Matvey Platov( Ataman)
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Biography Matvey Platov
(August 6, 1751 - January 3, 1818)
Nimble, quick on the uptake boy Cossack, an excellent rider, sensibly refer all orders, soon attracted attention and was promoted to lieutenant. He began to appoint to the orderlies to the generals and other commanders, and they both fell in love with a bold and artful stems that often bestowed the young officer's invitation to his table. And now, a young man faced with shiny, scientists officers who were in the army of Empress Catherine. Much of what was said about him, it was unclear. I realized Matvei that it lacks scientific. Now all the spare time he devoted to reading books, studying primarily the former war, he studied military science.
After Yermak Timofeyevich hardly anyone from Don heroes so well remembered and known to all as Ataman Platov. His name is closely linked to the inception of the city of Novocherkassk, under his command won the Don Cossacks, the glorious victory over the French, the Turks and Tatars. Almost fifty years spent Platov in campaigns and wars with the Cossacks, he studied fine Cossack skill, knew lava and carefully prepared for each Cossack to fight. Thank Cossack was it just more expensive.
Matvey Ivanovich Platov was born Aug. 6, 1751 in the village of Staro Cherkasy. His father was an army sergeant honored. Popular legend has retained the following story about the birth Platov. On this day, his father, engaged in shipping, went to the channel to see his ship. Suddenly a bird flying over him, dropped him on his hat a piece of bread. The venerable old man crossed himself, took this piece and put it in his pocket. When he approached the shore, then down at his feet from the water jumped out a huge carp. Excited by these incidents is Platov home and then learns that his son was born. He gathered his friends, prayed with them before way, gave them a glass of vodka, ate bread dropped a bird, and offered guests fried carp, so wonderfully he got.
Parents Matvey Ivanovich people were not rich. In those days, something to teach his son to give him any education worth big money. We had to send to Moscow or Kiev, or Voronezh; in Cherkassk schools have not yet been. So Platov have been taught to only read and write in Russian. But the lack of education of his son's father and mother of Matthew Ivanovich tried to supplement the education. And that is what education and helped Platov at all times of his life fighting. They pointed him in the firm belief of the Orthodox, . taught him to obey and honor Chiefs, . breathed into his ardent love and devotion to the sovereign, . passionate adoration of the Motherland - Russia and Quiet Flows the Don, . and, . how could, . told him the glorious past of the Don land.,
. The boy grew up an extraordinary
. He is quick to learn any science, just remembering what he said was a nimble and agile. With love, he was engaged in horse-riding, fishing and hunting. No one could so easily and beautifully to go, no one was so agile and skilled in the wheelhouse or in archery, as the son's troop sergeant Platov - Matvei. When he was only thirteen years old when his father enrolled him to active duty sergeant. - Look, Matthew, - said his father, - serve the emperor and quiet Don about. Remember me. From simple Cossacks I came to the rank of sergeant's troop - yes exemplary courage Service. Take care of my father's habits: whether a Cossack! Trust in the Lord, and He will not leave. Listen Chiefs. Be considerate to equal you, indulgent to the lower and severe, most of all to himself. But remember always: never, Matthew, and not think of word to forget our quiet Don, nourished and cherished you. Amen ..
Father and son kissed. Wept the mother, published to accompany. He sat the boy on his horse, his father gave him a peak - and started a severe field service young Cossack. Sooner then began to serve and have served long Cossacks. Nimble, quick on the uptake boy Cossack, an excellent rider, sensibly refer all orders, soon attracted attention and was promoted to lieutenant. He began to appoint to the orderlies to the generals and other commanders, and they both fell in love with a bold and artful stems that often bestowed the young officer's invitation to his table. And now, a young man faced with shiny, scientists officers who were in the army of Empress Catherine. Much of what was said about him, it was unclear. I realized Matvei that it lacks scientific. Now all the spare time he devoted to reading books, studying primarily the former war, he studied military science.
Shortly before the first Turkish war his father was sent to St. Petersburg and all of its institutions entrusted his son fishing. But as soon as the war began - no fee is passed, passed all his father's business in the care of the shop, and he rushed to the Crimea, to the army where he was the commander in chief Prince Dolgoruky. Platov was 19 years old. It was a fellow-officer, full of courage and strength. Prince Dolgoruky left it with him and soon made in the captains and appointed him commander held in it, hundreds of Cossacks, collected from different regiments. Pay so well in command of her, that soon was granted the rank of sergeant and assigned to the troop commander of the regiment. In those days, was a school for the Kuban Cossacks, and their young commanders, In 1774 a young 23-year-old colonel board came to the Kuban, and here at the Battle of the River Kalala on April 3, showed courage and fortitude, and diligence.
. From the Kuban, he was appointed to the detachment Suvorov, messenger for finding and scattering robber bands Pugacheva
. It first met world-famous General Suvorov and Platov. It started paying to learn science to win, began to understand what is the duty of the commander. Beginning of the Second Turkish War Platov had with Potemkin, and then, in 1790, commanded the Cossacks that ran in the storming of Izmail. Since that time the name Platov had already become known around the Don. He was appointed the chieftain had just collected Ekaterinoslav and Chuguevskiy Cossacks. Now, those Cossacks there, and the Cossack regiments, once compiled Platov, formed Ekaterynoslavsky Cuirassier and Chuguevskiy Lancers ...
And now, the rumor of a young Don and Gen came to St. Petersburg. Empress Catherine the Great wanted to see Matvey Ivanovich Platov. In 1791, a forty-General Don tears from his war-horse, sat down on the post three and rode to St. Petersburg. Empress gently took Matthew Ivanovich Platov, long conversation with him about the Cossacks, the army, Don and distinguish it over other generals. All St. Petersburg knew that the young Don, General - the man who at the council, assembled Suvorov before storming Ishmael, first uttered the glorious word: storm. Here in St. Petersburg, the Empress has awarded the Order of St. Don hero. Apostolic Vladimir 2nd degree and a sword decorated with diamonds, with the inscription "For Bravery". Saber is now kept at the Museum of the Don, in the city of Novocherkassk.
In 1796, Empress Catherine the Great died and the throne of all the Russias joined Emperor Paul Petrovich. He gently took Platov, and there is tenderness of the emperor served to ensure that Platov have to envy. There were these scoundrels who slandered Platov in the eyes of the Emperor. Throughout his life, Platov was thinking only about the service, he sacrificed for the sake of service and friendship itself. He was fair and impetuous in battle, and the Don Cossacks and Kalmyks its very fond of. Platov in 1799, while in St. Petersburg, asked to leave, Don, and he wanted to visit his family. As soon as he left "as they told the emperor that he went to raise the Don Cossacks to revolt. Halfway purposely sent from the emperor officer stopped the Don General and took him to Kostroma. From Kostroma Platov moved to St. Petersburg and entered the cold and damp casemate fortress.
Self-righteousness Platov went to prison, knowing that all cleared. And, indeed, slander was soon discovered and Platov was released and appointed to command the Don regiments, marching to conquer India. Upon returning from the Orenburg expedition was appointed Ataman Platov Don Army. So the valiant and honest service rose troop sergeant son and grandson of a simple Cossack chieftain to the title of the Don.
But Ataman Platov was special. As soon as he entered the army in governance, as conceived many different changes to strengthen the military spirit of the Don Cossacks. Kozak he considered a natural soldier and demanded that fathers taught their children the Cossack military affairs and his own did not forget. Ataman lived simply. Often, looking at the luxurious chamber, which acquire a Cossack, Platov used to say: - We are not born to walk on the parquet floor so sit on velvet cushions; it does, you can forget the native craft. Our business is walking across the field, the swamps, and sit in tents or, better still, under the open sky to the sun and heat and syakaya bad weather we were not a burden. So you'll always Don Cossack. Every thing then, well, while always with him, but then you have from him an inch, and it is from you to the yard, and so on, and go you apart: It will be good regiment.
. The desire to put the Cossacks in a military conditions of life, bring them closer to the steppe and the increase in their love of riding led Platov to find another space for the capital of the Don, led the suit jumps
. These jumps were always at a great distance: 5-7 miles, always on uneven terrain and always with obstacles. Platov realized that the need for war, and actively preparing for war Cossack. And his labors were crowned with resounding success. There was a time of continuous wars, the struggle with Napoleon. And, Platov was at war in the regimental commander, not the head two or three regiments, and the head of the Don. 10, 12, 20 regiments, there were also under his command. Cossacks, artillery, Hussars, Lancers, Dragoons, Infantry - hunters were in the detachment Platov. There have been a little courage, but brooms Cossack, needed a bright mind and a broad military education.
Logically, God does not hurt the Don Cossack Platov useful and those books which he read in his free time. Platov, showed off the simplicity of speech, deliberately instead of "Warsaw," says Arshava, who called the French minister Talleyrand - Teylaranom, was chief of cavalry vysokodarovitym. Now we learn from the examples of high lava Platov Cossack, from him we learned what Venter. Lava was before the Cossacks, but makes the first applied it as widely. He shook and tormented her best cavalry of Napoleon, he was so distinguished himself that to the fore not only in Russia but also abroad.
Russia's enemy and his enemy - Platov - Napoleon wanted to get acquainted with Platov. It was in Tilsit, after the war in 1807, which particularly distinguished the Don Cossacks, led by Platov. A number of holidays has been arranged on the occasion when the peace and alliance with Napoleon. At one of these holidays, Napoleon spoke with Platov, and told him that he had heard that Don Ataman great archers, and asked him to show his art. Platov brought his ornate bow, and he was in the presence of the Emperor Alexander and Napoleon, let a few arrows at a target. Napoleon was very surprised by the neatness and the power of shots and gave the Don Ataman expensive snuff. Platov did not want to remain in debt and gave Napoleon his bow at the memory.
With this war are only paid for a short time was in Novocherkassk. He was busy with school device, planted in the city Apothecary Garden, fussing and worked in favor of the Don, indefatigably. He and the house he lived as simply as in war. In Novocherkassk, he did not have his own house, and he lived in a small house on the farm Mishkin, near Novocherkassk *. A new war has demanded it first in Turkey, on the banks of the Danube, and then on the river Neman. It was time the great struggle with Napoleon. 1812, 1813 and 1814-th years, we can say No fee dismounted. His small gray horse was well familiar to his delight. He was over sixty years, but the eternal hikes, heavy fighting lives harden him, and he was strong in body and soul. On it lay a huge job not only to command a detachment of cavalry, but also to supply him with all necessary. Behind a veil of the Don Cossack lava sound asleep Russian troops and all the reports about the movement of the enemy received from Platov. Platov knew the whole world. He began work as a sergeant, he was now General of the Horse, that is, got the highest generalship, and to expel the French from Russia was granted to the Count's dignity, as his excellency. It was the second count after Orlov-Denisov in the army of the Don. After Platova none of the Don Cossacks have not yet received this high distinction.
In Paris and in London, where at the invitation went Platov, all with adoration and admired hero Don. The name of the Don Cossacks, then rocked around the world, was inextricably linked with the name of the Don Ataman Platov Count. His portraits painted on porcelain plates and bowls, woven on head scarves, painted on the crystal glass is. The British offered him expensive, diamond-adorned sword. Actions Platov in war were studied, and his name has become, along with famous names cavalry commanders. Lihai and cheerful song then formed about the glory Platov and his Cossacks: Glory Platov hero! The winner was the enemy! Thank Platov hero! Thanks Don Cossacks! Endowed by God bright mind, the fee is simple and peculiar. Enough to read letters Platov, to understand what it was a special man
The Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna, wife of Emperor Paul, was especially fond of the Don Ataman for his simple and bold speech. Platov from all wars, from the battlefields, wrote his letters to her. In 1807, he described the Empress of the Don Cossacks against the French: "... According to my duty as my strength and knowledge got out, I had labored, Most Gracious Majesty. Not to praise myself, but in truth poddannicheskoy - denounce: In the past months so far lard them on your blessing, pretty. He took many prisoners of their daring headquarters - and senior officers, and how much - and I lost count of them, knows something about the army chief, to whom I delivered them. Pride, and more - insolence of the French driven out of their heads. Brought them up to exhaustion, the cavalry their daring Don Cossacks annihilated all, and the infantry, they lost a lot and a lot. They sit now, except for Dantzig, against us like mice in holes ...
Passionately fond of Platov's Cossacks. He knew how to inspire them to deeds. When the militia had gathered a great army of the Don, to go under Tarutine expel the French, came to him and Platov. In the ranks of the regiments were decrepit geezers and young. All those who could only hold the lance in hand, went to the call Ataman. Platov ordered to move out all in a circle, while he was in the middle of their. It was a quiet and warm autumn day, there was a smell of wormwood in the wilderness, quietly swam in the clear air white gossamer. - Friends - said Platov, - himself a merciful God accelerate your way! It is time to prove all the stems because of our zeal for God, Tsar and Fatherland. We captured the souls of the king's mercy, in our souls and the fatherland. Not sparing their, we will again prove our zeal, our love!.. Interrupted by the voice of an old chieftain. Tears began to play in the eye with a diamond. All sigh ...
- You Don people! - Continued with renewed force Platov. - You are the sons of Russian land. Could not resist your heart. You have arrived, the general partners of Fame. Friends! The villain in the walls of Moscow, he drew in the ashes: it may be extended hunger for its brutality and into the far interior of Russia. Block the path of the enemy savagely: die here, or chase him out of the Russian land. You are willing to come to back us. The justice of God, we will. The enemy comes at us from hell - we had to go with a life-giving cross. If God allowed, if the enemy broke through to the Pacific of the Don, he would not spare neither wives nor our children.. The blood of our mingled with the waves of the Pacific would be the Don! Would have been desecrated temples Goepodni. Would have alarmed the ashes of our fathers!. In the deep silence listening to his Cossack Ataman. Sometimes rises bony hand and create a sign of the cross. - Friends and brothers! - Talked animatedly with Platov. - Shout to the Lord the power: - Not for us, O Lord, for thy name vspomoschestvuy impress us, shame and expel the enemy!.
So, the ranks were heard loud and bold, cheerful voice: - Ready to die, wherever you are, our father, we prikazhesh. Revenge, revenge for the blood of the wicked our brethren! We will die, and then the enemy is not empty! In this ability to inspire the Cossacks, inspire them with his cheerful and courageous soul and hidden reason charm Platov at the Don ended the war. Napoleon languished in prison in the far and lonely sea island, the Cossacks with their chieftain came from the Paris home, on quiet Don. Outstripping their chieftain often stayed in the shelves for a long time and sat with the officers and Cossacks. Here Ataman Platov more like a father of the family, rather than the head.
. He talked to every officer, recalled his family, recalled his exploits, and continuously talked and Cossacks and officers: - Remember the glory and virtue, and keep the customs of their fathers
. After World War II Platov spent three years in Novocherkassk, taking care of troops improvement. Platov known throughout Russia, moreover, he knew the whole of Europe. Meanwhile, Platov was and remained a simple man and did not change the simple Cossack traditions. With a vast memory, he remembered, and knew not only all the generals and officers in the army, but he remembered, and all the Cossacks. Honor and glory to the Don he placed above all. He was friendly with all. Often, the Caucasus, he was a simple hut mountaineer and easily with dinner. He was not averse and simple, Tatar dinner, and because he was respected and loved all the Tatars and the mountaineers, who then lived in the Don Host.
. Platov, who grew up in the village and have spent my childhood in the campaigns and wars, had to get in the palace, talk to the emperors, to visit the king's table
. Here is the mind and resourcefulness Platov not just getting him. Before leaving Platov from St. Petersburg to the Turkish war of the Empress Maria Feodorovna wished to see him in her room and asked him to dine without ceremony in the palace. After dinner, when one of the ceremonial hall Platov otklanivalsya empress, he accidentally touched his sword porcelain vase and knocked it on the floor. Embarrassed Ataman jumped to the side, but caught his spurs and would have fallen if the empress did not support his. Platov was not embarrassed.
- The Empress, - he said - and I drop my lifts because I am happy to once again kiss the hand of my Majesty, premiloserdnoy mother. And then, turning to the court, he said to them: - That's saying something and actually come true: they say that if something does not take a Cossack, so smash, the first is not true, and the second, and with me came true. An unpleasant incident at the palace was abandoned and all were delighted resourcefulness Ataman. Most life Platov went to war on outposts. And because he used to not sleeping at night, to light. And in peacetime, he went to bed no earlier than 4-5 hours in the morning, woke up at 8 the same, but to relax, do not usually get up before 10.11 am. Got up, he was long and earnestly prayed to God, and then engaged in business.
In Novocherkassk after the war returned Platov much looking old. He already was 64 years old. His wife died during the war. His children have grown up, his grandson was 10 years old. An experienced, brave and decisive leader of the Don Cossacks during the war, Count Matvey Ivanovich Platov, and on his return from the war was very concerned that the Cossacks did not lost their military prowess. During the war, the Cossacks were convinced of the benefits of horse artillery, established in the army back in 1797. In 1813 Highest behavioral have been on the Don three companies of horse artillery, and in each company was to 12 guns, t. ie, counting from the present, the army of Don exhibited six batteries of 6 guns each. Zavedyval at Ataman Platov artillery companies of Lieutenant-General Karpov, 2nd, the first Don gunner, founder of the Don Horse Artillery. To educate Cossack artillery to near Novocherkassk was arranged artillery firing range, on which very often came and Count Platov. In Platov same set was, in 1802, the life of regiments. Before leaving the line the shelves and none of the Cossacks did not know when he comes home. Now, it was agreed that the regiments stationed at the borders and, in general, in remote areas, should have been replaced after 3 years, and within Russia, Georgia and the Caucasus after 2 years.
. But in the Caucasus was a never-ending war with the enemy sly and bold, . Cossacks in the two years was just beginning to learn the fighting skill of the Caucasian troops; two years was not enough, . and in 1820 for the regiments, . located in the Caucasus, . on the borders of the Turkish, . Austrian, . Prussian and Swedish, . t,
. with. of the Black Sea coast, in the present Kingdom of Poland and Finland - the term of service was established four. Previously, Don regiments were leaving troops only in case of war, sometimes they were detained some time in the newly conquered edge, now has started a permanent office of the Don in Russia, for the preservation of boundaries. Don Army undertook to have ready a certain number, or set of regiments, which are exhibited at the request of the War Ministry, which has replaced in 1812 by a military panel. In 1802, the set was a set of 80 pyatisotennyh regiments.
Until 1801 the Cossacks dressed, who both wanted. Wore homespun coats and their pets, and were Caucasian Circassian, and Polish and Asian dress. In 1801 all of the Don Cossacks was given drab uniforms. They wore coats and Cossack coat, instead of a sheepskin hat, wore a shako on his head, was laid on the trousers have a broad scarlet stripes. Old man at first did not like this form. Jacket, especially. She reminded them of soldiers, and through the village grumbling and saying that the Cossacks will now write to regulyarstvo and make them soldiers, arranging Lancers. But when these Cossack coats and jackets Cossacks served all the war with Napoleon, . when shako Cossack was the terror of the French and has seen and Germany and France, . visited in Paris, . the Don loved and shakos, . and fastened in the middle of hooks chekmen, . and trousers with red stripes,
. This form began to resemble the stems while the great struggle with Napoleon, the greatest glory, the glory universally ...
Built the city of Novocherkassk, Platov tirelessly worked on his ornament. He cared about education and the Don. In high school Don made himself, he often used to go. During his director of, Popov, started for the first time be the history of the Don. In 1817 Platov arranged in Novocherkassk the first printing of Don. Platov was very fond of racing and Jighitovka. Donets have a lot of horses from abroad. It was the horse most playful, the British rock. Mingling with the Don horses, this horse, and gave a dry, tall, hawk-nosed, strong and spirited horse, which then Don was famous for a long time. Warrior life Platov took care of the maintenance of the Cossacks love for military affairs, to the driving and shooting at a target. He tirelessly traveled to the army.
For years and health, broken in many campaigns, they say, Earl often was ill, but did not cease to work for the benefit of the army. When he spoke, . that he must be careful, . He answered: - What you want me sdelatN Child, . At that liN that I would like, . when, . After countless favors for me sovereign, . dare to claim at least a moment of rest from dolzhnostiN easier I die, . than to venture to this!,
. In September 1817 Don visited the Grand Duke Mikhail Pavlovich, brother gosudarev
. Since touching cordiality met him Don people. In Novocherkassk were built beautiful entrance gate. Shelves on horseback met Grand Duke. The last time I saw this graph Ataman Platov brothers gosudareva. The following year, Ataman not become. He died January 3, 1818. Despite the bitter cold, the whole army of the Don, generals, officers and many of the Cossacks was to hold up the graves of his "vortex-Ataman". The body of the hero Don novostroivshemsya was buried in the cathedral, on the left side of his. When the body is lowered into the grave there was a volley of shells and the rattle of rifle bore over the field. Trembled and swayed, frosty air, and poured out bitter tears on the faces of the generals, officers and ordinary rank and file Cossacks. There was their father Ataman, defending their case, who loved them as his "detushek" ...
He died a great hero of the Don is dead quiet. God and the emperor rewarded him for his might, for life, had brought home, all that could reward. Platov had the highest generalship general of cavalry, had the Count's dignity, moreover, he wore the Order: St.. Apostle Andrew, St. Alexander Nevsky, decorated with diamonds, St.. Great Martyr George, and 2 nd degree Grand Cross, St.. Apostolic Prince Vladimir of degree 1 and St.. John of Jerusalem, . Austrian Cross of Maria Theresa 3rd degree, . German crosses the Black and Red Eagle 1-th powers, . portrait of the English prince regent at the Blue Ribbon Garter, . sword with the inscription "For Bravery", . diamonds adorned, . petitioning Empress Catherine II, . diamond pen on the shako with the monogram of Tsar Alexander I, . bestowed after the Leipzig battle, . sword from the city of London (English) and three medals: in the capture of Ishmael - nominal, . for 1812 and aristocratic.,
. But more and more important than all these titles, . Titles, . decorations and medals was the greatest glory of the cavalry commander and chief, . which is closely entwining name Platov with the glorious name of the Don Cossacks, . which made it, . that now bears the name of his 4-th of the Don Cossack Regiment, . and knows Platova hero - a winner all the enemies of "all Quiet Flows the Don, . knows and respects his glorious, . military chieftain! ..,
. In 1853, Mr.
. Novocherkassk, Ataman Palace against, Donets, the money collected by voluntary subscription, put his chieftain, Count Platov, bronze monument. Platov depicted on foot, in shako, at the Don chekmen behind which hangs a wind sail short cloak, in his right hand was a naked sword in his left - Ataman Pernach. On the granite base in gold lettering: "Count Ataman Platov for military feats 1770-1816. Confessional Don people ". Around the monument are captured from the French in 1812 guns.
. In 1875, when work began on the new cathedral, the remains Platov was a great triumph has been removed and moved to his family graveyard at his former estate, now - Golitsyn UOC cottage.