Christopher Columbus( Seafarer)
Comments for Christopher Columbus
Biography Christopher Columbus
(August 26, 1451 - May 21, 1506)
Lord slelal me a messenger of a new heaven and new earth, they created, most of those, about which he wrote in the Apocalypse of St.. John ... and there Gospodb pointed me the way. (Christopher Columbus).
The life and personality of Columbus caused tremendous attention and in many ways have the character of the novel. Its origin and place of his birth were long, passionate debates and scientists around the many events of his life have grown legends, break that was worth the long and hard work of scientific criticism. Moreover, Columbus shared the fate of many prominent people. He died himself in full confidence that only opened a new route to India have long known, and in complete ignorance of what the. It is almost 30-40 years after his death, . when the idea of the existence of a new continent between Europe and Asia has penetrated the consciousness of contemporaries can say, . among scientists that this idea was very dominant at the end of 1530-ies, . but before the end of the century and even in the seventeenth century,
. America believes is connected with Asia. Still later, after 20 years, were recognized merits of Columbus in the opening of the continent, it has received attention only in 1571, Mr.. 80 years after opening, when published in Venice in the Italian language biography of Christopher Columbus and the apology, drew a great deal of attention. This biography was published by an unknown person (A. Ulloa) in the form of translation from Spanish original, written by Columbus's son Hernando (mind. in 1539). The original was not found and was not available. It was subsequently brought great doubt about the authenticity of this work and, very likely that we are dealing here with a literary hoax. But, of course, the author or authors had in the hands of the original documents, and later disappeared, and along with romantic details given number of new and compelling indications . Whatever views we may have about this publication, it has at one time played a big role in drawing attention to the overall merits of Columbus.
During this time, all indications disappeared contemporaries as authentic acts until the middle of the eighteenth century, and mainly to the nineteenth century, kept in the archives. There remained much room for imagination, and a biography of Columbus still bears clear traces of a century of work.
Columbus was born, probably in 1446. Genoa. His younger years were spent in sea voyages and, apparently, it is He swam to Iceland or Ireland, and came down to the Gulf of Guinea in Africa. Already a mature and full of strength a sailor he came to Portugal, where all sides flocked to the sailors of all countries and nationalities. In Portugal, he made his first appearance with his plan to swim across the ocean and reach Asia, sailing westward. More than 5 years he spent in Portugal, at one time lived in the Azores, a number of years spent on attempts to persuade the Portuguese government to give him money and to equip the expedition. As he conceived this idea - unknown. Later, very old, Columbus, strongly denies whatever influence anyone: "To perform navigation in India - he wrote - I in no way been required of reason, mathematics or maps. It was a simple fulfillment of the prophecy of Isaiah ". He believed that he was called up to perform a great task - to find means for a crusade to "infidels" and the whole was permeated with a deep religious feeling. After the discovery of America, when the lust for gold seized his companions, Columbus, pronouncing himself a great power and great material advantages, did not consider this power and these benefits belong to him personally, Columbus. They had to completely go to the cause - the liberation "of the holy sepulcher, the fight against the Muslim enemy. Columbus was imbued with mystical, . He believed in the approaching end of the world 150 years after [his] death, . and considered himself God's chosen one, . designed to play a major role in the attack on Earth, "the kingdom of God", . provide a means to evangelize all the infidels, . unbelief which hinders attack on the Earth of happiness,
. It was supposed to come, according to the biblical prophecy, only after all the peoples of the Earth will be Christianity, and it seemed easy, affordable and accessible, as soon as the Muslim state dissolved. Believe the existence of Muslims behind a great Christian kingdom , the whole of India was regarded as a Christian, and the fall of the Moslems were not considered feasible. The Iberian Peninsula, died last remnants of the Mohammedan Dynasties. The direct sea route to India, combined with centuries of divided Christians of Europe and the Far East. From the rear and the front could move to the Ottomans and the Arabs. And with steadfast perseverance, full of religious beliefs, Columbus persistently pursued his idea and tried to put it in his contemporaries, and some considered him insane.
It was a strange mixture of high talent and lack of education. School he had received, and stood aside from the usual scholastic education. He worked in the school of life, which developed in him invaluable as an accurate observer and bold empiricism, so far from the majority of educated people of the Middle Ages. In those cases where he did not try to express these observations in their usual spirit of his time in education, did not admit them within the purview of science of his time - he was struck by the power, clarity and freedom of his thought. In this sense, an excellent evaluation of its activities given the Alexander von Humboldt. These are his standing far ahead of his time observing the distribution of heat around the globe, the variability in the direction of the magnetic needle (first discovered magnetic declination), the influence of sea currents on the shape of coastlines, etc.. Along with this, as this self-taught, he was quite unable to cope with the explanation of phenomena in connection with the "wisdom" of his time. Often, he set a number of "scientists" and accurate explanation of the fantastic observation of an experienced sailor. Man for his time very well read, he used haphazardly obtained material for the most surprising findings and theories. So, . Having map Toscanelli, . he at the same time, . using some ideas of Martin Tire, . that found in Ptolemy, . continued excessive size of the Asian continent, . reduce the value of lying between Europe and Asia Ocean, . because it is consistent with its religious idea,
. Like many contemporaries, Columbus thought that the ocean is the entrance to paradise - this was built by "Divine Comedy". And when Columbus came to the Orinoco River, he thought that he was at the entrance to paradise. And at the same time close to this - he left the precise and accurate observation: against the Orinoco in the ocean is a lot of fresh water, . hence, . Orinoco - big river, . and land, . where it flows, . not be an island, . it is a continent, . according Columbus, . Asian,
. His ideas about the shape of the Earth were very strange. Although not, . like the other great navigators of the time, . sufficient astronomical and mathematical education, and not being able to navigate the cumbersome and inconvenient mathematical tool that time, . Columbus thought to make from his observations concluded that, . that the Earth is not spherical form, . a pear-shaped, . and the narrow end of it is the rise, . Colombia considers that the place of entrance into heaven = "# 6"> ,
He developed, therefore, a theory advocated by many ecclesiastical writers of that time and as I mentioned above - the lithosphere, floating in the hydrosphere with distinct centers, ie. was of the view which completely destroyed its great discovery. His conscious activity, as is often the case, gave the results are diametrically opposed to what he thought. Interestingly, based on his views about the pear shape of the Earth based on: 1) inaccurate and incorrect observations astrolabe and 2) the higher the water level near the Orinoco, which is poured into the ocean fresh, lighter water ... Based on the experience of their trips, . Columbus thus thought to confirm the worldview of the Earth, . which was given walking, . recognized by the Church's teaching: he thought, . have found evidence of not quite a spherical shape of the Earth and the possibility of reaching Asia, . sailing west,
But it is impossible not to draw attention here to the duality of the mind of Columbus. He made errors in the observations, but it was inevitable for all of the time, as the means of observation and calculation were rudimentary and crude, and could obtain more accurate data only through long years of work and great skill. But at the same time, the opening of the variation of the magnetic needle, Columbus returned to the hands of cartographers extremely important indication of the cause of errors in observations and maps. Higher level of the ocean near the exit of fresh water is also present facts and subtle self-observation.
Among these discoveries, the most important statement of the magnetic declination and its changes with the terrain. It was opened on Sept. 13, 1492, entered the same in the general consciousness only in the middle of the sixteenth century.
Columbus' first attempt to bring the expedition to the west appeared in the late 1470's and early 1480-ies in Portugal ; to 1484, Mr.. He occasionally returned to this idea, finally this year he fled to Spain and began similar negotiations with the Castilian court, . Again it took several years after many failures, . Bounce, . disputes and to explore - and in terms of material benefits and scientific and theological enterprises opportunities, . in 1492, . under the influence of the fall of the stronghold of the Moors - Granada, . Columbus was finally able to equip three caravels, . one of which was sent to private facilities brothers PinzцЁn,
. Known from the diary of the vicissitudes of the voyage of Columbus. October 12, 1492, Mr.. sailor from Rodrigo Triana saw land, which was one of the Antilles, the first American land, which eventually opened a European (1).