Eliseev Alexey S.( Pilot-Cosmonaut of the USSR, twice Hero of the Soviet Union, PhD)
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Biography Eliseev Alexey S.
Pilot-Cosmonaut of the USSR, twice Hero of the Soviet Union, PhD Alex S. Eliseev. Born in 1934 in the city of Kaluga region Zhizdra. Member of the CPSU. He made three flights into space: the first - in January 1969, the second - in October 1969, the third - in 1971.
When launched the multi-ship "Sunrise", in the lobby of the Moscow Higher Technical School named H. E. Bauman was hung a large, hastily written banner: "The first Baumanets in space!" The students joked: "First, but not the last."
And sure - not the last!
... Moscow spent their early January morning. At the launch site had to do last minute preparations, a recent workout. There, the State Commission had to take a final decision, who will fly. They called his name. Then it knew a few.
Who is he, an engineer Alex EliseevN was born in the thirty-fourth in the city Zhizdra, near Kaluga, the very Kaluga, which is now called the "Mecca of Space". War, especially not remember, she came in early childhood. But after the war, people lived not very easy. Garden in Nemchinovka were helpful family.
In the forty-sixth Eliseevs settled in Moscow. After the tenth grade Alexei filed documents in the Higher Technical School named after Bauman.
Why tudaN Perhaps because the school is closely linked with the history of ballooning. In its walls worked as the father of Russian aviation H. E. Zhukovsky, a famous engineer, theorist. P. Vetchinkin, among college graduates - the largest Soviet scientists, academics, aircraft manufacturers A. N. Tupolev, B. S. Stechkin IN. YA. Klimov ...
One way or another, but Alex explains his choice that beckoned him automation, "wise", "all who are able to" system. Studied with enthusiasm. Elevations below the Quartet in its zachetke was not, although not easy given the wisdom of the exact sciences, engineering. One drawing what it cost! How many sheets of drawing paper had "izrisovat" how to remove the CRIC, how to make assemblies and detalirovok before the record-books in the column appeared the final mark. And how common notebooks covered with writing in class, as performed laboratory work, as protected by coursework projects!
. There were periods sverhnapryazheniya - many hours spent on homework, sleepless nights before an exam, repeated experiments ..
. And in the morning - again at the student's desk. Particularly fond of physics and mathematics. Symphony of numbers and formulas, attracted by its rigor, clarity, conciseness, a deep inner sense. Functions and binomials captured youth. It would seem that special about them - Integral flourishes, letters, icons. But no! These icons had their own life, LUT strict laws. They do not tolerate freedom. The slightest inaccuracy - and everything went to pot.
. Solving the problem or examining the theoretical basis of the "biting" in the volume of textbooks, he wanted badly to get to the very essence, and certainly if that was intended, it must be completed.
. There was one thing, to which he devoted much time and energy
. This - wall newspaper. , A newspaper is not always regular, but when hung a regular room, a crowded booth guys:
. "Who got today, who painted and propechataliN"
. Respecting for candor and integrity, Komsomol Komsomol organizer chose Alexei Group
. They say what sang, so is the chorus. Student groups, which include Alex, was considered the best. And this, too, to his credit. As a reward for success handed boys free trips to Kiev for the winter holidays. We visited the famous Arsenal, vymeryali Kreschatik steps.
Fitness Institute became his second home. I got carried away fencing. Courage, quick response, agility, resilience, a sense of battle - that's quality, without which the swordsman will not become. It is not easy to bring them in yourself. But Alexis was another enviable quality - persistence. He becomes a master of sport and twice won the honorary title.
Education and Sports. Short summer vacations, camps, trips to the Tretyakov Gallery, performances in Luzhniki, endless debates about the future of science and, of course, on aeronautics. Were read Tolstoy and Hemingway. We discussed, argued. That was his student.
After graduating from the Moscow Higher Technical School, and his first degree in engineering, he learned to see the poetry in science. Automation is not only the wires and sensors, sensors and sophisticated schemes. Automation for Eliseeva - is a whole world full of wisdom, happiness and excitement.
When the satellite was launched бL 1, Alex has worked as an engineer. Like everyone else, worried, like everyone else, triumphant. "It is finished!" The first step is made. Wait for the next ". April 12, 1961, when Yuri Gagarin flew, he was among those who one way or another prichastep to the event.
Then he said to himself: "I would be a test cosmonaut. Easily said. And as sdelatN
"Alexei Eliseev came to us much later - told Yuri Gagarin .- Authorization to train astronauts in the unit he received in 1966 ... To us a lot of engineers come from the enterprises, but none so guys are not respected, as Eliseev. I do not think that it is specifically looking for opportunities to all to please. Just so very charming man. Very modest, tactful. For a long time we have no one knew that he was master of sports of fencing ... There have Eliseeva excellent quality - the ability to listen to the interlocutor. He did not interrupt you, will present all the arguments and then calmly express their point of view ...
. I know that Lesch enjoys painting, gathers a collection of reproductions, tries not to miss exhibitions, including his favorite writers Ilf and Petrov, Hasek, Chekhov
. This is understandable: in the warehouse of his nature, he jolly, witty person. Knows how sometimes with a stony face arrange jokes ... "
Astronaut .... Proudly word. To approach the turn, when you call it so difficult. The road is long, arduous. How many tests have to endure, how much training to go, how to pass examinations and tests on the theory and practice space case! He went through all this, walked with honor.
Today Alexey Eliseev no stranger to space. Over the shoulders of three launch, three difficult pas flight of Soyuz 5, Soyuz 8, Soyuz-10 ". Add: Soyuz-4 ". After all, in the course of one flight he was to fly on two ships, and "walk" in space. No person in the country, who would not have heard of it, twice Hero of the Soviet Union, PhD. FAI awarded him the Gold Medal of the Yuri Gagarin Medal of Honor and de La In. Glory, as they say, will last for ten. And work, too. Immersed in science and technology, analyze, build. He does not give me no rest day nor night. Working in a design bureau, participation in the management of space flight, as it was, say, during the flight of the Soyuz-11 "and other scientific conferences, symposia ... Del a lot, miss nothing could be postponed until later - also. But only in this mode, it recognizes the life. He can be strict, sometimes harsh and at the same time very careful. Erudite. Man word. Pledges do not give away, but if you say, make sure you do.
. Before the first start, I asked him to give an interview for "Red Star", to answer several questions: what is romance, heroism, courage, comradeship, and that he values most in lyudyahN he replied: "Romance is a feat
. The feat, the most vivid manifestation of courage. Courage - the will, commitment, and not in the small and personal, but in a large, public right to. Antipodes it - cowardice. A friend is a friend. That all stories. In most people appreciate honesty ... "
The storming of the stellar heights of space occupation, he argues passionately. Knowledge of the cosmos, he said, started, but we only opened the eyes of. We still have a long view and analyze before we understand the laws of space elements, understand the mechanism of its effects on terrestrial phenomena. We already know a lot, but infinitely more there is to know. And for that, people will create a lunar observatory, orbiting stations, will travel to distant planets.
The reality of our times do not fly veils his vision for the future. For him, it is also realistic.
- Let's try to look forward to a decade, try to imagine the future responsibilities of the crews of ships, which travel time will increase from several weeks to several years. Some trends have already traced today.
. Increased volume and complexity of scientific research, the complication of control of the ship, have a long flight, the removal of the enormous distance from Earth - it will require even higher cosmonaut training
. So says Alex. And he believes that, depending on the scientific objectives of the flight on the ship or space station should be more and astronomer, geophysicist, meteorologist, engineer, biologist, and t. d. Each of these scientists, astronauts must be highly qualified specialist, and not only in their field. In flight, the crew will have to solve very complex tasks related to the various branches of science and technology.
The first task, says Eliseev, - this space navigation. Even modern launchers whole ship very accurately. Even the specialists call the accuracy achieved fantastic. But even with such precision excretion during long flights and long-term accumulate significant errors. During the flight, such as Mars or Venus missed due to the accumulation of errors can reach tens of thousands of kilometers. On the other hand, we know that the return to Earth, say, a spacecraft such as "probe" deviation from the calculated trajectory at the entrance to the Earth's atmosphere should not exceed approximately ten kilometers. This means that the flight should be required to correct the trajectory - to carry out correction. Hence, it is first necessary to know the true trajectory, to know how it differs from the calculated. This will involve systematically measuring and monitoring results should undergo a complex mathematical treatment.
. In the arguments he is concrete:
. - In terrestrial conditions, the navigator (seaman or airman) defines the trajectory of the spacecraft with respect to a fixed Earth, and only in two dimensions: latitude and longitude of the point at which is currently in the ship or aircraft
. Space navigator to construct the trajectory of the spacecraft in all three spatial dimensions, using for this purpose, a more complex system of coordinates. The navigator must consider the motion of the planet, which flies the ship to determine the arrival time, calculate how to send a vernier engine, when and at what time I turn it on in order to ensure arrival at a predetermined area of the planet.
. This, . his belief, . requires a very deep mathematical knowledge, . ability to work with optical sight, . with onboard computer, . analyze the results of calculations, . using the methods prrtkladnoy mathematics and applied celestial mechanics.,
. The second major challenge facing the crew - control ship
. So it formulates Alex. The spacecraft is in a relatively small volume concludes a range of complex systems very different purpose. Suffice it to mention the system of orientation and stabilization, thermal control, communications, life support, monitoring of on-board equipment, medical monitoring of the crew.
. The crew is obliged to continuously monitor the work of all these systems, to prevent possible malfunction
. To do so will regularly for preventive check-ups devices may reconfigure them to regulate, and during long flights and repair. Before the most complex and responsible space experiments (like landing on another planet or take off from it) the crew must be able to conduct comprehensive testing of all major systems. And if some problem occurred, you should be able to quickly and accurately find its cause, and with the available hand tools to remove.
. - Essentially, . crew, . located in the far-flight, . willy-nilly, must take on the functions of analysis and prevention of airborne systems, . that, . example, . Aviation run by highly qualified engineers and technical staff of ground services,
. Therefore, the crew members are required excellent knowledge in the field of electronics, electrical engineering, mechanics, and t. d.
Play it interesting. It is logical and each of his position argues:
- Another of the important tasks of the crew in deep space flight - is the maintenance of the cabin of normal living conditions. Need to monitor the composition of the atmosphere in the living quarters, the level of radiation, sanitary conditions. At long flight, the crew would have regenerated drinking water, oxygen.
Disease of any member of the crew of the ship jeopardizes flight program. Therefore, on board should be good health. It is necessary that the astronaut has always, at any moment could rely on skilled medical care. Thus, the biological and medical training for the astronauts, too high requirements.
It is clear that all these problems not be solved by one person. Crews distant spacecraft will consist of a group of astronauts, the responsibilities between them are clearly assigned, just as, for example, is now divided responsibilities among members of the crews of ships. It is clear that at the same time, the astronauts must possess a certain universalism for interchangeability if necessary.
As you can see, the future astronauts duties will be more than enough. And those who now asks us how to become an astronaut, who is going to devote his life to outer space, should be drawn to the fact that they have to master the entire "spectrum" of occupations, and at least one perfectly.
. ... He has already begun, this new stage in terms of research and space exploration
. In orbit operated scientific station "Salyut" (Alexey Eliseev involved in this event), two years experiment with space station (it was called Skylab) repeated the Americans held a joint flight of Soyuz and Apollo. Alexey Eliseev was the leader of this flight from the Soviet side ...
. What is happening in space orbit today, confirms his idea that space is not only a research laboratory, but also a working shop for the astronauts, engineers, biologists, doctors ...