Balasagun Yusuf( The renowned poet, philosopher of the Middle Ages.)
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Biography Balasagun Yusuf
(genus. ~ 1015-1016 gg)
Information on the life of the author of the poem "Kutadgu Bilig" can be primarily drawn from a few fragments, scattered in the poem and the two prefaces to his works, of which one - in prose, and more - in verse.
According to reports, Yusuf was born in Balasagun, known under the name of Kuz-Orda, the location of which has not been established with reasonable certainty. Presumably this city to be found in the Seven Rivers, in the Chui valley, near the modern town of Tokmak.
Balasagun was one of the largest cities, major trade and craft center of the state Karakhanid. It was a ethnogenetical fabrications in terms of consolidation of a number of Turkic tribes, the rise in the early tenth century., And lasted for three centuries. Socio-economic basis Kaganate was specific compound of the nomadic and sedentary farming.
Yusuf Balasaguni came from a certain cultural and political zones of the region, covering a time Otrar (Farab), Shash (Tashkent), Taraz, Chu valley, Issyk-Kul region, Fergana, Kashgar. In kulturnoyazykovom against it - the common ancestor of Turkic peoples, geographically - is close to the Kazakhs and Kyrgyz, specifically - to the Turkic tribe chigile
. Education Yusuf Balasaguni was recognized in the cultural centers of that time - Farabi, Kashgar, Bukhara
. Perfectly owning Arabic and Persian, he worked for philosophical and scientific works on various branches of knowledge. The secular people of that time differed multilateral interests, carried away along with philosophy and science, poetry and politics, playing chess. Shirokoobrazovanny, and possessing a life experience, he arrived in Kashgar, and here within eighteen months of hard work has written great poetry. According to the Turkish philosopher R. Arata, to the author by the end of the poem was about 54 years. If you believe this, then Balasaguni Yusuf was born in the years 1015-1016. According to another researcher Turkic poetry A. Dilachara date of birth is determined by the 1018 g. His famous work he has devoted Tabgach-Bogra-Kara-Hakan Ali Hassan dynasty Karakhanids, for which the poet was granted the title of Hass-Hajib - "Minister of the Court" or "chief chamberlain".
Poem "Kutadgu Bilik became known to the Western world through the Austrian Orientalist von Hammer-Purgstall, in whose hands the manuscript came in 1796, Mr.. in Istanbul and was donated to the library of the Vienna. First edition in German was carried out well-known Orientalist G. Vambery. In scientific circulation the text of the poem was put into full VV. Radlov in 1891-1900 gg., Submitted along with the original translation into German. In the Russian language excerpts from the poem for the first time translated S.E. Malov. Free translation, entitled "Science to be happy" was implemented N. ridge in 1971, K. Kerimov translated "Kutadgu Bilig" the Uzbek language in 1896. R. Arat spent a lot of work to think critically about the texts of all three manuscripts (Vienna, Cairo, Namangan) and introduced in 1947. scientifically credible body of the poem. Under the name of "virtuous knowledge of the" full text "Kutadgu Bilig" translated into Russian by SN Ivanov (Moscow, 1983). The publication was at the academic level ed. Acad. AN. Kononov and his own, and SN Ivanov "Articles and explanations about certain bayts".
In 1970. held in Leningrad IV Turkological conference dedicated to "Kutadgu Bilik, which indicated the need to expand and deepen the study of this monument. In 1986. A. Egeubaev presented Yusuf in the Kazakh language.
One of the first attempts to consider the creation Balasaguni in the context of the extensive and cultural region, initially associated with the formation of the Caliphate belongs to the German scientist Otto Alberts. He advanced the concept of the existence of continuity between the teachings of Ibn Sina, in particular, its ethics and similar views Yusuf Balasaguni. Moreover, Alberts attempted to compare the ethical theories of Aristotle and Yusuf
. Study of creativity Balasaguni, . era creation of his work was successfully continued by the outstanding Russian orientalist VV Bartold, . and SEMalov, . known Soviet historians and literary critics EE Bertel, . AN Samoilovich, . AN Kononov, etc.,
Modern science has, therefore, has a certain amount of research on creativity Balasaguni. However, . It should be noted, . that scientific interest in the product of a thinker was manifested mainly in the historical-philological terms, . but emphasized, . that "the significance of this monument in the linguistic, . literary, . historical and cultural-historical relations is very large, . and therefore it is imperative to ensure the expansion and deepening of his study ",
. Job Yusuf Balasaguni "Kutadgu Bilik is the first encyclopedic work is not on the official literary language, . What is the Arabic language at the time, . but on the native language of Turks, . in itself very significant, . that attests to his patriotism and love for the mother tongue,
. At the same time, it was directed by political motives, the desire to teach the Central Asian dynasty Karakhanid still not divorced from the nomadic environment, govern the country with highly settled areas, areas (Maveranahr, East Turkestan). And to his edification were understood and nomadic Karahanids must be written in Turkic. But "Kutadgu Bilik" not only a political treatise, . it is the sum of knowledge on various fields of science and culture of his era, . it was collected and compiled the material with the philosophical reflection attitudes of the author, . particularly, . consider the philosophical problems of meaning in life, . the predestination, . its place and role in social and natural universe,
. Product Balasaguni is an extensive system, which nominated as a problem of general philosophical nature and of practical, ethical and aesthetic plan. The desire for encyclopedic, universality, comprehensiveness obschemivozzrencheskih problem was inherent in the nature of philosophizing in the cultural area, which belonged to Yusuf. Worldview Yusuf has threefold roots - philosophical, shamanistic, Islamic.
Yusuf fits into the overall process of the Renaissance and the East, in particular, quite clearly in his art prints eastern philosophy peripatetizma. This is a strong cultural and philosophical tradition that runs from Aristotle and the extended al-Farabi and Ibn Sina. Her influence on the author of "Kutadgu Bilig" first noted by German orientalist O. Alberts. The ideological paradigm Middle East is not limited to the mental activities of professional philosophers. She also presented an intermediate "unprofessional" philosophical works of poets such as Rudaki, Ferdowsi, Yusuf Balasaguni, Omar Khayyam, Nezami, Navoi, Nasimi. But the way the existence of the poetry of this time has the characteristics and features: on the one hand, . in the works of poets dominated pronounced rationalism of creative thinking, . the other - rationalism, . dressed in a symbolic veil Sufism,
. Complication of poetic forms, images, methods did not alter the substantive content of poetry aimed at the realities of life, the search for realization of humanistic principles of truth, goodness, happiness. In essence, the poetry of the Middle Ages was developing the most obschemirovozzrencheskih, moral and social problems, and that philosophy. And many of the poems can be attributed to the product of philosophical genre and therefore they can and should be included in the process of historical and philosophical development.
Literature and poetry, along with the philosophy to carry out certain ideological and value function. Expression of philosophy through poetry was the most ancient and enduring tradition of ideological development. The greatest poets of the medieval East can safely be attributed to the representatives of philosophical thought, and not treat them as pure literary.
The second layer defining ideology Yusuf Balasaguni are heterogeneous pre-Islamic beliefs - Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism, Buddhism, Christianity, common among the nomadic and sedentary peoples to the penetration of Islam. Among these beliefs nabolee strong source, making it into the context of "Kutadgu Bilig" are pagan, shamanistic submission
. Shamanistic, . proper Turkic origins of creativity Yusuf Balasaguni can discover the ancient pre-Islamic Zoroastrian or Tengrian, . on behalf of the chief deity, . ideological beliefs stratum, . which, . despite Islamic, . royal, . Soviet persecution still alive in the language and the consciousness of Kazakhs,
. A. Kononov and S. Ivanov consider "Muslim element of the" dominant in the philosophical foundations of the poem: "Poem" virtuous knowledge "Yusuf Balasagunskogo is the first, . the oldest and still the only writing on one of the Turkic languages, . based on Islamic ideology and propagate this ideology,
. But Yusuf's not just ideology, politics, he - the artist words. Therefore philosophy, . Paganism, . Islam could have an impact in the context of "Kutadgu Bilig", . in addition to the poetic tradition, . among which were mostly of a Turkic poetic tradition (oral and written) and the Tajik-Persian (specifically Rudaki and Ferdowsi),
. Holistic, . including philosophical reading of poetry Balasaguni, . in turn, . will contribute to deciphering, . penetration into the complex inner world of the medieval poet-philosopher, . opening its deep layers, . interest and the wider public,
. Inclusion of "Kutadgu Bilik" in the field of historical and cultural analysis will contribute to further development of the history of social thought, artistic traditions of the Turkic peoples in a medieval period of development.
Significance and relevance of the introduction of traffic "Kutadgu Bilig" Yusuf Balasaguni clearly emerges in terms of a comprehensive study of a multidimensional process of culture. The scientific use, study, interpretation of works Balasaguni in historical and philosophical slice fills our Repose of the mental content, intellectual life and the connection of the East during the Middle Ages.
|Farang for Balasagun Yusuf
|Albert Dayton for Balasagun Yusuf
|He is a state philosopher. My homework for philosophy. An Aristotelian i think.