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Eysenck, Hans Jurgen

( Psychologist)

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Biography Eysenck, Hans Jurgen
photo Eysenck, Hans Jurgen
You need to take the employee to work. Before you lies his CV, from which you will know where he was born and where he studied. If the applicant is young, this information about him and be limited. So how can he be? Maybe he's a fool, crazy or a thief. To answer these questions serious companies use tests. That intelligence, for example, determined by the world-famous IQ Test Hans Jurgen Eysenck, who for several decades, is popular not only among recruiters, but also, they say, in the home. And let the test results, many consider it very controversial. Doubt something else: himself Eysenck was not stupid.

Professor Eysenck life was accompanied by scandals. He did not climb into any scope, although outwardly, personal, everything looked very decently. Born in Berlin on March 4, 1916 in the actor's family - his father played in comedy films, and his mother played dumb. In 1938 he received a bachelor's degree in 1940 - Doctor of Philosophy. He studied in Germany, worked in London, was married twice and was eventually the father of four sons and daughters. Written 84 books and 1,094 articles. He was an honorary member of some associations, the president of others, among whom it is no accident wormed even Delvichsky tennis club. He died two years ago, lived a long fruitful life. However, this "gloss" of his life and ends.

When Eysenck was eighteen, he and his class went to hear Hitler. Hitler did not please him, but at school, he said, he was "the only non-Jewish boy, were hostile to Fascism". When he admitted that he stuffed nose. Snout beaten almost all the school team, as young Eysenck was the "bullies", oblique yards in the shoulders, so even the best tennis schools. The next day after the beating he gave the offenders a decent answer, putting them under the applause a dozen blue eyes adored his girls. The scandal, threatening to escalate into a severe long-play battle, managed with difficulty to cover up: there is nothing to hold on to principles, believed teachers, six months later, he still graduated from high school.

. Although not very flattering recommendation, Eysenck, charming and well prepared, adopted at the Berlin University on the Faculty of Philosophy
. There was a more complicated exercise autonomy: friends and senior comrades persistently hinted to him that a good idea to join the SS. The atmosphere around the pumps, and the mother and stepfather, a Jewish filmmaker, decided to get away from harm's way. First, in France, where Eysenck studied history and literature at the University of Dijon, and then to England. Qualified University of London, Eysenck suddenly decided to retrain in a naturalist and asked for Physics Department. In the learning part of the University of sharp-nosed weedy Supervisor, with his spectacles on his nose, and tufts of hair on the head with pins sticking out of him, angrily told him: after the history and literature of psychology looks natural, but not physics. "To hell with it, with the bureaucratic stupidity - decided Eysenck - Psychology also amusing thing". Say quarreling pretty, but the course still enrolled.

. He graduated from the University with distinction, although, as later evidenced by his classmates, on many issues was not a tooth in his foot - simply could easily talk on any subject and make a favorable impression of their self-confidence on professors
. With red diploma under his arm, he went on probation in Germany, hoping to make his way of thinking there is a real sensation. English professor gave him good advice, dubbed the "hope of the future of science". Several private colleges, even invited him to lecture, which is very flattering for a young scientist. And Eysenck rushed.

Germany was in turmoil. Public opinion was on a higher boiling point. The crisis, the fascists came to power, heated debate about the fate of the nation, a perfect genetic code, the people of the future, which, of course, must be true Aryans. Public lectures and discussion clubs gathered huge audiences. People yearned for controversy and unimaginable discoveries. Young, tall and striking Eysenck seemed the embodiment of this German dream. He is like Prometheus rushed from club to club, . from one society to another public, . where sat majestically Housewives, . ambitious students, . unappreciated geniuses, . and shed light on the problem of problems: how is arranged above the dignity of man - intellect,
.

The official ideology of Germany in those years affected him as a doping. Talk about sverhnatsii consisting of committed people, prepare for the cleansing and selection of the most beautiful, intelligent, healthy circled his head. Biologists and chemists Nazi Germany, Italy, Japan have already begun to genetic experiments on human beings. Including brain. Eysenck shake these experiments, he follows them closely. Even the works in several anatomical laboratories, . anatomiruet and weighs brains, . trying to answer his tantalizing question: Does the size and weight of the human brain to his mental faculties? Fascism attracted him unconditionally, . although he always denied this.,

. Particularly keen he is looking for answers to key questions of life and work in an astrological chart: under what signs, constellations are born geniuses, . what fate are more conducive to disclosure darovaniyN For many years astrology has become for him this idee fixe,
. It produces maps, shtudiruet works of giants. In the late thirties is in correspondence with many famous astrologers of Europe and America. Own horoscopes for the elites of the Third Reich. Before the outbreak of the war he sent a letter to the Reichstag Goebbels and Himmler - with their individual astrological charts. Response from them he had received, but warned them of the coming collapse, terrible deaths, thoughtless aggression and violence. Obviously, the authorities considered him insane and otherwise contributed to his exile.

. He returned to England and stayed for a series of articles, . deeply fascist in spirit: the overpopulation of the planet and the coming brutal struggle for survival; to Favorites, . which should be at the head of mankind; their ascetic upbringing and, . consequently, . iron will and iron spirit,
. Eysenck believed democracy nonsense, and complained about the disastrous commitment to it of some weak-willed politicians who thus lead their people to death. Its not just not accepted, he was hated. It was believed that opportunists, the professor, sitting on two chairs ", then simply mad.

The fact that he was a very strange man, that's for sure. In his lectures he, for example, brought a lot of rubbish: piles thermometers, thermometers, scales. He said: everything can be measured, and brains, too. Known to his endless arguments about the white tree cricket: that if one of the chirping, which is an insect produces over 15 seconds, add forty, one obtains the temperature at the time, measured in degrees Fahrenheit. The audience roar with laughter when he explained: "White tree crickets are rare, they are difficult to catch, they are poorly built into the overall system of physical laws upon which our system of measurement. Therefore, the invention of the thermometer was recognized by all as a significant achievement. And for the measurement of intelligence, we invented the thermometer.

Over the strenuous search for the "smart meter" Eysenck colleagues called a "man-thermometer". The apartment, which he rented on the outskirts of the city was littered with instrumentation of all time mixed with astrological charts and books about insects. This was and collectibles, and passion, and fetishism, and a little crazy.

The Second World War helped Eysenck. In the British military did not have: he belonged to an enemy nation and so was sent to a military hospital in Mill Hill - the hospital in a suburb of London - for treating emotionally disturbed soldiers. Seen enough such that the enemy does not wish to: massacre, self-mutilation, aggression against doctors. However, he worked with normal and wounded, helping them to psychologically rehabilitate after injury or to learn to live fully with acquired injury. This Eysenck never for a moment stopped in science classes. Helping patients undergo psychological adaptation and banging the gavel on their knees, he asked many questions unrelated to the case, trying to test on patients first tests proposed by scientists and psychologists of the XIX century. At night they shtudiruet Talmuds, day in the hospital experimented. A thick notebook scribbled in tiny handwriting, but a little confused. All the same, smart soldier to fool the eye to distinguish easier than using a clumsy tests suggested a hundred years ago.

. Nevertheless, in the hospital Eysenck appreciated and left to work and after the war, slowly advancing up the career ladder
. At that time he has often been published and was seen not only the scientific community, but also public opinion. The popularity he won easily, exposing the devastating criticism of the then idol of Sigmund Freud (Freud died, and the benefit to answer is nothing he could not). Eysenck fiercely hated it. Approximately so. The same as the Nazis. "Psychotherapy - this is just nonsense - he said .- This came to me sick with sexual frustration, I advised him to see one movie - and all he has passed. Patients with neuroses eventually recover on their own ". He studied the brains of contempt "of the famous quack, who studied the sexual instincts. It reduces psychotherapy, sputter, citing counterexamples, and the public gazed at it with a genuine interest. There is no Oedipus complex! And there are "fiction Viennese professor: No wonder he was awarded the Goethe Prize, was a good writer". In general, Eysenck claimed to be the ruler of the minds, which was Freud. I was already a step away from goal.

Criticism of Freud and his own controversial work earned him a big name. His invited lectures throughout Europe, all the audience packed to overflowing, the audience listens to the arguments the professor about the nature of intelligence. It is understandable - because the topic dealt with each. But the answer to the main question - how to understand, you're smarter than a neighbor or not - does Eysenck. Until that time, until one day while preparing for one of the lectures in Hanover accidentally discovers the work of French psychologist Binet.

And it was so. Eysenck came to the library and randomly ordered several books on psychology. In addition to those that were needed. I was stunned. It turned out that it was Binet in the beginning of XX century was preoccupied with the same problem, and even developed a series of tests to determine the level of intelligence. And many made: in 1904 the French Ministry of Public Education for its recommendations even set up a commission that was supposed to decide how to teach mentally disabled children attending Paris schools. The problem is clear: retarded children need to somehow sort into classes, and for this purpose to assess their mental capabilities. Binet created for this series of tasks, which assessed the level of ingenuity. Eysenck had based the idea of Binet (for each age has its own rate of intellectual development), figured out how to apply it to adults, coined the term intelligence quotient - and made ready for glory. And irrational.

IQ immediately gained popularity. He appeared in offices, offices and homes in 50-ies. Then, as now, everyone was interested to learn how to brain him with relatives, subordinates. He received every conceivable degree, traveled the world giving lectures on the methodology of IQ, has become respectable wealthy man. Leading universities in Europe and the U.S. dutifully stood in line for Professor Eysenck of six months or more. During the lecture he was paid fabulous money, shot the best hotels, providing escort services themselves expensive firms and entertaining at dinners the first state society of persons.

At the stinging questions from the audience like "and you have the most, what a IQN" he ably answered: clearly, high, all this time I thought. His books are available in all languages of the world giant circulation. In the transport everything from students to housewives, credited his hits, wearing the proud name of "multi-dimensionality of personality", "The use and abuse of psychology in it," "The Decline and Fall of the Empire of Freud". And, all without exception think IQ.

Many of the lectures of the great maestro's called scandals. In 1971, after the publication of his article, "Race, intelligence and education" at a public speaking Eysenck threw rotten eggs. For what he has written in black and white: the black IQ is 15 points lower than whites, and this is explained by the peculiarities of the genetic code. Europe and the U.S., rapidly falls into the funnel of political correctness, such overt racism was clearly against the grain. Eysenck called a great provocateur, enfant terrible 70's, despite the fact that he was already an old man. He adored his own to sell their books, imposing seated in the large bookstores on the leather sofa, generously signing autographs and hoarse arguing with customers. It amused him, and very reminiscent discussion clubs of his youth.

Several times he even beat. For example, in the spring of 1973 at the Sorbonne, he barely had time to utter the first sentence of the lecture as the students tore down the chair and rushed at him, shouting: "Racists!" Fascists! " Knocked him off his feet, broke glasses. We Eysenck blood gushed from the nose, called the police, but he has not raised any charges against students. Because reputation freethinker and kicker had not planned on playing ordinary rules. About me, he always said, without false modesty: "When I first began studying psychology, she was completely defective. Now its reputation thanks to my work fully restored ". In preached to them the methods of treatment also had a lot of provocation and denial of the existing stereotypes in the psychology. "I think - he said - that if a child is beating his head against the wall, it is enough to lock him in a room for 10 minutes every time he begins to cut a nonsense. And the disease will be cured ". Mother liked it - after all so they came. And psychologists have raved: in this case it turned out that all their theories - is nonsense. They were especially irritated and caused public scandals at the conferences of his treatment technique disgust. Eysenck prescribed to patients electroshock and psychotropic drugs, causing suffocation. From reluctance to be subjected to torture patients recovered immediately. A strong argument was criticizing a reminder: "His racism and brutality - from the obscure relations with the Nazis Eysenck. On the one hand, he fled from them, on the other - has always expressed ideas similar to them. "

Subside scandals Eysenck did not give a minute. So in the mid 70's he wrote the article, which argued that smoking is absolutely harmless to health and does not provoke the development of cancer (oncologists, just as what seemed to them to prove this fatal relationship, stopped to greet him). "Smoking and lung cancer - wrote Eysenck, - both are symptoms of the same personality disorder may have genetic origin". Seeing such a strong reaction - the joy of smoking, . frenzy doctors, . bewilderment housewives - and feeling a surge of public interest in oncology, . Eysenck wrote another article, . which was immediately translated into many languages and reprinted even glossy magazines,
. "Cancer does not get sick from cigarettes and not a bad life, quite a different matter. Personality type, prone to cancer, characterized by the inability to express emotions, feelings of hopelessness, helplessness and depression, as well as improper reaction to stress. Personality type, prone to coronary heart disease, in most cases is characterized by anger, aggression and hostility ". Debate and criticism was not the end. "You wonder who often recover? - Eysenck asked a rhetorical question in the following article .- The answer is very simple. Patients who want to fight the disease more often recover than those who behave passively. Surprisingly, these brawlers, driving their doctors to white heat, these restless psychopaths survive much more often than people with a decent behavior. Cute people are dying more often.
.
. By the same theme he came back in the 90 years, published a four-year study, funded by U.S. tobacco king Reynolds, who spoke in support of the dispute about the dangers of smoking and the role of personality in the history of their disease
. The study confirmed the hypothesis Eysenck. Scientific world has not accepted his findings, stating that this frame -. Then, Eysenck suggested that an experiment on himself: "I do not know what a rage, depression or fear, here and make conclusions about my predisposed". When he was tested by means of electrodes, revealed that he was calm as a corpse. Reactions absolutely zero. We decided even that equipment malfunctions. Thus, fully confirming their hypothesis on the origin of diseases, Hans Jurgen Eysenck died - September 4, 1997 at the age of 81 from brain cancer.



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