Mikhail BAKUNIN( The philosopher, revolutionary, ideologist of anarchism)
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Biography Mikhail BAKUNIN
18/30.5.1814 - 19.6/1.7.1876
"Freedom without socialism - it privelegtya, socialism without freedom - it is slavery and animal state"
Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin was born May 18, 1814, Mr.. village Premuhino Novotorzhokskogo County Tver province, in the family of the hereditary aristocrat, where in addition he had four sisters and five brothers. Thanks to the efforts of his father, Aleksandr Mikhailovich Bakunin's Rights, the European-educated, experienced the influence of the ideas of Rousseau, the child's personality formed in an atmosphere of refined tastes, art, literature, love, in communion with nature. Michael painted pictures and playing music
Fifteen years old, he became a cadet Petersburg Artillery School, and manners which were a direct opposite of "premuhinskoy harmony". "... I used to lie - lamented M. Bakunin in one of the letters - because a clever lie cadet in our society, not only was not considered a vice, but everyone agrees ". Three years later he was promoted to ensign. However, with the first officer's course Bakunin expelled for negligence and audacity, in respect of the Chief of the school, he was sent to serve in the army, but a year later, he was ill, has resigned. Mikhail decided to devote himself
Since 1836, Mr.. M. A. Bakunin lived in Moscow, periodically visiting the parent's estate and St. Petersburg. Meets and often approaches with many well-known members of Russia's intelligentsia. He - one of the main advocates of the philosophical circles of H. V. Stankevich, entree into the famous literary salon E. G. Levashov, in which there were a. S. Pushkin and P. YA. Chaadaev. Is close, though nebezoblachnye, relations with in. G. Belinsky in. P. Botkin, M. N. Katkov, T. N. Granovsky ... In 1839-40 he. meets A. I. Herzen H. P. Ogarev.
With all the passion is given to M. A. Bakunin study of German classical philosophy, read in the original, Kant, Fichte, and, finally, Hegel. Then, in Russian intellectual circles has been much controversy surrounding the famous philosopher of this "everything real is rational, every rational is real". Bakunin interprets this formula in the conservative spirit. "Reconciliation with the reality in all respects and in all spheres of life - he wrote in 1838, Mr.. pages edited in. G. Belinsky magazine columnist Moscow "- is the great challenge of our time."
Nothing seemed to foretell the future metamorphosis in the minds of M. A. Bakunin. Is that the "sick of nature" connects young Michel, "reconcile with reality, with the future theorist and activist" social liquidation. "
Here are a private response that gave Bakunin in. G. Belinsky in 1838: "Always acknowledge and now I recognize in you the lion's noble nature, . spirit of the mighty and deep, . unusual movement of the spirit, . excellent gifts, . endless feelings, . great minds, . but at the same time recognize and acknowledge the monstrous vanity, . shallowness in relation to a Friend, . childishness, . sloth, . lack of intimacy and tenderness, . high opinion of himself about the other, . desire to conquer, . rule, . Hunt to speak to others the truth and an aversion to listen to it from others.,
. By early 1840, Mr.
. Bakunin was finally confirmed in the idea to go to Europe, Germany. The main reason - indestructible and unmet need for knowledge of life and action ". Besides chronic quarrels were with close friends. The last scene was played out in a dirty apartment Belinsky, in the presence of many, and ended with a challenge to a duel Katkov Bakunin (although, at first postponed at the request of the initiator, and then did not take place). "Scoundrel" - as rated by the moral qualities of his new acquaintance H. P. Ogarev.
October 4, 1840, Mr.. the pier in Kronstadt Bakunin followed only a. I. Herzen, gave him (his father is denied) 2000 rubles indefinite loan.
Abroad tough time for Bakunin to the limit. Starting with immersion only, . almost to madness "in German philosophy and familiar" contempt "for Political Affairs, . he was on the second year of his life in Berlin saw the "nothingness and vanity of all metaphysics" and "rushed into politics",
. Incredibly rapidly expanding circle of acquaintances and friendship ties: A leader of the Left Hegelians. Ruge, a poet-democrat T. Herwegh, preacher utopian communism in. Weitling, composer P. Wagner, the French Socialists P. Leroux, L. Blanc, P. ZH. Proudhon Communist Z. Kaba, figures of the Polish liberation movement, and. Mickiewicz ... Dozens, hundreds of names. Among them - Karl Marx, the future ideological and political opponent, and while calling Bakunin sincere respect and reverence. Their names were close for the first time in 1844. - The famous collection of German-French Yearbooks "open letters of Marx, Feuerbach, Ruge, and Bakunin.
. Bold attempt at writing Bakunin, a political writer - his article "The reaction in Germany" and "Communism", published respectively in 1842 and 1843
. The first one contains the famous phrase: "The passion for destruction is also the creativity and passion". These words become the motto of the practical value of Bakunin many years later. Then he had no more nor anarchist, nor any of its other programs, although his views have apparently acquired a revolutionary-democratic character. Rejecting the "communist" society, . "dispensation of the plan Weitling" ( "This is not a free society, . not really a living community of people, . and intolerable abuse, . Violence cohesive herd animals, . pursue their material goals, and know nothing about the spiritual side of life and delivered her great happiness "), . Bakunin argued, . that the basis of "true communism" lie "the sacred rights and humanity demands", . that "communism does not come from the theory, . but from the practical instinct, . from the national instinct, . and the latter is never wrong ",
. He is confident that Europe is "on the eve of the great world-historic revolution," that the poor and oppressed masses to overthrow the existing socio-political system and implement the slogans of the French Revolution - liberty, equality and fraternity. "
. In 1843, Mr.
. begin the persecution of Bakunin by the official authorities, instigated by the king's diplomats. He was forced to change their place of residence, country. In January, 1845. Bakunin from the newspapers learned of the decree of the Russian government deprives him of all rights and sentenced him in absentia to hard labor in Siberia. The legal way to Russia were cut off. Bakunin finally becomes a political emigrant and included in the political struggle.
. "In my nature has always been a fundamental disadvantage - a love for science fiction, the extraordinary, unheard-of adventures, to businesses, opening limitless horizon and which can not foresee the end"
. - Wrote M. Bakunin in 1851
In February 1848. French revolution broke out, soon embraced a number of countries in continental Europe. Bakunin in a hurry in Paris. Later he describes this "month of spiritual drunkenness:" I get up at five, . at four o'clock in the morning, . and went to bed at two, was a whole day on your feet, . participated strongly in all meetings, . cometh, . clubs, . Processions, . Walks, . demonstrations in a word, . inhaled the all the senses, . every pore ravishing revolutionary atmosphere ",
. Particularly active preaching Bakunin its communist, egalitarian and revolutionary ideas in the barracks of the Montagnards.
. Caussidiere, Prefect of Paris in 1848, about Bakunin: "What a man!" What a man! "The first day of the revolution is just a treasure, and the next day must be shot."
. In late March, Bakunin, having two passports in his pocket, and 2000 francs from the provisional government of France, had already walked closer to Russia's borders, where I expected to find support among the Polish democracy in the "rebellion" against the Emperor Nicholas
. Thence to Prague on Slavic Congress, where he preached a plan to create a free Slav federation. Participated as a volunteer in the Prague uprising (June 1848) ended, however, defeat. In the spring of next year, he conspired in the hope of revenge, but the government arrests anticipate speech in Prague. In early May, 1848. Bakunin - one of the leaders of the uprising in Dresden. May 10, after the retreat of the rebels from the city, he was arrested.
Bakunin was not afraid of death, with nearly inevitable that already accustomed, but the wages dominant reaction was more sophisticated. First, in January 1850, the court sentenced him in Saxony, along with two comrades to death. Six months later was declared a royal pardon: guillotine replaced by life imprisonment. Bakunin ... passed into the hands of the Austrian justice. In May 1851. Austrian court sentenced him to death by hanging, which was again changed to life imprisonment. IV.. Several days later transferred to the Russian authorities, Bakunin was already in solitary confinement Alekseevskogo Ravelin Peter and Paul Fortress. In 1854, Mr.. He was transferred to Schlusselburg fortress, where he stayed until 1857, when the new emperor, Alexander II, found it possible to send, it seemed, finally broken the criminal to Siberia.
. From the period of serfdom captivity were two interesting document, . from which Bakunin to the end of life, . apparently, . was uncomfortable, . - His repentance "Confession", . addressed to the "sinner" to Nicholas I in 1851, . and a letter to Alexander II on 14 February 1857, . response to which was the release of "praying the offender" from the fortress,
. These documents, found in the archives of the Third Section after the Revolution and published, caused shock among fans of Bakunin.
. Once in the relative freedom, Bakunin was not going to "prepare for death with dignity", as he is assured of Alexander II
. In 1858, the first letter to Herzen in London, he wrote: "I'm alive, I'm healthy, I'm strong, I'm getting married, I love you and remember, and you, like myself, I remain always faithful". These words all - the truth. He really soon married the daughter who lived next door in Tomsk impoverished nobleman Kwiatkowski - 17-year-old Antonina pretty Ksaverevne. In autumn 1861,. Bakunin makes a daring escape through the Eastern Siberia, Japan and America in London, in the embrace of Herzen and Ogarev. Old friends immediately took him into the publishers of The Bells.
Not having time to really look around yet, Bakunin, in the words of Herzen, "washed down its revolutionary booze". His energy is stimulated by the news of the emergence in Russia of secret society "Land and Freedom" and the impending uprising in Poland.
. Herzen, Bakunin Ogarev were united in their attitude to the issue: the independence of Poland is necessary for the liberation of Russia itself
. At any time, "Bell" is a link between the Russian and Polish revolutionary forces. Publishers are in talks with representatives of those and others, but the weakness of the first and second nationalism keen Gentry did not give grounds for optimism.
. Bakunin is not limited to printed propaganda, as well as the role of foreign representative "Land and Freedom"
. Since the beginning of the Polish uprising (January 1863) he goes to Sweden, where sorganizovyvaet campaign of solidarity with the Poles. After participating in the maritime expeditions of England will deliver weapons to the rebels. Finally, when the sad outcome was already clear, Bakunin seeking help Polish and Common Slavonic case in Italy, trying to persuade the legendary hero Giuseppe Garibaldi to participate in the Polish revolt. Having a friendly Bakunin, Garibaldi, had not yet recovered from his wounds, rejected the proposal, citing the reluctance of Polish leaders themselves.
. On the way back Bakunin (Mikhail Alexandrovich was accompanied by his wife, who arrived from Russia in 1862) decided to temporarily settle in Florence
. Here, among others, was an acquaintance with the Russian artist N. N. Gay - author of one of the most famous portraits M. A. Bakunin. From the memoirs of the artist: "... He gave the impression of a great ship without masts, without a rudder, flying in the wind, not knowing where and why.
In November 1864. This "ship" met in London, after years of interruption, with Karl Marx, who the day before with his comrades laid the foundation of the International Workingmen's Association - I International. In an interview made to Marx, Bakunin was very impressed, in particular, his opinions on European politics and readily agreed to take over the promotion of policy documents of the International in Italy.
. Was sincere, Bakunin and Marx in this meeting or not, is difficult to judge
. However, we know that soon he began creating his "international revolutionary socialist secret society". The essence of Bakunin's project, . developed in the manuscripts of "The International Secret Society of the liberation of humanity" and "Revolutionary Catechism", . was limited to the organization of large-scale conspiracy for world revolution, . during which they would be destroyed by modern states and in their place, there would be a free federation of peoples, . emerging from the bottom up,
. Paradoxically, . but to implement the ideas of freedom and the destruction of all the various authorities Bakunin proposed the creation of a strictly centralized, . disciplined and highly credible revolutionary organization, . whose activities are shrouded in mystery.,
. It is the latter and studied Bakunin during 1865-1867 years
. He campaigned tirelessly, recruits its supporters, takes an oath of them, takes the "internationalist brethren", gives orders, wrote letters. He is trying to promote their ideas, even among the liberals of the League for Peace and Freedom. In the end, the fall of 1868. created under the leadership of Bakunin's "Alliance of Socialist Democracy" small but very energetic polutaynaya organization had its own section in Switzerland, Spain, Italy and France.
. Entitlement to a significant and independent role in the European revolutionary movement, which dominated the Marxist International Workingmen's Association, Alliance, of course, could not
. Hence the idea to use it to subdue the inside of the International. After several failures, then the statement about the dissolution of the Alliance, Bakunin managed in the summer of 1869. transplanting this organization in the structure of the International and significantly strengthened its Geneva section.
. In the autumn, with a collision at the IV Congress of the ICTR on the right of inheritance (in Bakunin's concept of the abolition of the law is elevated to a cure), fighting erupted between the supporters of Marx and Bakunists
. The tone and content of mutual recriminations and accusations quickly went beyond the permissible. In particular, Marxists reanimated the old slander, that Bakunin was allegedly an agent of the Russian government, in any case Panslavists, "Russian patriot" and t. n. October 28, 1869, Mr.. Bakunin: Herzen shares with his innermost thoughts: an open revolt against Marx late (in this case, "three-quarters of internationalization. world would be against me "), but in the future will clash on the issue of principle concerning the state of communism", and "then we will fight a life and death.
. Certainly, the defeat of anarchism in a collision with Marxism was predetermined by the logic of social development
. Here, however, played an important role of carriers of these ideas. Bakunin himself gave a major trump card in the hands of their opponents. Experienced conspirator and politician, he was the victim of a hoax on the part of an adventurer, revolutionary fanatic without honor or conscience Sergei Nechaev, who declared in Geneva in spring 1869. Acquainted with Nechaev, after listening to his stories about the "affairs" in Russia, Bakunin was delighted with this "hero without the phrases". Although Nechayev this time there were virtually no, . Besides taking part in student rallies and protests, . Bakunin, . and then Ogarev believe (because wanted to believe) in the existence of the homeland powerful revolutionary organization, . the existence of which until now had no idea.,
. Bakunin recklessly gambled on Nechaev, who was already mentally represented the Russian branch of his organization
. In fact, he was nothing more than a tool in the hands of the beloved "cub". From Bakunin and Nechaev will receive its help to the autumn (when he returns to Russia and create their infamous "People's massacre") all: authority in the eyes of Russian radical youth paper on his belonging to a "revolutionary European Union" under the signature of M,
. Bakunin, money from the hitherto untouchable fund and, finally, advocacy support and software. Bakunin and Nechaev Ogarev been published (some anonymous), flyers, brochures, articles, calling for an immediate revolution, the movement of people, in the Rogue world ", to organize the riots and t. d. Thus Bakunin and Ogarev, . seems, . not bother withdrawing from the pen of Nechaev, . Although not see a serious contradiction between their views and Nechayev apology indiscriminate terror, . idea of the admissibility of any conceivable means to achieve revolutionary goals and, . Finally, . describing the barracks as the ideal of "communism", . it was simply impossible.,
. Subsequently, experienced the full monstrous Nechaeva receptions and receiving information from denouncing the revolutionary G
. A. Lopatin, Bakunin would call themselves "stupid" and "idiot". In the summer of 1871, . when newspapers published detailed reports open trial Nechayevists (both victims of deception and bloody criminals, . murderers had doubts about his friend), . to determine the head of "People's massacre" Bakunin found only one word - "bastard",
. But it was too late.
In chrede downright fatal crashes of revolutionary ideas and enterprises, which formed the life of Bakunin, the most devastating was the expulsion in disgrace from the International in September 1872. After the leaders of the General Council to understand the true intentions of Bakunin's "Alliance" and the fight against it became a matter of life and death of the International, the supporters of Marx is no longer hesitate in choosing the means. At the Hague Congress of reported and then published compromising material matter Nechayeva was associated with the activities of the Alliance "and Nechayev scriptures wrongly attributed to Bakunin. All this had its results.
Receiving blow after blow, Bakunin Yet almost until his death did not lay down arms. Periods of frustration and loss of faith in the revolutionary people inevitably alternated flashes of inspiration and the regular amusement facilities. In September 1870. Bakunin - one of the leaders of the Committee of Public Safety in revolutionary Lyon. He warmly welcomed the Paris Commune as a "workers' revolution" and "clearly expressed rejection of the state". In 1873 and 1874. his followers tried to provoke a revolutionary uprisings in Spain and Italy, F. Engels, in this regard, rightly observed: "... Bakuninists gave us in Spain inimitable example of how NOT to make a revolution."
Revolutionary anarchist-socialist concept was outlined Bakunin still in 1868. "Our Program", . published in the pages of Russian emigre newspaper, . clearly articulate the problem of mental liberation (the spread among the people of atheism and materialism), . socio-economic (transfer of production of agricultural communities and workers' associations) and political (revolutionary replacement of statehood free federation of free workers as agricultural, . and the factory and handicraft collectives "),
. It was also "the complete determination of all peoples oppressed by the empire now, with the right to complete samorasporyazheniya."
In 1870, Mr.. in a lengthy letter to C. G. Nechayev, . reappeared abroad, . Bakunin explained his fantastic project "collective dictatorship of the secret organization", . "invisible and unrecognized", . which, through its members will be first through the promotion and consolidation of popular forces prepare for an offensive revolution, . then - the destruction of existing economic, . social and political order and, . Finally - the most difficult, . - It will make "it impossible to establish any kind of state power was the people",
. With a strictly hierarchic structure, . This "head" people's revolution must, . author's thoughts on the project, . consist of dedicated, . smart, . experienced, . passionate, . main, . dedicated people, . "who would refrain from personal historical significance in life and even from the historic name after his death.",
. In his most recent and major work-stick and Germany of the empire and the social revolution "(1871) and" Public and anarchy "(1873) - M
. A. Bakunin tried to give the most detailed criticism of the institution of statehood and its supporters, especially the Marxists. Now, with the height of the dramatic experiences of the XX century., It is difficult to draw a conclusion about who was more right in this controversy. On both sides it was present for much of that utopianism. By the same reasoning were like at different, not stick levels. Details outlining the "Public and anarchy", K. Marx rightly reproached the author's idealism: "He absolutely knew nothing about a social revolution, it only knows about the political phrases. Its economic conditions for it to exist ". However, Bakunin could not deny the political sense and understanding of social psychology.
. Criticizing the supporters of Marx, Bakunin warned that "scientists communists", "doctrinal revolutionaries", after having obtained political power, will try to put the lives of future generations in the Procrustean bed of its social ideal
. "Give them free rein, they will do over the human society, the same experiments, which for the sake of doing good science is now on rabbits, cats and dogs". Bakunin prophesied that, . that the realization of the idea of the dictatorship of the proletariat as a representative democracy based on universal suffrage inevitably degenerate into despotic control the masses by the "small handful of privileged elected or even selected",
. Even working-class origin of new "rulers" and "representatives of the people" does not solve anything: having become government officials, they "will no longer represent the people but themselves and their claims to control the people". "The chiefs of the Communist Party", . - With irony, Bakunin predicted developments "according to Marx", . - As a result of people's revolution "will concentrate the reins of power in the strong hand, . because ignorant people requires a very strong welfare; create a single state bank, . concentrated in the hands of all commercial and industrial, . agricultural production, and even scientific, . a lot of people divided into two armies: the industrial and zemlepashestvennuyu under the direct command of state engineers, . which would constitute a new privileged class and political science.,
. Unfortunately, in many respects Bakunin was not mistaken
. But his alternative: "Freedom can be created only by freedom of speech, t. e. popular revolt and free organization of the working masses from the bottom up "- also, as shown by the unfortunate experience of anarchists in the XX. in Russia, Spain, and t. village, was a road leading anywhere, but not in the realm of freedom, justice and brotherhood. After the failure in Italy, after many disappointments in friends, ordinary tribulations over the lack of money, a significant deterioration in health Bakunin was thinking about drawing a line in his troubled life. In November 1874,. He wrote H. P. Ogarev in London: "I, too, my old friend, retired, and this time went decisively and finally, from any practical activities, from any ties to the practical business .... New business requires a new method, and most importantly, fresh young force - and I feel that for the new struggle not fit ... I live, however, does not idle, but work a lot. First, write his memoirs, and second, preparing to write, if the forces become, the last complete word on their most cherished beliefs, I read a lot. "
Neither one nor the other to conclude he failed. July 1, 1876, Mr.. Mikhail Alexandrovich died in Bern, and two days later the socialists from different countries spent his last journey ...