization of production aircraft were needed huge, unmanageable 'Lear, Inc.' investments.
But Lear is not so easily be persuaded to refrain from exercising their dreams. He gave the board an ultimatum - either they will approve the project, or he would sell the company and will finance its own. They agreed with the last sentence and in 1962, Lear sold it for 14.3 million. dol. and signed a long-term consulting contract. Then he put most of the money received from the 'Lear, Inc.', in his new company 'Lear Jet', is based in Wichita, Kansas. Lear was convinced that the plane will fly, but it was still a big risk. He passionately believed in and put his entire fortune on this project. Bill Lear was sixty years old, but he still was able to put everything he had, relying solely on their intuition. This man had a firm belief system.
Lear modified the model of the Swiss jet fighter F-16 and created a jet plane 'Lear Jet'. Designed by Lear aircraft surpassed any ever created by commercial aircraft in many respects. He could fly at an altitude of 50000 feet, building speed up to 500 miles per hour, 18 minutes after the start he was raised to a height of 41000 feet. The initial price of this very easy and fast aircraft (complete with modifications) was 649000 USD. After flight tests in November 1964, having received the approval of the Federal Aviation Administration, he shall, within six months of a contract to supply fifty-two aircraft. This success allowed the 'Lear Jet' move from a zero share in the market to a dominant position (80 per cent of world market). Was at the forefront of his endeavors, he was offside at the current market aviaproduktsii and only twenty-four months rose to the role of main provider. Such a Herculean task would not have been on the force a person who does not have a passionate desire and ingenuity, Bill Lear.
Aeronautics engineer said that the 'Lear Jet' (Lear jet) will never fly. Aerospace industry experts said it was a ridiculous idea. The bankers refused to finance the project, and predicted his defeat. Skeptical experts who knew 'too much' attitude towards Lear biased. He said: "All the bankers turned to my competitors with the question:" Can he make jet samoletN "And they answered:" Well, he even did not understand anything in aviation. He is a certified engineer in aeronautics. He had no more than ten million dollars ... Chances are he will not do it "(Reshk, 1985).
When Lear asked why industry leaders were not so far-sighted as he, in a debate about the 'Lear Jet', he replied with all sincerity, forgetting caution. He was sociable, extrovert rebel, which everything had its own opinion. For him there was no taboo subjects when he discussed his victories and defeats. He described the establishment as an assemblage of a liar, with limited views, and caring only about self-preservation. One of his sharp criticism remained in the memory of Turner and Jones, who is also cynical about all the specialists and market researchers:
They ask the wrong questions. A mishap is to recognize the market when there is not even a hint of its existence. If you were told in 1925, . that somewhere in 1965 we will make nine million vehicles, . Some statistics estimate would, . that they will fill all the roads and the U.S., . lined up one after, . form a chain, . capable of eleven times to cover the distance from one end of the country to another,
. Who wants this prognozN I make my own predictions (Reshk, 1985)
William Lear was born in Hannibal, Missouri, May 14, 1902. His mother, Gertrude, was a domineering German woman who played an important role in the formation of its dangers and passions generated by the desire. It was cruel and father divorced when Bill was still a child. At a time when groups were formed personality Bill, she lived with different men, and then, in 1913, she married a second time, Bill was then eleven years. She became a convert Christian and has created a family atmosphere, which guaranteed the psychological repression of normal adolescent sexual desires. Newfound religion inspired Gertrude demeanor contrary youthful hormonal flowering Bill.
Gertrude could refer to Bill as the Prince one minute, and the next - how to homeless. She said that he was fantastic and capable of any accomplishment. The next moment she turned into a cruel tyrant, and treated the young Willie as a serf, calling him a devil. To get away from this, Willie buried himself in books and became engaged in technical crafts. In twelve years, he fashioned radio and mastered the Morse code. He avidly read books about electricity and technological innovation. The heroes of novels and 'Fantasy' became his favorites. Horatio Aldzher and Tom Swift began his ideals and sent his imagination in flight. Identifying himself in his dreams with these fictional characters, he forgot about an unhappy childhood. They became his life-saving road to a happy and exciting world.
Lear's last words in 1978 were: "Mother!" Mother! "Stop it, Mommy, stop it". Subconscious Oedipus complex is so deeply imprinted on his psyche that manifested itself in seventy-five years. One of the reasons that influenced the formation of a Lear similarity of the Oedipus complex, it was unusual behavior of Gertrude in its formation. She looked at him while bathing and other provocative actions committed until his eighth year. (Reshk, 1985). In the sixth grade, she severely beat him with a broom, because I saw him on a bicycle with a girl, and then selected the bicycle as a punishment for what he is talking with the girls. She is constantly insulted him as verbally and physically.
Because of their own problems in the marriage, she convinced him that marriage - it's a prison, and the girls dissolute and immoral. She constantly changed her attitude toward him and said that he should be fine minutes after she beat him. It is unlikely that she knew that creates one of the most incorrigible lovers of women in America, a man who devoted life of debauchery, which will be the envy of Errol Flynn. Personality Lear formed in such conditions, even in early childhood was not incorporated such a hyperactive libido, which can saturate the only uncontrollable desire for edification. His passion to invent and create, apparently was caused by suppression of yunyegody psychosexual energy.
Bill liked to engage in technical creativity, but have not received specialized formal education. He had a strong desire to know everything that is connected with electronics, but the school he was deeply disappointed in the ninth grade, Lear abandoned her. Bill loved to fly and spent a lot of time hanging out at the Chicago airfields. The tyranny of the mother to continue and, eventually, unable to withstand the constant pressure, at seventeen he ran away from home in order to find himself in Hollywood. That he failed. In 1920, Lear was in Denver, frustrated and lonely, and, concealing his age, entered the Navy. In the army, he met with the wireless and radio technologies. There, in the army, he found the use of their technical design skills in radio communications. This was his entry into the world of electronic transmission, which was his fate over the next two decades.
Business and personal survival
Lear created the 'Lear Jet' in the same manner in which he lived his life. He rejected all the customs, ancient traditions and methodologies. 'Lear Jet' has surpassed all the certification parameters of the Office of the U.S. Air Force ( 'Ef-Hey-Hey'), because Lear has taken into account everything that ever was put object development, funded by the State and 'Ef-Hey-Hey' and even more. According to Stanley Green, engineers and lawyers 'Ef-Ei-Ei': "It just struck the imagination of all. Literally everyone in the 'Ef-Hey-Hey' invent new rules in order to strengthen its security and improve the work. "
Lear has always worked in the field of the unknown, and therefore remained a lonely and vulnerable. Charisma and charm saved him. An example may be imposed on them to 'Lear Jet' criteria, which destroyed all the traditional dogma of the time. Its been ostracized traditionalists, but Lear always found strong argument to prove his innocence. Critics said that he will lose the market, because the plane does not meet the requirements and rejected by experts.
These experts said that the rate of 'Lear Jet' excessive and sverhubiystvenna for small corporate customers. A Lear was sharp and expressive: "Managers are using the DC-8, which develops a speed of 500 miles per hour, why do not they use a plane with an equivalent speed". Experts believed that the necessary cabin, where you can freely move. Lear said to them: "You can not stand in the Cadillac. Experts say that the heating and cooling system - unnecessary ballast. Lear replied: "It would be funny if it were an important official, arrived at the airport in air-conditioned and worth 5000 dollars. transferred to a car worth 500,000 dollars. plane, which, before off the ground, was as comfortable as the sauna ". Experts say that we need a bathroom. Lear replied: "Lounge - a recognition that you spend too much time on the way to their destination" (Reshk, 1985). Lear has always had an accurate response to the criticism and was not particularly tactful in expressing their feelings.
. Creativity and financial security
. In late 1966 the Lyra several occasions cereznye financial problems caused by his restless inventive mind
. This forced him to sell the 'Lear Jet' in April 1967, Gates Rubber. Lear lost in 1966, 12 million, mainly due to the fact that he could not control his passion for invention and innovation and not focused on the production of 'Lear Jet', who enjoyed great demand. He started for the development of three new aircraft at the time had not yet completed the production cycle is extremely popular 'Lear Jet'.
Lear perceived this race - to invent, invent, reinvent - as a way to prove what he is. His genius was his curse. He created the world's most popular commercial jet, but was unable to complete its production cycle, throwing himself into an entirely new venture. He did not want or could not deal with the more mundane aspects - the introduction and commercialization of the product. He simply obeyed his desire to invent. His psyche is not required to fill inherited his love, and he left the scope of business to other, more inclined to thoroughness, people.
Hubert Robert Gates paid 11,89 USD. per share 'Lear Jet', which brought Lear 21 million. dol. plus another 3.5 million. on debt. He again like a phoenix, risen from the ashes, and headed for new adventures. He was very rich and sixty-five years away from the suspected cases and to enjoy the fruits of their ingenuity. But again, once again proving the gambling nature of the true innovator, Lear has invested a large portion of income from the 'Lear Jet' in the new company he founded in Reno, Nevada, and is developing a new operating on gas fuel cars. After spending five years and 17 million. dol. In 1976, Lear constructed a new spiral jet engine. He invested another 10 million. in this enterprise, while Lear was seventy-four. Again, as in three previous cases, Lear has overcome all obstacles. In the year of his death (1978), his condition was less than a million.
Bill Lear, belonged to the extroverted intuitive-thinking type, which Jung called this type of imaginative industrial magnates. Lear match all the criteria of Young and even more. He was very sociable, a party-goer Hollywood elite and dined with presidents. His good friend, Bob Cummings, agreed to play its role in the movie 'Honor and Glory'. This film was never released because the studio between 'Columbia' and Lear a conflict - 'Columbia' insisted on the inclusion in the film plane crash scene with indispensable participation of its autopilot, but Lear opposed. It was another occasion when he, having failed to curb his perfectionism, prevented the implementation of what is wanted.
Lear received energy from the outside world. He loved the 'complete picture' of the world and saw things from the perspective makrovideniya. He would never have allowed myself to do 'little things in life'. This reflects the intuitive abilities, which he used the scholastic. His decisions were based on an objective analysis of problems and did not depend on popular opinion about the subject. One example of his iconoclastic nonconformism is given them the name of the daughter Shandy - he thought through what it would be called 'Shandy Lear'.
Lear has devoted his life to building and acted independently because he was human or not human. He loved the completeness and fullness in all things. For example, Lear has signed its death will, not reading it. Journal 'Flying' in September 1989 called Lyra 'Mr. Bill' and described it as mindless, indiscriminate and extremely self-reliant individualist:
. His confidence, more than any other quality, which distinguishes it, it was the absolute certainty, such certainty that the sun appears from behind the clouds, unshakable confidence that infects and persuading others.
. Libido inherent Lear, truly had not equal
. He had seven children from four marriages and one from a long affair with a woman, known under the name Scarlett A. He had a mistress in Chicago, Deyone, New York, Santa Monica, and almost everywhere, where he at least briefly stopped. Charlene, who was his mistress for many years, met him when his wife was away visiting children or remain in one of the many country houses. He had a mistress for twenty years in Santa Monica and Switzerland. The code name was 'General'. His wife, . Moya, . in an attempt to find a moral balance, . embroidered the names of his mistresses on the canvas (only those, . about which she knew) and its list included: Kesidi, . Margaret, . Ethel, . Madeleine, . Nina, . Kathy, . Didi, . Scarlett, . Jill, . Eileen, . Jackie, . Bess and her 'punishment' Charlene (Reshk, . 1985),
. Lear even invited his sons John and David on the set of parties to these women.
Lear was an innovator in business and a renegade in his personal life. Once he saw the fighter of the Air Force, who drove for comparison and qualitative analysis of his plane. Then Lear planted in the pilot's seat of his three sons, and he hid behind. In 'Ef-Hey-Hey' received a detailed description of his actions, and Lear, without a moment's hesitation, sent a letter directly to President Nixon, recommending to abolish 'Ef-Hey-Hey'. His daughter, Petty told me that up to sixteen years, she lived in twenty different houses, and up to twelve - was replaced by twelve schools.
His impatient and intolerant with respect to the employees become a legend. Bern Benfer, an engineer who participated in the creation of its autopilot, described in the following epithets Lear: 'a moving, overwhelming, able to inspire, attractive and masochistic'. Moya became the wife of thirty-six for him as a foster mother, according to biographer Reshku: "She knew all the darkest fears of the Bill - not to be loved, to be one of the worst, to be thrown. She was everything to him, what was not his real mother. "
Talent Bill Lear was a mixture of innovative creativity with the warmth and brightness of this adventure. He had the charisma of the serpent-tempter and excitement Eyvela Knevela. Invincible passion and desire to have his strength. In the biography 'The rapid Genius' (1985) and in the press Lear is presented as a furious innovator, which is developing the concept could work twenty-four - thirty hours without a break. When the less motivated employees found themselves unable to maintain its frenetic pace, he was nervous, lost control of himself and broke into curses. We Reshka is a description, which gave Lear the Swiss shortly before he started on the project 'Lear Jet':
. Freak, . that infects people with enthusiasm, genius, . which seeks to give life to new ideas at any cost - sacrificing family, . friends, . business; prediction, . awareness and confidence in his own place in history; entrepreneur, . create a blessed gift, . and ideas, . and money and burdened la folie de grandeur.,
. Lear could give instructions to any employee of any company, believing in the inherent in virtually all brilliant innovators autocratic manner that has the right to do
. It makes demands and monitored at all stages of their businesses. When asked about the logic of such a leadership style, . he replied: "A hundred people could paint the Sistine kapelluN" Another confirmation of the turbulent nature of Bill Lear was given by his friend, . to which rumor, . that Lear's ashes was scattered from an airplane over the Pacific Ocean off the coast of Los Angeles:,
. I could not come nearer to the ocean for about a month
. He acquired such a large and exuberance that seemed to engulf all (Reshk, 1985).
Tendency to pucky
Lear has earned and lost millions, but he came into the game for the sake of creativity and problem-solving - not the greed for money led him to the heights. It is known that the risk of going for pleasure, brought in solution, which others thought impossible. When the founder of 'Ampeks' Alexander Pontitov told him that vosmidorozhechny receiver for cars is impossible, Lear burning with a desire to do so. When he wore a dilemma whether or not yield to the problem, he took up a ski or committed a few laps on his plane (an illegal maneuver under 'Ef-Ei-Ei'), in order to attain a normal psychological state. Bill Lear had the spirit of Horatio Aldzhera, was an adventurer, had unparalleled, and his belief system would be astonished even the mind of Norman Vincent Pieyla. Reshk gave a positive assessment of his desire to 'rapid Geniuses' and gave a statement Lear: "They said I would never be able to build his airplane. But I made it. They said that my plane will never fly. But he flew. They said that we do not succeed. But we did it. "
In his attitude to risk Lear is like Ted Turner. He risked everything he had, for the sake of realization of each new idea, until the very end. Board of Directors 'Lear, Inc.' has not ratified the idea of 'Lear Jet' in 1961. They were convinced that the plane will never be built well, but otherwise would not be in demand. Lear was disappointed, but steadfast. He immediately began to negotiate the sale of the company, which was his brainchild (and by that time would bring an annual income of $ 100 million. dol.). February 8, 1962 he sold the company 'Seygler Inc.'. His personal share of the proceeds from the sale of the money amounted to 14.3 million. dol. All this money has been invested in the development of the project Lear jet. Within two years they spent. Lear himself was in large debt, nearly bankrupt. He laid his estate 'Le Ranch' in Switzerland, a house in Wichita, new homes in Greece and Palm Springs, and paintings by Rubens, belonged to his wife, to hold out until the completion of the project 'Lear Jet'. This Lear made in anticipation of certification 'Ef-Hey-Hey', on which it was impossible to expect especially after he shocked them with his revolutionary airplane.
. Lear was so pressed for money in mid-1960, which sold a test model of 'Lear Jet', which was not protected by copyright, because had not yet received certification 'Ef-Ei-Ei', his friend replenish cash reserves.
. If you look at things directly, he was lucky
. vKazhetsya, Lady Luck is always on the side of the great optimists, as was Bill Lear. Once, when at his new firm clouds gathered, fate intervened, and one of his test plane crashed and burned. Receive the insurance premium was enough that the company lasted until the certification. But, having received a certificate, it was necessary to establish the production, and again demanded money. He got a dilemma - joint stock company or to see how everything is collapsing. Is free from a businessman, Bill by November 1964 was 5.5 million. dol. by selling 40 percent stake, to 10 dollars. per share. During the twelve months 'Lear Jet' became the most popular commercial jet in history.
Bill Lear, crashed during its first flight as a teenager, and then throughout life broke two more aircraft. He constantly broke the rules of conduct in the air and landing, set 'Ef-Ei-Ei'. He became famous occasion when, together with a new girlfriend flew over Lake Michigan, made her an offer she could not refuse - join his 'club Heights'. It is absolutely normal for him was to set the plane on autopilot and turning back to seal the new relationship hug. These romantic interlude occurred in the 40's and 50's, when such behavior was considered a manifestation of power and elegance. Another maneuver Lear was that he ignored the air traffic controllers and landed in zero visibility. He flew as he lived - with complete ease.
Bill Lear to communicate freely with the stars of Hollywood, persons of royal blood, and politicians. In 1963, being strongly fascinated by the creation vosmidorozhechnogo stereozapisyvayuschego device he called the creator of the ideas and the father of magnetic recording industry ( 'Ampeks'). Lear planned to construct a stereo that would fit into a hole provided for the radio of his plane. Limited space and power problems are at the heart. Pontitovu he called, when at a standstill. The inventor of magnetic recording was powerless to help, and said to Bill: "Do not try to apply the eight tracks on quarter-film. You can not do. It is impossible to cram as much information on this film ". That's all you need to hear Bill Lear. Council Pontitova was turned inside out and turned into motivation.
The development of film vosmidorozhechnoy Lear worked simultaneously with the development of its project 'Lear Jet'. Perhaps it was not the most rational strategy, but this is the style of Lear. He passionately found it fascinating and could not postpone its decision until later. Engineering aspects of the project 'Lear Jet' has already been completed (left introduction), and he set himself a new goal. In 1963-64 i.i. He worked day and night vosmidorozhechnoy film. In the end, all difficulties were resolved, and by the end of 1964, presented a working model for Lear 'Lear Stereo Eight'.
With this invention, it is many years ahead of industrial leaders of this sphere. He sold his 'Lear Stereo Eight' Ford, which, in turn, has equipped its new model car in 1966, and then persuaded the company 'Motorola' to produce and distribute this product. In addition, he agreed with the 'Air-Sea-Hi' on the production of flexible recording tape for your device. This revolutionary design has created a new market, whose annual income reached 4.5 billion. dol. by 1975. Inventive mind Lear created another revolutionary product worldwide. He again showed no interest in the trade or participate in its long-term commercialization.
Copies of the Lear jet aircraft are in the 'Museum of Aviation and Space Smithsonian' at Washington. According to the 'Smithsonian Book, he Flight' (Smithsonian Book of Flight), this jet made a revolution in the world ... It is a monument to William Lear, who made this revolution. Contrary to all advice and predictions.
Bill Lear for his life got a lot of praise. This man, neokonchivshy ninth grade, has received the highest award of aviation - 'Collier Trophy' from President Harry Truman during lunch in the White House in 1950. This tribute was given for the invention of genius Lear autopilot, which was the key systems of jet aircraft of the Air Force 'F-5'. He received an honorary doctorate in engineering from the University of Michigan in 1951, and in 1954 - an award Horatio Aldzhera, which was worth more than anyone. Five other universities also honored Lear honorary doctorates, the most prestigious of which were Notre Dame and Carnegie-Mellon. Lear, immortalized in the Aviation Hall of Fame and awarded the Medal Theile in 1960.
Bill Lear was an innovative genius of the highest class. His passion for perfection had not equal. His instinct and intuition to overcome all attempts to control by the establishment, and four wives. He lived life to the last day of putting everything he had on his vision of the future. Lear never threw their ideas and even dying in Reno, left last will, from which clearly implied that the person harbored plans of the new helical jet. His condition at the time of death was less than a million dollars, but he has remained a dream of new and better ways to fly and live. The fact that the Leir said the reasons for his success, should adopt any innovator: "If I conducted research on the market, as they do for the already known products.. plane would never have been constructed ... Listens only to himself. "