Butlerov Aleksadr Mikhailovich( organic chemist, the founder of scientific school of chemists.)
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Biography Butlerov Aleksadr Mikhailovich
(1828 - August 5, 1886)
Organic chemist, the founder of scientific school of chemists. Created (1861) and substantiated the theory of chemical structure, under which properties of substances determined by the type Atamov bonds in molecules and their mutual influence.
. Alexander Butlerov was born in September 1828 in the Tchistopol former Kazan province
. In 1844 he entered the Kazan University. For studies chemistry Butlerova drew Nikolai Nikolaevich Zinin, who taught a course of organic chemistry, and under whose leadership carried out practical exercises in the laboratory. Soon Zinin moved to St. Petersburg, and beginner scientist remained without a leader.
Russian organic chemist Vladimir Vasilevich Markovnikov, wrote that "during the entire decade Butlerov at first was left to himself in the University of the East, far from invigorating relations with other scientists". Apparently, complete freedom and the absence of the overwhelming influence of authorities have created favorable conditions for shaping the future of a talented chemist. Results were not long in coming.
. In 1851 Butlerov defended in Kazan University master's thesis "On the oxidation of organic compounds, and in 1854 had at Moscow University - doctoral thesis" On the essential oils "
. Four years later, young Butlerov addressed a meeting of the Paris Chemical Society in a paper "On the constitution of bodies in general, which was greeted with great interest and attracted the attention of the scientific community.
. In the sixties of the XIX century Butlerov worked in the chemical laboratory of the Kazan University
. These years were marked by brilliant synthetic work of the scientist. He received methenamine C6H12N4 polymer formaldehyde HC (O) H and ammonia NH3, the first time singled out "metilenitan - sweetener composition C6H12O6. According to the German chemist Emil Fischer "Among all artificial saharoobraznyh products, which are reported to the literature in 1887, only one has stood the test of time. This is a sugar syrup, obtained a. M. Butlerova.
Of great importance Butlerov theory of chemical structure. September 19, 1861 Alexander was made by the 36 th Congress of the German doctors and scientists in the city of Speyer with the report "On the chemical structure of matter". Butler, that "the chemical nature of the particle is determined by a complex kind of elementary components, the number of their chemical structure and. Each chemical atom, which is part of the body, takes part in the formation of the latter and here a certain number of works belonging to him chemical force (affinity).
In the 1862/63 academic year, students at Kazan University, first heard of Alexander's lecture, that "in terms of chemical structure for each body can have only one rational formula expressing this structure. From the chemical structure depend on the reaction, therefore, knowing this relationship, and expressing the structure of the formula, we thank all those transformations, which the substance may be subjected ". Subsequently, the material of these lectures formed the basis of the book "Introduction to the complete study of organic chemistry". On the basis of his theory of chemical structure Butlerova could be explained theoretically and confirmed experimentally by the phenomenon of isomerism, and for hydrocarbons and alcohols - predict new types of isomerism.
. In 1868, on presentation of Mendeleev, Butlerov was elected to the chair of organic chemistry at St. Petersburg University, where he worked until 1885
. Mendeleev later wrote: "Alexander Butlerov - one of the most remarkable Russian scientists. He and Russian scientist on education, and the originality of their works. Pupil of the famous academician Zinin, he became a chemist, not in foreign lands, and in Kazan:. Six years Butlerov was elected an academician of the Petersburg Academy of Sciences.
Alexander died in 1868, not having lived a few days before his pyatidesyativosmiletiya.