Kalejs Kondrad( Executioner)
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Biography Kalejs Kondrad
Latvia - a country where during the Second World War as a percentage of local Jews killed more than anywhere else in the world. According to the author of numerous books on the Holocaust Leonid Kovalev, "after the liberation of Riga in 1944 from 80 thousand Latvian Jews survived 162 people".
Moreover, Jews were not only the Nazis. First zealous Letts. Numerous documents and testimony suggest that the genocide of Jews in Latvia are local fascists and nationalists.
. Prepared for the release of a book of defenders Charles Berezin and Axel GAAP - Operation "Cottbus" (or "cleansing" of Jews from the Baltic states)
. This story began long ago - during the Second World War
. Nowadays, it stirred little Latvia, far away as Australia, returned to Israel, the United States and Canada:
. In August 1999, the Latvian newspapers published photos of an elderly man who looked, perhaps, younger than her 86 years
. This - Kondrad-Alfred Kalejs, an Australian citizen, living in "Kettorp Manor - a home for the elderly Latvian emigrants contained money for a private charitable society. For this fine-looking old man hunted the four power states.
And no wonder!
He charged that from 1941 to 1944 years in cold blood and destroyed more than 30 thousand living souls. Predominantly - Jewish.
... Latvia was occupied by the Germans for several days in summer 1941. Many Latvians greeted the troops as liberators from the Reich repression by the Soviet authorities. Cadet Military School, Alfred Konrad Kalejs was one of those last year, "the partisans and killed Communists. He even prudent stocks of spravochkoy. And with this piece of paper in his pocket came to the Germans.
So he joined the "firing squad" Victor Arajs. Its main work in 1941 and 1942 was the "final solution" Jewish question in Latvia.
Over 290 Reichsmark per month Lieutenant Kalejs worked for the Germans "on the LED glowing". For example, hung in the Salaspils concentration camp prisoners and burned out the whole "pro-Soviet" of the village with the residents. Often, the Konrad-Alfred sent "on mission" - to counter-insurgency operations in Russia and Belarus.
Sydney Daily Telegraph published a photograph Kalä?js from archives in Riga, where he is depicted in the form of SS, and combat flyer in 1942, in which he personally describes raids special Latvian companies punitive.
"We are attacking, because we know what to do. We must first go through the village and see how the Communists ran, climbing over the snow, and then our job is simple.
The same picture in another village. Gradually the firing subsides. Some of the hut, where it was hidden weapons, explode and burn ".
Disclosure of this information has sharply changed its tactics Nazi. In an interview with Australian SBS radio he first acknowledged that nevertheless served as a commander of one of the units' command Arajs ". However, as before, all the charges of involvement in the massive destruction of people Kalejs called absurd.
According to him, service to the officers' positions in the special forces was a measure of "forced". He claims that he had never been in Salaspils, after he was turned into a concentration camp, but most of Viktor Arajs company commander allegedly saw the Nazis in Germany already in retreat under the pressure of Soviet forces.
Survivors Salaspils witnesses recall that Kalejs and his ilk were in the Guard when was shot thirty Roma. In order not to waste time dragging people into a common grave, they first drove to the bottom of the pit. And rationally shot from the top ...
In 1944, Konrad-Alfred with the retreating Germans moved to Germany. Soon after the victory over the Nazis emigrated to Australia. It has worked in government service, then twisted his business and became a multimillionaire. In 1959 he moved to the U.S..
Kalejs lived there quietly until 1984, when a tip-off the International Center Simon Wiesenthal Center (hunter of Nazi war criminals), U.S. officials suddenly began to investigate his activities in "team Arajs". As a result, the U.S. Supreme Court declared it "a member of a criminal organization".
However, under U.S. law could not put Kalä?js. For the U.S., he did not commit, any of the American citizens, do no harm and he was not a U.S. citizen. Therefore, the former butcher from the United States put on formal occasions - when entering the country he did not mention in the questionnaire that consisted Polizei.
In 1994, Kalejs returned to Australia with 350 000 dollars. And caught in the midst of a police investigation over his person. This is his nervous, and he moved to Canada. But from there it also fired - two years later.
Soon Kalejs moved to the UK. He settled in a charity home for the elderly Latvians in the county Leychestershir. There he registered as Victor Kalnins.
However, the quiet old age failed and there. Kalejs did not realize one thing: Great Britain - the only country of the former anti-Hitler coalition, which tried for war crimes regardless of where they were committed ...
December 28, 1999, giving the Lutheran Kalejs meet Christmas, he was detained and questioned in the British police.
The Simon Wiesenthal Center promptly sent to the British police 20 witness statements to Kalä?js. Prosecutors investigating the crimes of totalitarian regimes instituted against Kalä?js criminal case - under "war crimes" and "genocide".
However, on 8 January 1999. Kalejs moved from the county of Leicestershire in the British capital under cover of night, accompanied by police and immigration. Then, from Heathrow Airport flight airline, Singapore Airlines, he flew to Singapore to reach out to Melbourne. British authorities decided to expel Kalä?js as deemed "insufficient" evidence of his guilt.
The fact that the Holocaust in Latvia almost no documented - "driven shaft, slowly turn the Baltic States in the" free of Jews zone. Therefore, records that it was then there that something so specific person had been shot such a specific person of Jewish nationality, just do not. Everything went according to a simplified scheme - order the action to collect all "cash Jews" and their complete destruction. In the accounting records referred only to the remuneration "for work or on the shares, without disclosing its substance.
So, Kalejs again in Australia. At its historic homeland - in Latvia, journalists and the public tried to obtain from the authorities of a final and fair trial of Nazi criminal. Latvian officials in no hurry to solve this problem - in the country, where the marching veterans SS, condemnation of the Nazis were able to cause an unpredictable reaction from ultra-nationalists.
Latvian Foreign Minister Indulis Berzins made the sensational idea that "it Kalä?js" - an international order to put pressure on Latvia. He stressed that his republic "can not submit to international pressure in this case". So far, the evidence of guilt Kalä?js Latvian Prosecutor General's Office did not have, and previously collected evidence against him, as the representative of justice Uldis Strelis, "were driven out by the investigators, the Jews through threats and torture".
Virtually all the known world television Kalä?js waiting the arrival at Melbourne Airport. However, Australian authorities have decided to err on and brought him up from the airport back door. Former member of the firing "command Arajs" seated in the back seat of a car of the Ministry of Immigration and carefully hiding his head with a blanket, was taken to an unknown. The Australian Government has stated that no evidence of guilt Kalä?js, and therefore could not forbid him from entering the country.
After a few days in the Latvian Russian-language newspaper "Chas" was published translation of the U.S. immigration court on January 1, 1988. The judge found "clear, convincing and unequivocal" proved that:
* Konrad Kalejs was a member units of the "team Arajs" operating on the Eastern front most of the 1942. Anti-guerrilla operations araysovtsev accompanied by the murder of civilians and burning villages.
* Konrad Kalejs commanded a concentration camp guard in Porkhov, where his immediate subordinates in early 1943 participated in the murder of Gypsies.
* Konrad Kalejs was commander of the unit outside of the camps and forced labor Salaspils Saurieshi the end of 1943 to May 1945
. In the verdict, Judge Petrone stated:
. "The conclusion (the camps), . forced labor and brutal treatment of Jews and political prisoners, . killing of civilians on the front and the execution of the Roma in Porkhov were acts of harassment based on race, . religious or national origin or political opinion,
. Defendant assisted executions, and took part in them ".
The judge also considered a proven fact that Kalejs joined the "team Arajs" in the middle of 1941, but considered unproven facts of his personal involvement in the executions until 1942. The judge rejected claims Kalä?js that information on his membership in "team Arajs" (including the signature of the Arajs) - fakes.
The court heard testimony from three surviving prisoners Salaspils - Alfred Winter, Kurt Servosa and Ernest Ilberga. In addition, the prosecution presented the testimony of 13 witnesses - residents of Latvia, including the former araysovtsev.
One of them, Rudolf Soames, showed that the platoon Kalä?js on the Eastern Front destroyed the village Sannikov and destroyed all of its inhabitants. Another, Karlis Strazds showed that Kalejs commanded three platoons, consisting of a total of 100 to 120 people. These units carried out counter-insurgency "cleansing". Third, Viktors Ennitis, admitted that he was a guard in the camp under the command Saurieshi Kalä?js and had orders to shoot to kill if any prisoner tries to escape. He also showed that Kalejs was present at the hanging of two Jews.
The influential Australian newspaper "Sydney Morning Herald called send Kalä?js in Latvia.
"... The laws of all countries at all times written to fulfill three objectives: to revenge a victim, punish the offender, to show what awaits those who planned to repeat the criminal act. In the case of a citizen Kalä?js victims who want revenge, very little. They dead.
As punishment, the Kalejs not violated the laws of Australia. And what's the use to frighten the verdict of Australians who have never talked of exterminating evreevN
Kalejs should be put on trial in Latvia. Latvians, Germans and other Europeans - that's who need to remind. They should know how their fathers, mothers and uncles applauded sleight of people who were thrown into the air of Jewish children and shot them on the fly.
How sad that the Jews were again forced to play the role of conscience of the world. Where all this time were the Latvian vlastiN Purification of consciousness of the nation can not be imposed from outside. It should come together with a new generation that will stop doubting and think about the decorations found in the attic of fathers.
Citizen Kalejs want them there, in Latvia. To remember. To remember ".
The first attempt to find such evidence in clubbing together "in all countries involved in the affairs of the Nazis, was launched in February 2000 in Riga. Participated lawyers and diplomats from 6 countries.
As director of the Israeli Branch of the Simon Wiesenthal Center, Efraim Zuroff, the prosecutor's rally - "the last hope for justice in the affairs of Latvian Nazi war criminal Konrad Kalä?js and Karlis Ozols".
Meanwhile, Kalejs lived in the same coveted middle-class suburb of Melbourne. Contrary to rumors that his health is rapidly deteriorating, at least twice a day an elderly araysovets goes one-hour walk, and sometimes with friends from the local Latvian community throughout the day leaves the city. Regardless of weather he wears a hat, sunglasses and gloves - possibly to avoid contact with the press.
... October 23, 2000 the Riga Regional Court issued an arrest warrant Kalä?js. But it is unlikely 87-year-old former lieutenant firing "command Arajs" returns to Latvia. Warrant of arrest to the Australian authorities is not required until until Riga does not send a formal request to arrest and extradite Kalä?js for the court.
. Members of the opposition Australian Democrats have called on authorities to take at least living in a quiet suburb of Melbourne Kalä?js under surveillance
. However, the press office of the Minister of Justice of Australia Amanda Venstoun advised that the Australian police have no legitimate grounds for any action against Latvia: "The situation has not changed. If Latvia and intends to demand the extradition Kalä?js, the timing - it is the case ".
The same view is shared by the Wiesenthal Center. In the statement of the Center states: "The issuance of a warrant of arrest Kalä?js was evidence of the growing willingness of Latvia honestly and openly deal with the participation of many Latvians in the massacre of the Jews. We call upon the Latvian authorities to take all possible steps to expedite the filing of the extradition request Kalä?js "
. However, the Honorary Consul of the Republic of Latvia in Australia Emil Delinsh said that it was not certain that an Australian citizen Kalejs ever brought before a court of Latvia: a treaty on extradition between the two countries have not:
. Still, justice has finally prevailed
. Precisely - almost triumphed. Australian police have arrested Conrad Kalä?js. Less than an hour Kalejs in a police car was taken to the city court in Melbourne. After a five-minute hearing, the judge ruled: the Latvian Themis meet and elect a preventive measure for the accused in committing war crimes citizen Kalä?js - Arrest. A few minutes later was replaced by a stay of arrest under the supervision of the Police and pledge.
Former Army Lieutenant independent Latvia, a former second lieutenant of the Red Army, the former chief lieutenant executioners' team Arajs, a former intelligence agent, a former businessman came to the last line. Justice disgraced his country intends to encourage him to answer - after nearly 60 years.
The demand for the extradition of Latvia Kalä?js will be examined in court on January 25. According to the Minister of Justice of Australia Amanda Venstoun, Kalejs be able to use the legitimate right to appeal.
Theoretically, the appeals process in Australia (which is four levels) can drag on for years. However, it seems that in the case Kalä?js he will go with a much greater rate. The Australians have already shown the wonders razvorotlivosti. Between the delivery of Australian Ambassador to Latvia, a formal request to arrest Kalä?js and proper arrest was only a few hours. This efficiency was observed and Jewish organizations (including the Wiesenthal Center), and the international press.
However, in contrast to the world community, the Latvian establishment has reacted to the arrest Kalä?js sluggishly. An official statement in the spirit of "Well finally!" dignitaries were in no hurry. The President and the Prime Minister entrusted to formulate its views on the case Kalä?js his press aides. The point was: we've already said, that justice be done.
Were among the Nazi henchmen and other interesting specimens. For example, Lieutenant-trooper Vilis Runkov, who became in Hitlerites concentration camp commandant in Valmiermuyzhe.
It was he who invented the spring of 1942 to link together all those sentenced to death 200 prisoners of the camp. Russian, Jews, Latvians, Roma - women, children, old women and the elderly - lined up in long chain, lame to each other by the wrists with a thin, specially prepared cord.
The first was killed, falling in the hollowed out in the frozen ground shallow pit, pulled to a next victim. Never mind that some flew there still alive. But the whole campaign was completed in record short lines.
No less colorful figure was Colonel Karlis Lobe, organizer of the extermination of the Jews Ventspils. At the conclusion of the Brest peace young Lobe was one of the aides in the retinue of Trotsky. Soon, however, he moved to Kolchak in the Latvian Regiment "Imants", which included fighting with the Bolsheviks.
Returning after the civil war in Latvia, Lobe continued to serve in the army. With the arrival of the Germans he is actively involved in the activities of vigilante groups, organized and participated in anti-Jewish pogroms and the punitive actions.
Another "character" - the son of a provincial teacher Janis Laimdota Zegners. He began his career as head of a voluntary police Smitene, where together with other Nazi collaborators organized a night of 8 th August 1941 mass execution of Jews. Then the police killed some 200 people, among whom were many children especially.
Then the way 24-year-old lieutenant of the former Latvian army lay through the prison service in Riga for the enviable position of the Adjutant General Bangerskogo - Commander of the SS Latvian Legion.
Once in the 44-m, a few drinks, he told the military correspondent SS Janis Budulisu some details: ": In Smiltene in my hands was all the power. Their heads fell like peas until they cleared the entire city ".
Son of rural teachers was personally involved in the shooting of prisoners in prison in Riga night on the 23rd October and 21 th November 1941. Then, among the nearly 200 victims were killed by the Jews living in Latvia, who are citizens of Iran, Brazil, Uruguay, Paraguay, as well as U.S. citizens.
Alexander Karlis Ozols was the right hand Victor Arajs. He joined his team in July 1941 and rose to the rank Obersturmfuhrer (captain). The unit under his command took part in shootings in the Riga ghetto, as well as in the massacres of Jews in Minsk and Slutsk.
Today Ozols - an Australian citizen. He received it in 1956, and the local press calls the former executioner of the Jewish people "the most senior Australian Nazi".
Evidence Ozols involvement in the genocide began collecting in the 80-ies "Nazi hunters from the Simon Wiesenthal Center. It was a criminal case in Australia, but before the indictment did not get - Department investigation of war crimes has been closed.