Al-FARABI( Great scientist-philosopher, astronomer, mathematician, physician of the medieval East.)
Comments for Al-FARABI
Abu Nasr Muhammad ibn Muhammad ibn Tarkhan Uzlag ibn al-Farabi Al-Turki was born in Farab on the Syr-Darya River at the confluence of the rivers it Arys in 870 g. He comes from a noble family of Turkic warlord, as is clear from the term "tarkhan".
Swimming Syr-Darya River has played in the history of his region the same role as the Nile to Egypt, the Tigris and Euphrates to Mesopotamia. Later became known as Farab Otrar, the ruins of which are in Otrar district of South Kazakhstan region. On Otrar have information in Chinese sources and in Ptolemy. In IX-X centuries., By contemporaries, it was a major center, an important border and junction of caravan ways of world trade of that time, which contacted the nomadic steppe and the settled population. It is widely known that the destruction of the city by the Mongols in 1218, went down in history as "Otrar catastrophe". Here in February 1405, Mr.. Timur died. But the map of cultural development Otrar noted as the birthplace of a whole galaxy of outstanding scientists, poets, thinkers, among which stands out on the right of Abu Nasr al-Farabi as the value of worldwide.
Major historians of culture and science marked the greatness and uniqueness of the figures Farabi. Astronomy, logic, music theory and mathematics, sociology and ethics, medicine and psychology, philosophy and law - this is the list of his interests. Apparently, even in his younger years Farabi left his native town and visited almost all cities of Islam and the Arab Caliphate, in Bukhara, Merv, Horrane, Alexandria, Cairo, Damascus, Baghdad. Many years of his life he spent in Baghdad, who were the political and cultural center of the Arab Caliphate. Here he adds to his thorough knowledge, . studying the works of figures "Beit al-Hikma", . Translators Greek authors, . comes in contact with prominent scientists and after a certain time has a dominant place among them because of the moral height and power of thought,
. It was here that he was given the title "Muallim Assa" - The second teacher. The title of "second" implies a "first", by which Aristotle had in mind.
And indeed, many of them brings: breadth and diversity of scientific interests, the desire to understand the philosophy of being and man's place in it, close to the "conventional wisdom", to the practical wisdom of everyday people. Farabi made an independent contribution to the science of logic, which first developed the great Greek predecessor. The extraordinary courage and his philosophical outlook was a certain contradiction to public opinion, unable to complete the perception of Greek philosophy and science. A direct attack on some of the prejudices of the era led many people to suspect him of heresy and deviation from religion. In fact, he showed extraordinary independence in their thinking, and consistently defended his beliefs
Envy and hostility forced him to leave Baghdad. The last years of his life he spent in Aleppo and Damascus, using the auspices of Sayf al-Hamdani, Pressure, but preferred to live away from the hustle and bustle of the court, contenting himself a modest salary in four dirhams. In Damascus, at the age of 80 he died and was buried in the so-labeled small gate.
Farabi was truly a man of the world level, he brought them together and synthesized in his works the most valuable achievements of Arab, Persian, Greek, Indian, and his own, Turkish Culture. Echoes of the latter is particularly clearly visible in his famous "Kitab al-music al-Kabir (" Great Book of Music "). But he was not just scholars have brought together different cultural traditions, there lived a genius of science reformer who sought to systematize the knowledge of his time, as reflected in his treatise "The word on the classification of Sciences. Farabi conceived as a reformist pedagogy, which seeks to make knowledge in people's thickness, combine education with the development of humanity in people.
Requirements for Farabi to someone who wants to understand the wisdom, as higher order. "Whoever seeks the origins of science wisdom, you must (with small nails) to be good natured, well mannered, study the Quran and Science of Law in the first place. Be prudent, discreet, conscientious, truthful, revolting vice, corruption, betrayal, lies, tricks. Be free the mind from the interests of food, approaching the fulfillment of the legitimate purposes, without violating the legal framework and support without violating any of the rules of the Sunna and Sharia. Strive to rise in science and (among) scientists, not choosing science for several achievements and acquisitions (not choosing her) means the acquisition of wealth ".
Anyone who has different goals, making the pursuit of knowledge as such to make subordinate to ambition, fame and wealth, changes the very essence of philosophy. That is, T. e. betrayal of reason and creative human - the worst vice, since it considers Farabi, or corrupts the soul of the individual, the spirit of profiteering and sell it, but the whole of society - from top to bottom. The historical experience of totalitarianism, demonstrated the deep truth of these reflections Teachers. Dullness and mediocrity in XX. established itself as a power only through the physical destruction of self-thinking individuals. To prolong and legitimize his power it needs to be obsequious sales intellectuals. Indeed, because we were mowed every 10 years under the root of creative and critical intellectuals. So the thinking layer formed obsequiously, . still referred to as the intelligentsia, . but devoid of any sense of dignity, . that its trepotney and anathema to the fact, . what she worshiped only yesterday, . is nauseating sensation,
. "City" will then become virtuous, . Farabi argued over a thousand years ago, . when it will occupy pride of place of science and art, . when thinking people not only retain their honor and dignity, . but his example and influence on the souls of fellow citizens, . as rulers, . and subjects, . make universal norm striving for excellence,
. Giving priority to knowledge among the political philosophy and ethics, . because through them to achieve true happiness, . delimitation of the last of the imaginary, . false happiness, . Farabi contrasts the virtuous city ignorant and errant city, . truly virtuous man to, . who live low values and lives in a lie, . slander and arrogance,
. His reflections on the path to happiness and a life of dignity, . human nature, . the intellectual and ethical perfection, . the ideal ruler, . developed by a "Quote of the statesman", . "Civil Affairs", . in the book "On achieving happiness" still require further study,
. Freedom of the spirit in the statement of enduring human values, creativity permeates Farabi, very instructive and relevant. Happiness is - an absolute benefit. There is, says Farabi, a lot of things that people believed that they which are the basis and purpose of life. Most often it's a pleasant, useful, money, fame, etc.. But to understand what happiness is, to make it to steer a steady course and could not be improved without a sound theoretical part of the soul. Ability to do so - wise. The majority of people susceptible to the representation of happiness images imagination. Religion is just and there are different ways of representing images of happiness in the imagination, though all nations and all people believe in one and the same happiness.
Manuscripts Farabi scattered in many libraries in the world. Just as many units of scientists are studying the heritage Farabi. His contribution to farabievedenie make our scientists, have taken steps to publish the works of Farabi Kazakh and Russian languages and the study of various aspects of his truly encyclopedic Heritage. In 1975. a broad international scale in Moscow, Almaty and Baghdad celebrates the 1100 anniversary of the birth of Abu Nasr. Name Farabi called the Pedagogical Institute in g. Shymkent, head University of the Republic, one of the avenues in g. Almaty. In 1991. the initiative of the rector of ASU. Abaya Professor T. S. Sadykov farabievskie conducted the first reading in Almaty and Shymkent, in the framework of Kazakh-American cultural workshop in connection with the legacy of Farabi discussed the problems of cultural interaction.
December 9-10, 1994. in the walls of the Kazakh State National University named after al-Farabi Kazakh National University held an international scientific-theoretical conference of Al-Farabi in the development of culture and science of the East ".