Bruno Giordano (Giordano Bruno( Scientific)
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Biography Bruno Giordano (Giordano Bruno
(Jan. (N) 1548 - 17/02/1600)
's Over 400 years since the burning of the outstanding scientist Giordano Bruno. Contemporaries, his death made no less impression than the ideas he put forward. Even today the name of Giordano Bruno knows literally everything, even though he is remembered just as a victim of the Inquisition. Coherently tell, what is the scientific novelty of the views of Bruno, now few people can.
Unfortunately, because of this arose a hefty distortions in the understanding of not only the fate of the scientist, but also of medieval life in general. Endless repetitions in encyclopedias and textbooks, . that Bruno, Copernicus developed cosmogony, . defended the concept of the infinity of the universe "and was" accused of heresy and burned by the Inquisition in Rome ", . generated steady opinion, . if the scientist is executed for expressing his or her ideas,
. There was the image of helpless genius against the background of inert, evil clerics. Meanwhile, the church at the time Bruno was not a persecutor of science and scientists did not forbid anyone think, even developing the ideas of Copernicus.
. Book of Nicolaus Copernicus "On the rotation of the celestial sphere", published in 1543, the year of the scientist's death, was banned by the Catholic Church only in 1616
. Copernicus did not conceal his work and did not consider it contrary to the basics of faith. Moreover, in 1542, Mr.. in a letter to Pope Paul III he wrote that publishes a book at the request of his friends: Cardinal Nicholas Schonberg and Bishop Tidemanna Giza, asked about the publication and many other distinguished and learned men ". In the preface "To the reader. On assumptions, . underlying this book, "its editor theologian Andreas Osiander presents the heliocentric system of the world only as a kind of method for calculating the apparent motion of celestial bodies, . has the same right to exist, . as the geocentric system of the universe of Claudius Ptolemy.,
. Giordano Bruno, inspired by the ideas of Copernicus, was to promote the idea of the infinity of the universe and the infinite number of inhabited worlds
. Medieval scholastics easily refuted his postulate: there can be an infinite number of worlds, if God is one, and his son one. And Bruno ridiculed this argument, commenting is not about the structure of the physical universe, and of the error of the foundations of faith.
But even after the burning of Bruno basic cosmogonic ideas of Copernicus and his followers were not prohibited. But the intrigue between the French and Spanish parties for influence over the papacy the Holy Inquisition initiated a review of two issues: whether the world still in the center of the Sun and rotates it around the Earth. A positive answer to the first question was considered heretical, and the second - a mistake. So after 73 years after the death of Copernicus and 16 years after the burning of Bruno their ideas were rejected by the church.
Filippo Bruno was born in 1548, Mr.. in Nola near Naples. At age 11 he was taken to Naples to study literature, logic, dialectics. At age 15 he entered the local monastery of St.. Domenico, where he continued training. Here he took a priest and then the name that has become known - Giordano. However, the strengthening exercises developed in him a critical attitude towards the dogmas of the church and scholasticism.
Giordano Bruno - philosopher, poet and satirist, pamphleteer - under the influence of the works of Copernicus very peculiar perceived theology. Especially enjoyed the dislike he has found the church teachings of Aristotle. His remarks he embarrassed fellow monks, and the authorities had to initiate an investigation into his activities. Without waiting for the results, Bruno fled to Rome, but, considering this is not a safe place, moved to the north of Italy. Here he began to earn a living teaching, not staying long in one place.
In Geneva, who criticized the Calvinists (who struggles not only with Catholics) went to prison. On his release in 1579, Mr.. moved to France. Here Bruno noticed the English King Henry III, who was present at his public lecture, and the scientist was invited to England.
. At first, 35-year-old philosopher, lived in London, then at Oxford, but after falling out with local professors again moved to London, where he published several works, among which one of the most important - on the infinity of the universe and the worlds "(1584)
. Despite the patronage of the supreme authority of England, two years later he had actually run away to France, then in Germany.
Bruno has an amazing talent to amass enemies. Here's how, . example, . He introduced himself as the Rector, . doctors and professors at Oxford University: "I, . Fil (friend of God) Jordan Bruno Nolansky, . Doctor of the most profound theology, . professor of pure and harmless wisdom, . known in the major academies of Europe, . recognized and accepted with honor philosopher, . only foreigner among the barbarians, and dishonest people, . probuditel sleeping souls, . smiritel proud and kick ignorance, all I preach total philanthropy,
. I hate stupidity, and distributors like honest scientists.
He refused any tradition which did not conceive of his mind, and openly declared arguing with him that they were fools and imbeciles. He considered himself a citizen of the world, the son of the Sun and Earth, an academician of the Academy without. The basis of his teaching was of the infinity of the universe, and he sent down the sun to the role of an ordinary star. In his cosmology, denied the opposition between Heaven and Earth. He said that the same laws operate in all corners of the universe. Suggested on the habitability of other worlds.
After one of the debates in Oxford, said: "... a constellation of pedants, who by their ignorance, arrogance and rudeness would put himself out of patience of Job". (One of the most long-suffering heroes of Scripture.)
In 1591, Mr.. Bruno accepted an invitation to work on the Venetian magnate Giovanni Mocenigo, . but very soon they fell out, . so much so, . the former benefactor personally handed Giordano Venetian Inquisition, . accompanied by the corresponding, denunciation,
. Local inquisitors were unable to persuade Bruno in relation to God, and in 1593, Mr.. gave the Roman counterparts.
Ten years have tried to persuade him to repent and then tried. Moreover, according to eyewitnesses, the judges were surprised and dismayed their own verdict is stronger than the defendant, received it with complete indifference. Perhaps one of the judges thought that the whole conclave of clemency to the great thinker, and he alone will show its principled.
. February 17, 1600 Giordano Bruno as not repentant heretic burned at the Campo dei Fiori (Flower Square) in Rome.