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( Greek physician and philosopher)

Comments for GIPPOKRAT
Every doctor starting his professional path, certainly remembers the Hippocratic.

When he receives a diploma, then utters an oath, consecrated by his name. In another Greek physician - Galen, Hippocrates, who lived somewhat later, no one else could have such influence on the formation of European medicine.

Hippocrates was born on the island of Kos in 460 BC. Civilization and the language of the islands were colonized by Dorians Ionian. Hippocrates belonged to the genus Asclepiadae - Corporation of doctors, claiming that she is descended from Asclepius, the great physician Homeric times. (Asclepius was seen as a god after Homer.) U Asclepiadae purely human medical knowledge was passed down from father to son, from teacher to student. The sons of Hippocrates, his son and numerous students were physicians.
. Corporation Asclepiadae, . also referred Kosskoy School, . retained in the V century BC, . Like any cultural corporation at the time, . purely religious forms and practices, so, . example, . they have adopted the oath, . closely connected to students with teacher, . with peers in the profession,
. However, the religious nature of the corporation, if he demanded conventional norms of conduct in no way restricts the search of truth, which remained strictly scientific.
. The initial medical training from my father - a doctor Heraclides - and other doctors of the island, then to the scientific advances in his youth traveled and studied medicine in various countries on the practice of local physicians and obetnym tables, . who hung around the walls of temples of Aesculapius.,

. The story of his life is little known, and there are legends and stories relating to his biography, but they are legendary character
. The name of Hippocrates, . like Homer, . later became the collective name, . and many of the approximately seventy works attributed to him, . As demonstrated in recent times, . belong to other authors, . mainly his sons, . doctors Thessaly and the Dragon, . and son-Polybus,
. Galen, Hippocrates recognized for the true 11, Galler - 18, and Kov-ner - undoubtedly true, only 8 of the Hippocratic writings Code.

. This treatise - "The Wind", . "On the air, . Waters, Places ", . "Prognosis", . "On a diet in acute diseases", . first and third of the book "Epidemic", . "Aphorisms" (the first four sections), . Finally - surgical treatises on the joints "and" Fractures ", . is a masterpiece of "Compendium".,
. To this list the major works will need to add several works of ethical direction: "The Oath", . "Law, . "On the Physician", . "On the behavior honestly", . "Guide", . that at the end of V and the beginning of IV century BC transform scientific medicine in the Hippocratic medical humanism.,
. At the time of Hippocrates believed that disease sends evil spirits or by witchcraft
. Itself, therefore, his approach to the causes of disease was innovative. He believed that diseases are sent to people not gods, they occur in different, quite natural reasons.

. The great merit of Hippocrates is, . that he first put the medicine on a scientific basis, . remove it from the dark empiricism, . and purified from false philosophical theories, . often contrary to reality, . dominated the experimental, . experimental side of things,
. Looking at medicine and philosophy as two inseparable science, Hippocrates tried them, and combine and divide by defining each of its borders.

. All literary works vividly displayed the brilliant observation of Hippocrates and logic reasoning
. All his conclusions are based on careful observations and strictly verified the facts from the generalization which like themselves, and there followed the conclusion. Accurate prediction of the course and outcome of disease, based on a study of similar cases and examples, was Hippocrates during the life of a wide fame. The followers of the teachings of Hippocrates, formed the so-called Kosskuyu school, which flourished for a very long time, and determines the direction of modern medicine.

. Works of Hippocrates contain observations on the spread of disease, depending on the external influences of the atmosphere, seasons, wind, water, and their results - the physiological action of these influences on the healthy human body
. In the same writings are presented and data on the climatology of different countries, the latter more extensively studied meteorological conditions one area of the island and the dependence of disease from these conditions. Generally Hippocrates divides the causes of disease into two classes: common adverse effects of climate, soil, heredity and personal - and living conditions, nutrition (diet), age and pr. The normal effect on the organism causing these conditions and the correct mix of juice, which for him is health.

In these works primarily affects the indefatigable thirst for knowledge. Doctor, first of all, sizing, and his eyes sharp. He asks, and makes notes. An extensive collection of seven books "epidemic" is not nothing but a series of notes taken by a doctor at the bedside of the patient. They set out the cases detected in the doctor's round and not yet systematized. This text is often interspersed with some philosophy, not setting out the number of facts, like a doctor wrote in passing one of the thoughts that his head was constantly busy.
. Here's one of those inquisitive thoughts touched the question of, . how to examine the patient, . and then there is a final, . all opening, . exact word, . showing more, . than simple observation, . and depicting our method of thinking scientist: "Examination of the body - the whole thing: it requires knowledge, . hearing, . olfactory, . touch, . Language, . reasoning,
. And here's another argument for inspection of the patient from the first book "epidemic": "With regard to all the circumstances in diseases, . under which should establish the diagnosis, . then all learn from the general nature of all human life and property of every human, . from disease and from patient, . Of all, . that required, . and from the, , . and because of this sick, or better, . or heavier feel, in addition, . the general and private state of celestial phenomena and every country, . of habit, . of diets, . of the kind of life, . from the age of each patient, . from the speeches of the patient, . mores, . silence, . thoughts, . Sleep, . lack of sleep, . of dreams, . what are they and when there are, of tremors, . of itching, . of tears, . of paroxysms, . of eruptions, . urine, . from sputum, . of vomiting,
. Should also look at changes in disease, . from what to what occurs, . and deposits, . leading to the death or destruction, . further - sweat, . chills, . cooling body, . cough, . sneezing, . Hiccups, . breaths, . burp, . soundless winds or noise, . expiration blood, . hemorrhoids,
. For all these signs and the fact that through them there - should lead the study.

It should be noted extensive range of requirements. On examination, the doctor takes into account not only the patient's condition at the moment, but the former disease and the consequences that they could leave, he is considered a way of life of the patient and climate habitat. He does not forget that, because the patient is a man, like everyone else, to his knowledge should know and other people, he explores his thoughts. Even the "silence" the patient are used for showing him! Target unbearable, which confused anybody would mind, devoid of breadth.

How would say today - this is clearly psychosomatic medicine. We say simply: this medicine whole person (body and soul), and linked it with his environment and way of life and with his past. The consequences of this broad approach reflected in the treatment, which will in turn require the patient to it, under the guidance of a doctor, all - body and soul - took part in his recovery.
. Strictly observing the course of disease, . He attached great importance to the various periods of disease, . particularly feverish, . acute, . setting specific dates for the crisis, . fracture disease, . when the organism, . his teachings, . will attempt to get rid of indigestion juices.,
. In other works - "On the joints" and "Fractures" detailing the operation and surgical intervention
. From the descriptions of Hippocrates, it is clear that surgery in ancient times was at a very high level tools were used and different methods of bandages applied in medicine of our time. In the essay "On a diet in acute diseases" Hippocrates laid the foundation of a rational que tologii and pointed to the need to feed patients, . even fever (which was subsequently forgotten), . and to this end established diet in relation to forms of disease - acute, . chronic, . surgical and t,
. d

Hippocrates in his lifetime knew the height of glory. Plato, . who was younger than him in one generation, . but his contemporaries in the broad sense of the word, . comparing one of their dialogues with other arts medicine, . draws a parallel between Hippocrates from Kos and most great sculptors of his time - Poliklet from Argos and Phidias of Athens.,
. Died Hippocrates around 370 BC at Larissa, in Thessaly, where he and a monument.


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