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Pirogov, Nikolai Ivanovich

( surgeon, naturalist, educator and social activist)

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Biography Pirogov, Nikolai Ivanovich
photo Pirogov, Nikolai Ivanovich
(November 27, 1810 - 1881)
Surgeon, scientist, educator and social activist, founder of experimental anatomic areas in surgery.
Future great physician was born November 27, 1810 in Moscow. His father served as treasurer. Ivan Ivanovich Pirogov had fourteen children, most died in infancy; of the six survivors Nicholas was the youngest.

. Get education helped him to an acquaintance of the family - prominent Moscow doctor, a professor at Moscow University E
. Mukhin, who noticed the boy's abilities and began to work with them individually.

When Nicholas was fourteen years old, he entered the Medical Faculty of Moscow University. For this he had to add to his two years, but he passed the exams are not worse than their elders. Pirogov studied easily. In addition, he had to constantly look for jobs to help the family. Finally Pirogov was able to get to the post of Coroner in the dissecting. This work has given him invaluable experience and convinced him that he should become a surgeon.

Graduating from university one of the first to performance. Pirogov went to prepare for a professorship in Yurievsky University of Tartu. While the university is considered the best in Russia. Here, in a surgical clinic, Pirogov worked for five years, brilliantly defended his doctoral dissertation and in twenty-six years, became a professor of surgery.

. The theme of the thesis he chose ligation of the abdominal aorta performed prior to that time - and the deaths - but once the British surgeon Astley Cooper
. Conclusions Pirogovskaya thesis were equally important for both theory and practice. He first studied and described the topography, ie the location of the abdominal aorta in humans, disorders of blood circulation in its ligation, the path of blood circulation in its obstruction, explained the reasons for postoperative complications. He suggested two ways to access the aorta: transperitoneal and extraperitoneal. When any damage to the peritoneum were threatened with death, the second method was particularly necessary. Astley Cooper, the first time a bandaged aorta transabdominal method, said acquainted with Pirogov's thesis that, bring him to do the operation again, he would have chosen another way. Is not that the highest recognition!

. When Pirogov after five years in Dorpat went to Berlin to study, renowned surgeons, to whom he was traveling with respectfully bowed head, read his thesis, quickly translated into German.

. Teachers, more than any other combines all of what I was looking in the surgeon Pirogov, he found not in Berlin, and GцTttingen, in the person of Professor Langenbeck
. Gettingensyuy professor taught him to clean surgical techniques. He taught him to hear a coherent and a complete tune operations. Pirogov He demonstrated how to adapt the movement of legs and body to act operating a hand. He hated the slowness and demanded quick, precise and rhythmic work.

Returning home, Pirogov seriously ill and was left for treatment in Riga. Riga was lucky: not sick Pirogov, she would not ground its rapid recognition. Soon rose from the Pirogov hospital bed, he began to operate. Until the city and the first rumors of the great hopes of filing a young surgeon. Now was to confirm fled far ahead of good reputation.

He started with rhinoplasty: noseless barber has carved out a new nose. Then he remembered that it was the best nose of all made it in life. For plastic surgery was followed by the inevitable litotamii, amputations, removal of tumors. In Riga, he first operated as a teacher.

From Riga he went to Dorpat, where he learned that Moscow had promised him the chair given to another candidate. But he was lucky - Ivan Philipovich Moyer gave the student his clinic in Dorpat.
One of the most significant works of Pirogov - is completed in Dorpat "Surgical anatomy of arterial trunks and fascia". Already in the title of the giant raised beds - surgical anatomy, science, which from the first, his youthful works created, erected Pirogov, and the only pebble that started the movement bulks - the plantar fascia.

. Fascia to the Pirogov almost no: know, . that there are fibrous fibrous plate, . shell, . surrounding muscle groups or individual muscles, . seen them, . dissecting corpses, . stumbled across them during operations, . was cut with a knife, . not giving them value.,

. Pirogov begins with a very modest goals: it is taken to examine the direction of fascial envelopes
. Having learned the private, the course of each fascia, it goes to the general, and displays certain regularities of fascia on the nearby blood vessels, muscles, nerves, reveals certain anatomical patterns.

. All that was opened by Pirogov, it should not in itself, all this need for him to indicate the best methods of production operations in the first place "to find the correct path for the ligation of an artery," he said
. Here's the beginning of a new science created Pirogov - a surgical anatomy.

. Why the surgeon general anatomy, he asks: is it only in order to know the structure of the human telaN And he answers: no, not only! Surgeon explains Pirogov, should deal with the anatomy not just as an anatomist
. Reflecting on the structure of the human body, a surgeon for a moment can not lose sight of what the anatomist and does not reflect, - landmarks which will give him a green light for production operations.

Description of operations Pirogov supplied drawings. Nothing like the anatomical atlases and tables, which were used to him. No discounts, no conventions - the greatest accuracy of the figures: the proportions are not violated, stored and reproduced every twig, every bundle, jumper. Pirogov, not without pride in offering the patient reader to verify any detail drawings in the dissecting. He did not yet know what lies ahead in his new discoveries, higher accuracy ...

And while he goes to France, where five years earlier, after the professors of the Institute, he was not willing to let the bosses. In the Paris hospitals, he captures some particularly amusing and finds nothing unknown. Curious: just being in Paris, he hastened to the well-known professor of surgery and anatomy velpeau and found him reading "Surgical anatomy of arterial trunks and fascia" ...

. In 1841 Pirogov was invited to the department of surgery at Medikohirurgicheskuyu Academy of St. Petersburg
. This scientist worked for over ten years and created the first in Russia Surgical Clinic. In it, he founded another direction medicine - hospital surgery.

He arrived in the capital of a winner. In the audience, where he reads the course of surgery, packed three hundred, at least: crowded on benches, not only doctors, listen to the Pirogov are students from other educational institutions, writers, government officials, soldiers, artists, engineers, and even the ladies. About him the newspapers and magazines, compared to his lectures to concerts celebrated Italian Angelica Catalani, ie with divine singing compare his speech about the cuts, seams, purulent inflammation, and the results of the autopsy.
. Nikolai Ivanovich appointed director of instrumental works, and he agrees
. Now he invents tools that any surgeon do the surgery well and quickly. He asked to accept the post of consultant in one hospital to another, in the third, and he again agrees
But not only wishers surrounded by scientist. A lot of his envy and enemies, which is abhorrent to the zeal and fanaticism doctor. The second year of life in Petersburg Pirogov fell ill, poisoned by the miasma of hospital and morgue bad air. A half months could not get up. He felt sorry for himself, aggravating soul sorrowful mood of years lived without love and lonely old age.

He went through in the memory of all who could bring him his family's love and happiness. The most suitable of them seemed Katia Berezina, a girl from a noble, but collapsed and severely impoverished families. There was a modest hasty wedding.

Pirogov was no time - great things waiting for him. He just locked his wife in a rented four walls and, on the advice of friends, furnished apartments. In the theater is not drove, lost, late because of the anatomical theater, the balls did not travel with her, because balls idleness, took away her slip into her novels and magazines instead of scientists. Pirogov jealously brushed aside his wife from her friends because she was supposed to belong entirely to him, as he belongs entirely to the science. A woman must have been too much and too little of one great Pirogov.

. Katia died on the fourth year of marriage, leaving two sons Pirogov: the second cost her her life.

. But in the grave for the Pirogov days of grief and despair happened a great event - the highest it has been approved project the world's first Institute of Anatomy.

. October 16, 1846 occurred the first test of ether anesthesia
. And he quickly began to conquer the world. In Russia, the first operation under general anesthesia made 7 February 1847 on the professorial friend Pirogov Institute, Fyodor Ivanovich Inozemtsev. He headed the department of surgery at Moscow University.

Nikolai Ivanovich first operation using anesthesia did a week later. But Inozemtsev from February to November 1847 were done under general anesthesia eighteen operations, and Pirogov by May 1847 received the results of fifty. Last year in thirteen cities in Russia was committed six hundred and ninety operations under general anesthesia. Three hundred of them Pirogovski!

Soon Nikolai Ivanovich took part in the hostilities in the Caucasus. Here, in the village of Salt, it is the first time in the history of medicine began to operate on wounded soldiers from the ether anesthesia. All great surgeon spent about 10 000 operations under ether anesthesia.

Once, passing through the market. Pirogov saw butchers cut to pieces cow carcasses. The scientist drew attention to the fact that the cut can clearly see the location of internal organs. After some time he tried this method in the anatomical theater, special sawing saw the frozen corpses. Pirogov himself called it "ice anatomy". Thus was born the new medical discipline - topographic anatomy.

With manufactured similarly saw cut Pirogov was the first anatomical atlas, which became an indispensable guide for surgeons. Now they were able to operate, causing minimal trauma patient. The atlas and the proposed Pirogov technique became the basis of the subsequent development of operative surgery.

After the death of Katia Pirogov was left alone. "I have no friends" - he confessed to the usual directness. And at home waiting for him, boys, sons, Nikolai and Vladimir. Pirogov twice unsuccessfully tried to marry on the calculation, which he did not consider it necessary to conceal from himself, from the familiar, like that of virgins, in contemplation of the bride.
. In the small circle of acquaintances, where Pirogov sometimes spent the evening, he was told about the baroness-old Alexander Antonovna Bystrom, enthusiastically read and reread his article about the ideal woman
. The girl feels lonely soul, a lot and think seriously about life, loves children. In the conversation it was called "girl with convictions."

Pirogov made Baroness Bystrom proposal. She agreed. If you are going to the estate of the bride's parents where supposed to play a discreet wedding. Pirogov, pre confident that honey-month, breaking his usual occupation, and make him short-tempered and intolerant, he asked Alexander Antonovna pick for his arrival crippled the poor in need of surgery: the work of delight first time love!

. When in 1853 started the Crimean War, Nikolai Ivanovich felt it my civic duty to go to Sevastopol
. He has appointments in the army. In terms of wounded. Pirogov first time in the history of medicine applied a plaster cast, which will accelerate the process of healing of fractures, and spared many soldiers and officers from the hideous distortion of limbs.

. The most important merit is the introduction of Pirogov in Sevastopol sort wounded: one operation done directly in combat, others were evacuated into the country after the first aid
. On his initiative in the Russian army introduced a new form of medical care - there were nurses. Thus, it is Pirogov laid the foundations for military field medicine.

After the fall of Sevastopol Pirogov returned to St. Petersburg, where a reception at Alexander II, reported on bad leadership army of Prince Menshikov. The king refused to heed the advice of Pirogov, and from that moment, Nikolai Ivanovich fell into disfavor.

He resigned from the Medico-Surgical Academy. Appointment of Odessa and Kiev school districts, Pirogov trying to change them existed in the school system. Naturally, his actions led to conflict with the authorities and scientists had to leave his post.

For some time Pirogov settled in his estate "Cherry" not far from Vinnitsa, where he organized free hospital. He went there only for the border, and at the invitation of the St. Petersburg University to give lectures. By this time, Pirogov was already chlnom several foreign academies.
In May 1881, in Moscow and St. Petersburg celebrated the fiftieth anniversary of scientific activities Pirogov. With a greeting to him turned the great Russian physiologist Sechenov. But this time the scientist was already terminally ill, and in the summer of 1881 he died at his estate.
. Value of Pirogov is that their dedication and often selfless work he turned surgery into a science, equipping doctors scientifically based methods of surgical intervention.
. Shortly before his death, the scientist made another discovery - proposed an entirely new way of embalming the dead
. Until the present day in the church of the village cherry stored in this way embalmed body of the Pirogov.
The memory of a great surgeon saved and now. Every year on his birthday and the prize awarded a medal of his name for his achievements in the field of anatomy and surgery. In the house where he lived Pirogov, is a museum of history of medicine, in addition, his name, some medical facilities and city streets.


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