Edward Jenner (Jenner Edward)( English physician, founder of vaccination.)
Comments for Edward Jenner (Jenner Edward)
Biography Edward Jenner (Jenner Edward)
(1749 - 1823)
English physician, founder of vaccination. Chief Executive Officer (since 1803) on the islands vaccination in London (now Dzhennerovsky Institute).
. English physician Edward Jenner was a man who developed and popularized the technique of vaccination as a preventive measure against the dreaded disease - smallpox.
. Today, thanks to Jenner smallpox wiped out, we begin to forget what terrible consequences caused this illness in the past century
. Smallpox was so contagious that a substantial majority of people who lived in Europe, fell ill, and so dangerous that at least 10 to 20 percent of patients died. Of those who survived, from 10 to 15 per cent were permanently disfigured many marks on the body. Of course, smallpox was not limited to one raging in Europe and North America, India, China and many other parts of the world. Throughout most frequent victims are children.
For many years, attempts to find acceptable ways to prevent smallpox. It has long been known that humans, after surviving the disease, immunity, and he was not ill again. In the east, this observation led to the practice of vaccination for healthy people of tissues taken from the man who has had a weak form of smallpox. This was done in the hope that the grafted so sick man himself, only mild smallpox and after recovery will acquire immunity.
. This practice was brought to England in the early eighteenth century, Lady Mary Montagu Uortli and there was the usual procedure for many years before Jenner
. Himself Jenner inoculated smallpox at age eight. However, this preventive measure was a significant drawback: a large number of vaccinated so sick of people not a subtle form of smallpox, and dangerous, which left them disfigured. And in fact two percent of vaccinated die! It was clear that needed a different way of prevention.
Jenner was born in 1749 in the small town of Berkeley in the county Glochestershir, England. Then he studied anatomy and worked in hospital. In 1792, Jenner was at the University of St. Andrew medical degree. At thirty-five years he was already a respected physician and surgeon in Glochestershire.
. Jenner was familiar with the popular belief was common among the milkmaids and farmers of his area, that people who became ill with cow pox - non-hazardous disease of cattle, which, however, can be transmitted to people - and then never become infected with smallpox
. (She cowpox is not dangerous to humans, . Although her symptoms were slightly similar to the symptoms of a very weak form of smallpox.) Jenner realized, . that if a belief is true peasants, . means, . vaccinated people cowpox provide a secure method of developing immunity against smallpox,
. He carefully studied this issue in 1796 was to assume that the true belief of the peasants, and, therefore, decided to check it.
. In May 1796 Jenner made the vaccine, James Phipps, an eight-year boy, a substance taken from cowpox pimple on his hand milkmaids
. As expected, the child is ill with cow pox, but soon recovered. A few weeks later Jenner inoculated him a real smallpox. As he had hoped, the boy had no symptoms of infection.
After some further research Jenner described the results of their work in the brochure "Study of the impact and effects of smallpox vaccine" and published it in 1798. This is the brochure was the main reason for the rapid adoption of the practice of vaccination. Later Jenner wrote five articles on vaccination, and within a few years a lot of time was devoted to extend its technology vaccination, taking care that it took everywhere.
. The practice of vaccination is widespread in England and soon became compulsory in the British army and navy
. In the end she took all over the world.
Jenner freely offered his technique of vaccination and the world is not made no attempt to extract personal gain from it. However, in 1802 the British Parliament in gratitude gave him a prize of 10 000 pounds, and a few years later awarded an additional 20 000 pounds. Jenner became famous throughout the world, and he was awarded numerous medals. He was married, had three children and lived to seventy-three years. Jenner died in early 1823 at his home in Berkeley.
As we see, Jenner was not the author of the idea that the disease vaccinia pox are immune to this terrible smallpox - he heard it from other. Apparently even that a few people used cow pox vaccination before Jenner.
But although he was a remarkable scientist, few people have brought such benefit to mankind. Through its research, experimentation and works Jenner turned the popular belief that physicians have never taken seriously, the usual practice, which saved millions of lives. Although Jenner's technique is suitable in order to prevent just one disease, but the disease was once the main. He deserves the glory, which surrounded his future generations.