Kim Philby( Scout)
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Biography Kim Philby
All the time that Kim Philby served in British intelligence in World War II until his dismissal in 1951, he was a Soviet agent. It is believed he informed the Council everything that came into his hands and what they have expressed an interest. This refers in particular to those political and military secrets of Britain, to which he had access as a senior intelligence and operations of British intelligence, many of whom were under his direct supervision.
. Edward RF Sheehan, "The Rise and Fall of the Soviet agent" of the newspaper The Saturday Evening Post, February 15, 1964.
. With regard to operations against Soviet Russia, are the responsibility of Philby, his position allowed to do so in order to suppress or neutralize the tips of the British and arresting agents involved in them
. In practice, this meant that he gave his own subordinates in the hands of the enemy. If the Soviets and limit their counteractions, it is only out of fear of the enemy did not cause too much damage, that could give rise to suspicions of a leak of information.
. "It Burgess-Maclean," emerged in 1951 in connection with the sudden flight of two British intelligence officers in Soviet Russia, portrayed mostly as a transition to the enemy
. In this sensational moments dimmed merits. These two were not simple defectors. They left because the third, Harold (Kim) Philby, promptly warned them that the British counter-intelligence is on their trail. This trio, occupying important positions in the intelligence service of Great Britain, for many years worked for Soviet intelligence. All three of them sympathized with the Communists, when in the 30 years studied in Cambridge. Of particular value to the Soviets they were present when in the early 50-ies were sent to work at the British Embassy in Washington. Philby espionage activity was revealed only in 1963, soon after, as he followed his friends behind the Iron Curtain.
. Speaking about the tragic consequences of the betrayal of Philby, one should not forget that he was not a rootless outsider who did not have roots, as is often the case with spies; nobody blackmailed, not lead, do not tempt big money
. He belonged to the wealthy and educated elite of their country. Before it opened all the doors. For reasons that are easy to describe, but extremely difficult to understand, he chose the path of betrayal. Apparently, because he satisfied his thirst for adventure, his inordinate conceit. It is difficult to say how he was guided by ideological convictions after the initial enthusiasm of youth age. Apparently, . the basis of magnitude of this man lying hatred for their own class, . feeling, . which he shared with accomplices - Burgess and Maclean, . deep-seated hostility distorted, . directed against all that, . what normal people have a natural allegiance.,
. He was shy, even after drinking, and stuttered, not even being drunk
. Notable for a moody beauty, there was something fascinating. Men liked him. The women wanted to take care. Complete his name was Harold Adrian Russell Philby, but his name was Kim in the memory of childhood in colonial India, like the hero of Kipling.
. Kim was a correspondent for two British weekly The Observer and The Economist - in the Middle East, and I met him in 1958 in Beirut, where he was appointed press attachцL at the U.S. Embassy
. I enjoyed watching as he appears for the title receptions. The crowd excitedly chattering diplomats, journalists and Arab intellectuals, he modestly felt lost, like a letter delivered to the wrong address. When he walked past me with the words "P-greetings with old-fashioned", he smelled of cinnamon and mint, and I speculated on what dawn he took his first drink.
. Evening, January 23, 1963, Kim Philby and his wife Elinor were invited to the feast, . arranged by Mr. Hugh Glenkern Balfour-Paul, . first secretary of the British embassy in Beirut, . for their British and American friends, . interested in archeology,
. Eleanor had come alone, explaining that her husband called and asked me to convey that "will be a little later."
She barely touched his food and the later, the more evinced emotion, because Kim did not appear all. Finally, she went to dinner in complete disarray, thus putting to a standstill the other guests - in the end, Kim was an active journalist, and his wife had to get used to his sudden disappearance. She returned to her apartment on the fifth floor of Kantara in the street and waited well past midnight. From time to time, she lapsed into unconsciousness and woke up with a terrible feeling, "as she said later," with Kim that something happened.
Maybe he is exploring some syuzhetN Kim never talked about the work - even her. In recent weeks, he was extremely concerned. It went dark, then fell into a kind of hysterical merriment, and drank more than usual.
. The next morning she called her friend, the famous American businessman, who had connections in the Lebanese government.
. - You must help me to find Kim - she said.
. The businessman immediately called Col. Tawfik Dzhalbutu, head of the Lebanese secret police
. Tom Filby name was already known on many occasions.
The next day, less than two days after the dinner at Balfour-Paul, Eleanor called American businessman and the British Consul and asked him to stop searching. It turns out she went to the Hotel Normandie, which received correspondence, and found a farewell letter from Kim. He received an urgent task and went to the "short tour of the Middle East". All right, she insisted.
Oh liN Elinor already confessed to friends that a toothbrush, razor and other personal belongings Kim remained in place. While the hurried departure gave him time to write the letter, he took nothing, except for clothing that was on him. Moreover, Colonel Dzhalbut already found that Philby did not go out of Lebanon by any legal means, then it is not journalistic trip. Statement by Eleanor convinced no one, in contrast, only whetted the curiosity.
. March 3, more than a month after the disappearance of Kim Philby, the magazine "The Observer" finally announced that he had asked the Ministry of Foreign Affairs to establish his whereabouts
. By that time, various rumors have been circulating full swing. Philby in Cairo. Philby on the side of Saudi troops fought with the Republicans in Yemen. Philby eliminated the British intelligence. Philby kidnapped by the CIA. Philby had committed suicide.
Most often, there was talk that Philby defected to the Soviet Union and that is about to break out a huge spy scandal. Because Philby was not just international journalists. He held a high position in British intelligence, and at one time was first secretary of embassy in Washington. In 1955, a Member of Parliament publicly accused him that he was a "third person" in the Burgess - McLean - thus, those who warned of these two diplomats, and gave them to hide behind the "iron curtain" before they were arrested for espionage.
. In early March, the British reporters, "yellow books" - people omnipresent, crafty, ruthless - was inundated with Eleanor Philby
. She answered evasively.
- Kim tours the Middle East with editorial task, - she said.
- Why do newspapers nothing about znayutN
- Please leave me alone. She acted on the instructions of Kim. It has already received several letters, including those written by his hand, sent from different cities of the Middle East, with the promise that soon they will be together. But if the behavior of her husband placed her in an impasse, then hints of the British that the letters come from behind the Iron Curtain, frightened.
- I do not believe it - she said. - It's a lie. Kim trip.
In April came another letter from Kim. For the first time it has been described as a "plan of operation":
1. Elinor should buy myself and two of the younger children Philby plane tickets to London for a certain number, not trying to conceal.
2. Then unnoticed appear in the Beirut office of Czech Airlines, where it will wait for a ticket.
3. Plane to Prague with stops in Western Europe flies from Beirut, almost simultaneously with the London. When announce the flight landed at English, it should ignore it and join the passengers of the Czech flight. After boarding the plane with the children, she will say what to do next. (In other words, only in the air, she knows on which side of the Iron Curtain it out.)
4. She finally got a instruction, how to contact Kim "acute need". We must put a pot with a kind of flower on the windowsill in the kitchen, and "trustee" immediately would be to her.
. Undoubtedly, Kim really wanted to reunite with Elinor and her desire was no less fervent, but in the new letter contained the first hint that Kim has been behind the Iron Curtain, "and she did not follow his instructions
. Torn between love for her husband and his suspicion of treason, it all next week tormented nightmares.
Finally, in despair, she decided to file Kim alarm. She put the pot on the windowsill, poured herself a double whiskey and lit a. She hoped that the "trustee" will soon. Getting dark.
Less than an hour later the doorbell rang. Came a stocky balding young blond. He casually leaned against the door jamb and said with a strong Slavic accent:
. - You wanted to see me, Mrs. FilbiN
. It was a member of the Soviet Embassy.
. Since then, Eleanor Philby was forced to reckon with the fact that her husband was in the Soviet Union
. How could this sluchitsyaN How could Kim Philby - the son of famous father, . a graduate of Westminster and Cambridge, . man, . won in a war medal from King George VI, . - To link their fate with the enemies of his rodinyN Answers, . obtained from the most authoritative sources, . including Western intelligence, . sound paradoxical,
. Kim Philby - a typical embodiment of ignorance and callousness of a whole generation era of wars and revolutions. Kim was in general a decent person and a more favorable historical period could be what wanted - a hero.
. He was born in New Delhi in India on the first day of 1912 and was the only son of the late Harry St. John Bridger Philby, an official at the time the British administration in India, which later became the most famous Arabist of the century after T.E
. Lawrence. Kim was not even ten years, . when his father became minister of internal affairs in Mesopotamia (now Iraq), . Adviser of the Winston Churchill and the British Government's chief representative in Transjordan (now Jordan) and later he was a powerful adviser to King Ibn Saud of the Arabian desert and the researcher,
. He appeared everywhere in the typical Arab dress, and even became a Muslim, taking the name of Hajj Abdullah.
But the fearless adventurer was at the same time, selfish tyrant. He terrorized Kim, who even began to stutter out of fear of the father. At the terrible memories of childhood superimposed peremptory statements of his father, who despised the British bureaucracy and otherwise abusing an official policy in the Middle East. In 1940 he even went to prison for an open rejection of the military efforts of the Allies. Here's the first clue to the late Kim's behavior - he inherited his father's hatred of the British ruling class.
In 1931, Kim began studying at Trinity College, Cambridge University. Modern Americans is difficult to understand the depth of opposition to the British establishment, which in those years embraced the majority of British intellectuals. Anti-patriotism was not merely endure, he became a fashionable. Marxism was not just an icon - to have a membership card of the Communist Party considered it an honor.
Scouts believe that Kim was involved in the Communist Party while studying at Trinity College, and under the seal of their beliefs in secret. The details of his recruitment, we do not know, but in general it seems to look so. Kim's fellow students at Cambridge were Donald Maclean and Guy Burgess, both orthodox Marxist. McLean, he hardly knew, but before Burgess admired. Burgess was considered a promising historian, and many describe him as a very capable student of the time. Moreover, it provided almost supernatural influence on virtually everyone who's faced: its inexhaustible supply of caustic brain twisting metaphors and epigrams he could smash to smithereens every critic. For all its brilliant Burgess was still a drunkard, a bully and rampant homosexual. In his pockets he wore the unthinkable amount of garlic and kept chewing it and later Burgess suspected of alcoholism.
. Such was the romantic "hero" who, apparently, and persuaded Kim Philby to join his party, and later became his evil genius.
. Philby graduated from Cambridge in 1933, traveled in Europe, became a journalist, married
. His stories were not the pro-Soviet, rather the opposite, but his first wife, Lisa, a strong Polish girl with glowing eyes, was convinced of a Communist. At the beginning of the civil war in Spain, in 1936, they turned their apartment in Paris at the point of recruiting volunteers for the Republicans. Western intelligence believes that Philby's first wife pulled into the work of exploration of the Comintern, and that he was doing work for the Republicans, when as a correspondent for The Times visited the rear of General Franco. However, in their reports, he did not support either of the parties, only correctly predicted the victory of Franco. In 1938 they divorced and Lisa, and now she lives behind the Iron Curtain "is married to a major party figures.
Philby would like to participate in the Second World War, but because of his stuttering did not take the courses of reserve officers. Friends found him a good position in the 5-m section of MI-6 (MI-6 - intelligence service, which is engaged in espionage and counterespionage outside the UK. MI-5 - internal security - is engaged in the fight against subversion and counter-espionage within the country). Entering into this organization, Philby allegedly candidly admitted in his previous connections with Communists, including during the Spanish Civil War. At a time when the Soviets were allies and anti-fascism of any sort was considered a patriotic past - to the extent to which he had opened it - do not put him in the guilt. In 5-m section of MI-6 he was assigned to lead a double agent to penetrate into the enemy's intelligence and, as it is ridiculous to throw out false information to the Soviets. Very soon he recognized the brilliant worker.
. Now the British government believes that Philby was recruited by Soviet intelligence and gave the Russian secret information during the war, that he gave, it is impossible to establish
. As liaison with Soviet intelligence was part of his official duties, frequent and open contact with them not to arouse suspicion. At the end of the war he was awarded the Order of the British Empire.
Star Kim continued to rise. Many knowledgeable people predicted that with time he will become head of British intelligence. There is evidence that the Soviets had their eye on Philby, even during his studies at Cambridge, patiently waiting for him to turn into important positions in the MI-6. In 1947 he was sent to Istanbul first secretary of the embassy - he was regarded as a diplomat, but actually engaged in exploration in the southwestern flank of Russia. In 1949 he was transferred to Washington, where the post of first secretary, he was responsible for liaison with the U.S. government on security issues and has had frequent and close contacts with the State Department, the Department of Defense and the CIA. Some American officials suspected that Philby, while in Washington, passed U.S. secrets of Russian. Others, familiar with his case, does not believe it. They argue that since the Russian had been interested in promoting Philby to the most senior positions in British intelligence, they did not want to prematurely put it at risk, it would be better to wait, and then extract the maximum benefit from Kim.
. At this time, in August 1950, came together the way Guy Burgess and Kim Philby
. Burgess became the second secretary of embassy in Washington. Their friendship was renewed with the same ardor, and soon the pair became regulars partying in Georgetown, dealing with celebrities and absorbing huge quantities of Scotch whiskey. Burgess even lived in the house Philby, thereby compounding the mess, which already prevailed there because of mental illness of his wife Kim.
Over time, the behavior of Burgess, which was always a little strange, changed the brink of hysteria. He was convinced that the United States is about to unleash a third world war, and expressed these views are not just for a cocktail, but also in the written reports. (Ironically, . Philby never shared the pathological anti-Americanism Burgess.) Among the inappropriate actions Burgess many public fight with a prominent newspaper columnist, . Three detained for speeding, . and once he got into an accident in society bum homosexual, . what the police report was drawn up,
. This was too much, Ambassador, Sir Oliver Franks, who has long demanded that the authorities remove Burgess. But even before the telegram from Ambassador went to London, Philby learned from his friends to American officials that the FBI suspects Burgess and Maclean of spying for the Soviet. He hastened to inform his friend. In April 1951 Burgess hastily left the U.S. without the permission of the Ambassador, and when they reached England, warned Maclean. British security services did not have enough people to monitor all the suspects, the tail of Burgess and Maclean had proved ineffective, and a few weeks later, both the diplomat managed to flee to Russia.
. After the disappearance of Burgess and Maclean British intelligence Philby intensively interrogated about his role in this
. He assured, . that his actions were dictated only by caste ties with old friends - he just gave Burgess, . against him nominated ridiculous, . he believed, . accusations by the FBI - Offices, . known frequent unjustified attack on people,
. Philby said that the FBI charges against Burgess and Maclean were contained in a routine memo, which was resting in a heap as unproven market.
. According to Philby, Burgess accidentally went to his office, just as he had just read this memo
. In such circumstances, Philby seemed only natural to complain Burgess: "You can submit, . what nonsense is another FBRN They say, . that you are a Soviet spy! "As stated by Philby, . Burgess took the news calmly and cheerfully laughed along with him,
. But the embassy left for the day early. Returning home, he found that Burgess had disappeared, leaving behind a complete Razor. Philby claimed that after this it occurred to him that Burgess can actually be a spy, and he immediately reported the disappearance of another - and of his own negligence - the British ambassador.
. Why Philby jeopardized his career in British intelligence - with a serious prospect to lead it - confessing that warned BerdzhessaN He had no choice: it is only around the embassy had read the materials the FBI
. He risked, and his explanation really believe. So when Burgess and Maclean fled, the ambassador in Washington was to protect Philby, arguing that any British gentleman in such circumstances, the same way would do with an old schoolmate. In his youth, many of the officials themselves flirted with communism, and they understand the motives Philby, incorporate them and believed that such subtleties hewn Americans do not understand.
Meanwhile, the FBI and CIA were furious. "Take Philby, or we will not give you the secret material" - demanded that General Walter Bedell Smith, then CIA director. As Americans owned many secrets, such as nuclear engineering, the British could not ignore such a threat. In June 1951, Philby was recalled to London and dismissed
Then almost a year he lived in poverty with his second wife and five children in the house of his mother in Kensington. Sometimes old friends tossed him some temporary work. He tried to make, writing texts for the nominal authors, even down to the fact that anonymous was the genealogy of some families.
. Although Americans take a tough stance in the Philby, many large British officials believed that he has been grossly unfair, crucified on the cross McCarthyism
. Nonetheless, executives of British intelligence at the outset of the opinion that Philby was not just a "third", and that he himself was a Soviet agent. Investigating past activities Philby, they paid close attention to its relationship with the Soviets during the war. Former intimacy with the Russian leadership of the MI-6 is able to forgive - because some of his best operatives once a member of the Communist Party, . - But they seemed, . the circumstances, . accompanying negligence Philby in Burgess, . too curious, . just to hem them in a file and forget.,
. While Philby lived several years in poluizgnanii, MI-6 was the script, to extract maximum benefit from its case and use him to achieve is not the most plausible targets.
. Spying - the most slippery of criminal acts: it simply requires the perpetrator to gather information, which he owns, and so on legal grounds
. Only send this information over to the side, spy commits a crime and putting themselves at risk of exposure. But at his disposal all the tricks of the most mysterious occupation, and catch him red-handed is never easy. Suspect should be allowed complete freedom of action, that he betrayed himself, and because his actions are usually not in doubt and seemingly harmless, they often can not be classified as espionage. Moreover, when the surveillance has already helped to expose the man as a spy, it should be left alone to identify the network, to which he belongs. After counterintelligence service is not interested in individual spies and spy networks.
The investigation into Philby was not only to gather additional information on the case Burgess - McLean. Management of the British intelligence agencies believe that it is necessary to return Philby to work and then we monitor his actions. He could not engage in espionage in England, then, should send it to where the Soviets were active and could provide for them the benefit. Why not the Arab mirN There Philby could use his father's reputation, their own deep knowledge of the Middle East and would have the freedom of movement. In Arab countries, dominated by a neutral mood, so he would have taken it in high society, and could easily collect the necessary information - if indeed that was his goal. In other words, the British intelligence decided to send Philby to the Middle East in the hope that it will give not only himself, but will bring the leaders of the Soviet intelligence network in the Arab world.
. As MI-6 had staged this highly risky intriguN It was not easy
. To implement the plan needed an abyss of time - more than five years elapsed between the dismissal of Kim Philby of British Intelligence and its appearance in the Middle East, for a premature move would arouse his suspicions. MI-6 had to endure a fierce struggle with the MI-5, which would necessarily leave Philby in England. There were other difficulties: needed to find a private firm, which would suggest that Philby work in the Middle East, and above all he should not have to guess what it is used as a pawn.
. MI-6 was ready to act, when Colonel Marcus Lipton, a member of parliament from the Labor Party, speaking in the House, publicly called Philby "third man"
. November 7, 1955, in response to his request, Foreign Minister Harold Macmillan said: "Could not find any evidence to suggest that he is responsible for the flight of Burgess and Maclean. Being in public service, he conscientiously and proactively performed his duties. I have no reason to assert that Mr. Philby has ever betrayed the interests of their country, or take his so-called third man, if it really existed. "
. When the investigation is being carried on suspicion of espionage, the least we should expect direct answers from the government, on the contrary, the ambiguity is possible, if not an outright lie
. Macmillan knew Philby was under strong suspicion, but acquitted him in Parliament on the special request of the intelligence service, which is subsequently dealt a severe blow to his own prestige (Macmillan, 1963. was forced to resign as prime minister in two spy scandals - the flight of Philby and Profumo affairs minister of war, whom the Soviets had tried to establish contacts across the prostitute Christine Keeler.). However, previously he had agreed his statement with leaders of the Labor opposition, at least partly explaining the reasons. A few days later, Colonel Lipton withdrew its charges against Philby and the MI-6 could easily carry out his plan.
. Next spring, a senior Foreign Ministry official - again, on behalf of the MI-6 - contacted the editors of the Observer and offered to send Philby to the Middle East as a correspondent
. Guide "Observer" from the outset made it clear, . that Philby was under suspicion, . Although there is no evidence, were persuaded to take it to work, . because by doing so they either act as patriots, . helping British intelligence, . or to assist the victims of McCarthyism, . Despite how it turns,
. (Unknown, . I was similarly advised edition of The Economist, they, . apparently, . hired because Philby, . it made the "Observer.") Fortunately for the leadership intelligence, . Philby himself had asked to be in the "Observer", . therefore unlikely that he was surprised, . that the editors sent him to the region, . specialist to whom he considered,
. In September 1956, at the height of the Suez crisis, Philby arrived in Beirut.
. Shortly after his arrival there some British diplomat confessed to several well-known British and Americans, . who lived in Beirut on the situation of individuals, . that Philby, . perhaps, . associated with the Communists and that the authorities will be grateful for any information, . confirming the suspicion,
. Thus, from the very beginning of his stay in the Middle East, Philby was under the "supervision of an unspoken," as he called it. In practice, this resulted in the fact that Kim from time to time invited to a cocktail party, and nothing has. Shadowing itself MI-6 also did not work.
One of the Americans, who were asked to spy Kim Philby, was Pop, Sam Brewer, Middle East correspondent of The New York Times ". In the years 1957-1958 Brewer and his wife Elinor often seen with Kim. Like others, exercising "tacit observation, they concluded that it is absolutely harmless. As a reporter for two prestigious journals, he had some grounds and a large opportunity for open interest is not quite British and American affairs. But, appearing occasionally at the embassy, Philby did not show special curiosity and never caught the bait, which he tossed.
. The first time upon arrival in Beirut, Kim tried his best not to drink, but eventually returned to this pernicious habit, and began to live like everyone else, that was hardly a good cover for a spy
. "If he was a Russian agent, it is not very good" - once remarked one Western official. "More of these would be Soviet spies, as he" - echoed other. The last comment was caused by the fact that at a diplomatic dinner, Kim apparently went over and slapped on the behind a wife of the French Ambassador. This does not mean that Kim Philby was so much Don Juan. In Beirut, the only novel he had with the wife of his friend Sam Popa Brewer. It was not reckless flash: Elinor was not beautiful, and she, like Kim, had turned forty-five. While lasted this novel, Kim, Elinor, and Brewer often appeared together in society. Kim became a regular at the house of Brewer and often traveled with him on editorial assignments. This friendship was the most unceremonious manner interrupted spring morning in 1958, shortly before the outbreak of civil war in Lebanon. How to tell friends, three of our heroes were drinking coffee on the terrace of the Hotel Saint-Georges. And under the shadow of majestic mountains, fringed with silky waters of the Mediterranean Sea, Kim suddenly decided. Brewer and Elinor scolded each. Kim, visibly nervous, blurted out:
. - Elinor, Dr. let Sk-Let us show it.
. - What skazhemN - surprised Brewer.
. - M-we want to Elinor x-AMP-marry.
. - You want to say - said Brewer - that ask for the hand of my legitimate zhenyN
. - In-kind t-order.
. Elinor flew to Mexico to quickly draw a divorce
. Philby remained in Lebanon to write about the Civil War, and Brewer was soon transferred to New York.
After the wedding, Kim and she began to share invitations with Beirut by the powerful. Actually, not so strong, how famous - scientists Arabists, foreign correspondents, diplomats, university professors and. It was a brilliant company, and conversations in it - mostly in English, at least in French and almost never in Arabic, even with the Arabs - were no less exquisite than the finest salons of Paris or London. Once one of these methods have tried to present two of Kim's attache of the Soviet Embassy. Kim pulled away with a look of horror on her face, exclaiming: "Oh no! H-I do not want them-met N-nothing to do with Russian-Kimi". This uncharacteristic for Kim Trick struck many of those present, but then she did not attach any particular significance. Strangely it seemed that Kim was so openly drew attention to its past. Much more natural it would be cool to shake hands with Russian, and then quietly depart.
. Fall of 1962, all had attitude Philby, were convinced that if he once was a Soviet spy, it has long been not grow and that, at worst, he occasionally tells the Soviets general information
. But this time something happened, livening up the old suspicions.
And that's what happened: Philby suddenly tried to recruit an agent for British intelligence. He made friends with the famous Arab politician, tied him to his friendship, and then stammered, invited the Honorable gentleman in a certain way "to provide services to the Government of Her Majesty's. This was an unambiguous proposal for the transfer of information. The Arabs did not believe his ears, but did not interrupt the conversation, and Kim almost started to poke him money. It appeared as if the politician is already working on the British intelligence.
. When a politician told about this strange conversation security services, MI-6 come to a conclusion: it is likely that Philby recruits for Soviet intelligence agents, suggesting to them that they will work on the British
. Against the background of this hypothesis, many of Philby outside Lebanon - frequent trips to Syria, . Jordan and Saudi Arabia, . thorough knowledge of the situation in the oil industry and strange contacts with the Saudi Yemeni royalists and republicans - suddenly began to take shape in the ominous picture.,
. British intelligence has decided to establish a permanent surveillance by Kim
. Because she is being tracked at least a dozen others, but agents were few, had to seek the assistance of Colonel Dzhalbutu, head of the Lebanese secret police.
The British came to the right person. Dzhalbut - outstanding rozysknik, one of the best in the world of counterintelligence. Beirut, like all the Arab capitals, is literally filled with all sorts of intrigue, without a strong technical equipment of the FBI and Scotland Yard Dzhalbut nonetheless always been aware of the most sophisticated fraud intelligence of the great powers in Lebanon. The colonel had a lot knew about Philby and the year before that had included it in the list of suspicious persons.
Surveillance of Lebanese Philby soon gave interesting results. The people colonel Dzhalbuta found that the Englishman leads a double life, aimlessly driving around the city to throw off the "tail", and meets with suspicious individuals in the most unexpected places.
. The agent of the secret police noticed how the two evenings in a row Philby went to the terrace of her apartment, looking at his watch, worth a few minutes, again looking at his watch, and then begins to swing in the air, some dark matter.
. At the direction of the Chief of the agent bought glasses "Polaroid" and the following evening took up his post
. Around midnight, Philby appeared on the veranda and began to transmit information "black light".
Then try to determine who receives messages from Kim. His house is located on the mountain, and the terrace is visible from literally thousands of windows in Beirut, not to mention the ships in the harbor. Nevertheless, the broad search for possible capture grubby little Armenian who confessed that receives signals Philby and transmits them to another intermediary.
. Unfortunately, the Armenians could repeat the signals Philby, but did not understand their meaning, and neither the Lebanese secret police, no British intelligence failed to decipher
. The British were asked to hold the Lebanese Armenians in prison, to stop the connection, Philby and force him to seek direct contact with the resident Roy. This move proved successful. Not receiving a response within a month on their communications violated the first commandment Philby spy - appealed directly to the leadership.
Late at night he left the house, got into a taxi and went to the bustling nightlife district. Coming out of the taxi, he walked quickly to the one-way street, which led to the opposite side, he took another taxi and drove to a payphone at the other end of town. After a brief conversation he had several times changed his taxi, trying to break away from the highly professional manner surveillance. However, the agents escorted him to the poor quarter Fournier-el-Shebak. Philby came out of the taxi and climbed into the apartment over the Armenian pastry shops.
. A few minutes later there came the Soviet embassy staff - stocky, balding blond hair, the one who appeared at the apartment of Mrs. Philby, when she put a flower in the window.
. More visits in the confectionery shop remains unknown, but the Lebanese have decided to no longer pursue the case
. Colonel Dzhalbut decided, . that Philby embroiled in some sort of intrigue between the East and West, . which directly affects Lebanon, . and the people he needed to observe the twenty or thirty figures, . interested him much more,
. But the British did not retreat. In late 1962 they decided to send a message directly Philby, that there is a suspicion against him. Philby, apparently, already felt that he was being watched, as his wife, Elinor once was in the group of "covert surveillance". Now, from London landed two high-ranking counterintelligence, and interrogated him so, . that he no longer doubt, . that they know a lot about his clandestine activities, and his answers are considered inconclusive, . contradictory and, . likely, . testifying against,
. However, the British could not arrest Philby on foreign territory and had no reason to demand his extradition from Lebanon, that he changed taxis at night, and visited an Armenian shop, did not violate the local laws. Betrayal of Great Britain is not considered a crime in Lebanon.
Nevertheless fray and hunted Philby could not understand what the game is over. What could he sdelatN He had a dependent wife and several minor children. Write it could not, realizing that the "Observer" and the "Economist" to dismiss him. It remained to choose from two options: kill themselves - or to flee. That evening, when there was dinner at Balfour-Paul, he ran. Flight, though hasty, was likely to volunteer. Colonel Dzhalbut few weeks looking for a witness who saw a man resembling the description of Philby, accompanied by two husky boarded the Russian ship "Dolmatovo". Before dawn on Jan. 24 he left Beirut port, heading for Odessa.
After the disappearance of her husband Eleanor Philby fluctuated between full sincerity and a deafening silence in their relations with the British Embassy in Beirut. Only in April, received the "operational plan" flight from Lebanon on board of Czech plane, she decided to ask for help and told the embassy staff on all the messages received from Kim. In May, British and Lebanese authorities have arranged a secret Elinor's departure from Beirut with her two youngest children Philby. The children she had left in London with relatives Kim and myself went to New York to visit his daughter Anna, who returned to America and lived with his father - Brewer. Returning to England, Eleanor was on the verge of a nervous breakdown and went nowhere.
. July 1, . fear, . that the Soviets will exhibit Philby at a press conference in Moscow, , . that Philby was a "third" in the Burgess - Maclean and that he worked for the Soviets "before 1946",
. This statement followed the Profumo scandal of the case shocked the entire British system of government. Crossed swords in Parliament, Prime Minister Macmillan and Labor Party leader Harold Wilson, from the benches of the opposition were heard claims to provide full information on this case, alternating with accusations Macmillan in, . he or scoundrel, . an idiot, . or a combination,
. The Prime Minister is bound by silence in the secret service, could only repeat: "I hope the House will understand the danger of public discussion of these issues". Only when McMillan informed Wilson about the background of the case, the opposition leader agreed that further discussion is not in the interest of the country. July 30 Izvestia, finally, reported that the Soviet Union gave Philby political asylum.
When Edward Sheehan wrote in a 1964 article, he stated the facts, published by that time in the two leading British newspapers. They were based on the widely publicized admission Philby in the Soviet Union.
. Now generally accepted that Philby, until the flight of Burgess and Maclean in 1951, was the rising star of the British Intelligence Service and a favorable course of events could easily lead it
. Not voznikni suspicions against these two and did not warn them Philby, thereby incurring the suspicion on himself, hardly anything could prevent his successful career.
. The articles also claimed that the end of Philby in Beirut, marked the opening in the early 60-ies of new facts, which, after lengthy counterintelligence analysis showed that Philby was a longtime Soviet agent
. It seems that when Philby colleagues presented these charges, he failed to conclusively refute, despite his outstanding ability. This prompted him to flee to the Soviet Union. In 1967, Philby was published Look at the Red Square in Moscow, made his son, who flew from England to meet with the father. As the son of Kim Philby, the father said to him: "I came home. I came home. "
. In the case of Philby obviously, . that as much cover and it was elevated to some extent, came to the surface, . Tips likely contributed to, . What prevented the hype around him (eg, . allowed his son to come to Moscow), . certainly, . hoping, . that more will be written about this case, . the greater the damage will be many years of Anglo-American cooperation.,
. (In 1968,
. Philby published his memoirs in London. In the USSR they were published in abbreviated form only in 1980)
|Ardalion Kuts for Kim Philby
|KG / AM п-яLяLя-п¦я- not peshy bolshe recommend to visit a series of programs of Henry Borovik on Kim Philby.