Kropotkin, Petr Alekseevich( The talented scientist, traveler, a prominent revolutionary)
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Biography Kropotkin, Petr Alekseevich
Name Peter Alekseevich Kropotkin known throughout the civilized world. The scale of the personality, originality fate thinker, made them the importance of science can classify P. A. Kropotkin those unique people who appear in history to stay there forever. , Leading ideologist of anarchism, a man of the highest culture, a rare generosity and boundless courage, he lived a great, hard life, filled with a high sense of service is good and just
P. A. Kropotkin can legitimately be referred to the encyclopedic scholar. The extent of his scientific interests have convincingly shown a list of his works on various branches of knowledge - geography, geology, biology, philosophy, history, literature. Much of the works constitute the theory of anarchism, Kropotkin, political essay, and revolutionary propaganda. Called n. A. Kropotkin with one of the directions in the development of evolutionary theory H. Darwin. He is known as a historian of the French Revolution. Of great scientific interest are his research on the history and theory of ethics. Peru P. A. Kropotkin belong to the brilliant "Notes of a revolutionary" who can not remain indifferent to who is interested in history, has thought about issues of morality, spirituality, culture. This book is the breadth of coverage of reality, striving to create a chronicle of the liberation movement, capture an era in the images of people close to the masterpieces of Russian and world literature - Bylomu and thoughts "A. I. Herzen.
P. A. Kropotkin was born in 1842, Mr.. Moscow. He was descended from an ancient princely family, who, according to legend, led his story from Rurik. Through his mother he was the grandson of a war hero 1812. General Sulima, a descendant of freedom-loving Zaporozhye Cossacks. Kropotkin's father, Alexei Petrovich - a retired officer, a gentleman, owned estates in the three provinces and more than a thousand serfs. His mother, Ekaterina, died when the boy was three and a half years. Intelligent, cheerful woman, with a wide range of spiritual needs, kindly falling into domestics, she enjoyed huge respect for them. Warm feelings for her, these people moved and orphaned children who are very fond of and, as they could, protected from the wrath of the wicked father.
. Two of the world have formed the character of Peter: on the one hand - the world of working people, serfs, on the other - the world of lords, nobles
. The child grew up in a family is not the most cruel feudal. But what happened to him to see and experience, has left an indelible mark in my heart for life. In "Memoirs of a revolutionary" reproduced learned from childhood poignant scene the boy's reaction to the humiliating status of a serf, who had been physically punished by order of his father. Driven by a sense of compassion for the bonded person, the child rushed to the neighborhood, to kiss his hand. But he dismissed the boy with the words: "... I suppose when you grow up, and you are as budeshN". And the child said in response, as if an oath: "No, no, never!". Perhaps, even then the soul of the little man had been thrown later gave abundant sprouting grain protest against tyranny, humiliation of human dignity.
At the boy's upbringing affects not only communication with people working. His personality is formed and democratically-minded tutors, one of whom was a student at Moscow University H. P. Smirnov. Noticeable influence on the development of Peter Kropotkin, had an older brother Alexander, with whom he had a great friendship and spiritual affinity.
In autumn 1853, Mr.. Peter Kropotkin was defined in the First Moscow Gymnasium. Then he spent five years (1857 - 1862) studied at the Page Corps - a privileged military schools. This is for him were the years of hard work: he has successfully dealt with physics, chemistry, geography, geology, biology, political economy, philosophy, history, displaying an analytical mind. Then there were the first public interest P. A. Kropotkin. Despite the closed nature of the educational establishment, anti-serfdom penetrated and sentiment in its walls. Works A. I. Herzen H. A. Dobrolyubova, H. G. Chernyshevskogo formed in youth critical attitude towards reality. Before P. Kropotkin opened up a brilliant career, the more so as his first student graduation class has surrounded himself with Alexander II (Peter became a personal cell-pazhem emperor). But the youth were planning to become a scientist and to serve society. Imperial Manifesto on Feb. 19, 1861, Mr.. gave rise to many liberal hopes. The end of the Corps of Pages in 1862. P. Kropotkin, in spite of the desire to see his father, an officer of the Guards, chose service in the Amur Cossack army cavalry, intending to promote reforms in the distant Siberia.
Arriving at a new location, P. Kropotkin immediately falls into the liberal-minded environment. Physically strong, gray-eyed, with a high forehead, brown hair and regular features, the young officer to win the mind of others, cheerfulness, kindness and great energy. He could see a party of amateur performances and dance parties. But the prince had serious plans, big hopes. He was happy to do a living, useful for society affair. He worked in two commissions - to draft a reform prison systems and links and on the drafting of municipal government. Travel, meetings, study of literature to support the reforms absorbed all the time. The young officer was investigating cases of abuse of power by officials, took part in the fate of scale commission of specific people. But the reformist potential "up" soon weakened, it is keenly felt on the ground. The bureaucratic system is buried in front of plans for democratic reforms, stalled and then stopped altogether work commissions for the preparation of reforms. Dwindling hope of reformist ways to solve pressing social problems. But the activity of nature P. A. Kropotkin was searching for practical application of their knowledge and powers.
In Siberia, there was the formation of P. A. Kropotkin as a traveler, explorer of nature, naturalist. The first test of strength, a test will be his participation in a difficult and dangerous alloy barges along the Amur in order to provide food assistance to the local population. Then the young scientist has received a proposal to go on an expedition to northern Manchuria for the exploration of the shortest road to the fertile valleys of the Amur River and the river itself. The result of this first scientific expedition was the discovery of a new volcanic area, highlands in the Greater Khingan, the roads through it and a description of the direct path to the Amur. In the summer of 1865. Kropotkin organized an expedition to determine the extent of glacial deposits in the Irkutsk region. Traveling has given impetus to the formation of ideas about the relief of Siberia and the glacial phenomena. The following year was made extremely difficult, but very productive in terms of scientific and practical significance Olekminsk-Vitimskii expedition, for which the Russian Geographical Society awarded 22-year-old researcher gold medal. During this expedition, P. A. Kropotkin was completed three years of geological observations, traces of glaciers on the plateau Patom obtained evidence that Siberia from the Urals to the Pacific - not plain as depicted on the map, while the vast plateau. From his expeditions and travels P. A. Kropotkin sought to derive maximum benefit for the development of the Siberian region. He made a thorough study of the economic situation of the Ussuri Cossacks, who suffered from an annual harvest, developed the necessary steps to assist him. But give at the mercy of indifferent officials practical implementation of these measures completely discredited conceived plan. "And so it went everywhere, from the Winter Palace to the Ussuri region and Kamchatka," - he wrote later, P. A. Kropotkin. All this caused him to abandon forever the illusion that through the administrative machinery can do something useful for the people.
. However, the observation of life and lifestyle of many people of the nomadic tribes of the indigenous population of Siberia, . Dukhobors, . moved to the Amur, . communication with the Cossacks during travel Kropotkin gave food for thought on the creative work of "unknown masses, . which is rarely mentioned in books ", . led to recognition of the role of the masses "in the major historical events - relocation, . wars, . developing forms of social life ",
. He focused on "polukommunisticheskoy life" communities Dukhobors, emphasizing the benefits of these forms of organization of life to other. At the same time, reflecting on the functioning of the fossilized organism, Kropotkin concluded depravity state bureaucratic centralization. State discipline, t. e. discipline on the order, he contrasted the actions of people on the basis of mutual understanding and stress the "will of all directed toward a common goal". In these arguments, no doubt, trace elements of anarchist ideas. Here, in Siberia, in 1864. Kropotkin first became acquainted with the views of P. ZH. Proudhon.
Years of stay in Siberia not only tempered Kropotkin physically and morally, but also played an important role in shaping his outlook. ... In Siberia, - he wrote - I have lost all faith in the state discipline: I was prepared to make to become an anarchist. "
. Following the decision of the resignation, due to not only the long-cherished dream to get a university education, but also known disappointment in the officer's service, especially after the brutal suppression in 1866
. Uprising exiled Poles in Siberia, Kropotkin in 1867, Mr.. left the service and returned to St. Petersburg. In the same year he enrolled in the Physics and Mathematics Faculty, University. Thorough knowledge of mathematics was for him the foundation for future scientific work. Hab student Kropotkin, without any kind of assistance was the father, earning a literary work (translations, essays). The number of officials Statistical Committee of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. Active input into the scientific work of the Russian Geographical Society. Acquainted with the largest Russian explorers and geographers: H. Miklukho-Maclay, A. Fedchenko H. Severtsov, H. Przheval'skiy. Many dealt with issues related to the plans of the Geographical Society for the Exploration of the Arctic. Nursed grandiose idea - to create a complete geographical description of Russia, linking natural conditions with human activities. Edit and synthesize the information accumulated in the Geographical Society could be occupying the post of Secretary of the society. But when in 1871. Kropotkin received such honorable proposal, he declined it. He refused not because they lost interest in research. Knight Science he remained until the end of life. But the mind and heart of it, along with science, took great interest in the revolutionary work.
In 1872, Mr.. Kropotkin received permission to travel abroad. Short stay in Switzerland was one of the last links in the formation of his political orientation. Here he joined one of the sections I International, enthusiastically reading socialist and anarchist newspapers, met with the most prominent followers of the teachings of M. A. Bakunin. Great impression on P. A. Kropotkin made acquaintance with the organization of life and work of Swiss watchmakers in the Jura Federation, which tried to put into practice the anarchist idea of "anarchy". He was happy here and the lack of division between leaders and rank and file, and the fact that the leaders of the "more people initiative" rather than "leaders". When Kropotkin went to Russia, his view of socialism is completely determined. "I became an anarchist," - he recalled.
In the same year, leaving the work of the Secretary Department of Physical Geography of the Russian Geographical Society, P. A. Kropotkin was a member of the most significant of the early Populist organizations - mug "Tchaikovsky". However M. A. Nathanson, H. V. Tchaikovsky, P. L. Perovskoy, C. M. Kravchinsky etc.. He led the revolutionary agitation among the workers of St. Petersburg. Mastered the skills of conspiracy. Prince, a scientist, he ordered the carriage which brought him to one of the dirty suburbs of the city. In the nondescript house served elegantly dressed young man in spectacles and come out staid farmer in the cotton shirt and coarse boots. Only dark bushy blond beard betrayed their affiliation to the same person. Two years of work in the circle of "Tchaikovsky" finally determined the fate of Kropotkin.
March 21, 1874, Mr.. scientist made a sensational report in the Geographical Society of the existence in the recent past, the glacial epoch. The next day he was arrested for belonging to a secret revolutionary group and imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress. The significance made by the time P. A. Kropotkin in science was so great that he, on personal orders from the king, were given a pen and paper, and hence the opportunity to work in prison. Here, in a cell with stale air, small windows near the ceiling, he wrote his famous "Investigations of the glacial period, which approved the glacial theory - one of the most important in the Earth Sciences. Found in prison with all the available literature necessary to support this theory, he has helped a good knowledge of English, French, German, Italian and rapid development of the Swedish and Norwegian.
. Conditions of imprisonment, hard mental labor undermined the health of Kropotkin
. Patient, with signs of scurvy, he was transferred to a prison hospital, where in the summer of 1876, Mr.. with the help of friends he made a daring escape.
Thus, freedom after two painful years in prison ... But to remain in Russia Kropotkin was impossible, and he left home. Started 40-year-old forced emigration. In Russia P. A. Kropotkin was able to return only in 1917. All the hardships of life and work of a scientist and revolutionary exile bravely shared with him over the years a remarkable woman - Sofia G. Kropotkin, who became in 1878. his wife.
Years of exile is not tamed freedom-loving spirit of Kropotkin. In the West, Peter A. acquainted with many leaders of Russian and international revolutionary movement, especially the anarchist. Under the threat of arrest, participated in the International Socialist Congress in Ghent (Belgium). In France, spoke at meetings and rallies on the anniversary of the Paris Commune. In Switzerland, during the dispersal of the working demonstration rebellious Prince beat banner assailants police, fighting, gets hit. Twice (in 1897 and 1901.) Traveled to Canada, where he actively led the advocacy of his views. In exile declared itself as one of the greatest revolutionaries publicists. In 1879, Mr.. in Geneva, began to publish a newspaper "rebel".
The tsarist government conducted surveillance of Kropotkin as a dangerous political criminal. "Sacred squad" - an organization created under Alexander III to suppress the revolutionary movement and having overseas agents - made Kropotkin's death sentence. Do not leave it unattended and the French government. In late 1882, Mr.. Groups of anarchists to the deteriorating political situation made in Lyon, several explosions. The authorities of France and Switzerland increased repression against the leaders of the anarchist movement, including Kropotkin, nothing to do with these shares. Among others, he was arrested on charges of belonging to no longer existed International and sentenced to five years in prison. In defense of Kropotkin were progressives: philosopher G. Spencer, a poet Swinburne, a writer in. Hugo and others, have signed a petition for his release. Only after three years in prison in January 1886-th, Kropotkin was released, and soon moved to England.
. Overseas Petr Alekseevich Kropotkin wrote his major works: "Speeches of a Rebel" (1885), . "In Russian and French Prisons" (1887), . "Bread and Freedom" (1892), . "Mutual assistance, . as a factor in evolution "(1902), . "Notes of a revolutionary" (1902), . "Ideals and Reality in Russian literature" (1905), . Great French Revolution 1789-1793 "(1909), . "Modern science and anarchy" (1913), etc.,
. There he announced himself as a major theorist of anarchism, after the death of M
. A. Bakunin (1876) became the most authoritative creator of one of the forms of this trend - anarcho-communism.
As natural scientist Kropotkin sought to put the development of the theory of anarchism on a scientific basis. For him, anarchism is not just the ideal of free stateless social organization, and philosophy - philosophy of nature and of human society. This is a worldview that sees man as part of the organic world. The method of cognition II. A. Kropotkin is based on the unity of all life on earth and the general law for all mutual aid and solidarity. This law is a kind of pivot of the whole social concept of Kropotkin.
. Justification of its position on this question, scientists gave in "Mutual Aid as a factor in evolution", based on personal experience as well as available by the time of scientific ideas
. The author notes, . that during his travels in Eastern Siberia and northern Manchuria he was particularly struck by two features in the lives of animals: on the one hand, . unusual severity of their struggle for existence in a ruthless nature, . on the other - the absence of the bitter struggle of animals of one species,
. In Kropotkin's sense provoked protest those works, which alleged that the struggle of each against all animal relatives, and every individual against all the people is the "law of nature". Meanwhile, scientists believe, apart from the law of mutual struggle exists in nature and the law of mutual aid, which plays a much larger role in the development of all living. It argued, in particular, well-known Russian zoologist K. F. Kessler, developing the ideas of H. Darwin. Death to. F. Kessler in 1881. interrupted his work on this idea, which is so interested in Kropotkin, that the one with 1883. begin collecting material for its development.
Original researcher and insightful scholar, Kropotkin came to interesting conclusions. Man acts on the basis of the Mutual Assistance Act, while not aware of this. When he sees a burning house and grabbed a bucket of water to extinguish the flames, it is not guided by love for his master, who may not know, but the instinct of human solidarity, sociability.
. The instinct of mutual aid, sociability, and there among the different "social animals", starting from the lowest (ants, bees, and t
. etc.). Scientists selected from the set of examples and the most convincing evidence, showed how the desire for sociability helped animals survive in the struggle and maintain their form. It is this instinct, developed over a long time in animals and people, taught them to "realize the power that they acquire through the practice of mutual assistance and support ...". Kropotkin, mutual aid among the studied tribes of Bushmen, . Hottentots, . Eskimos, . identifying its role in the creation of such forms of human society, . as a genus and community, . during the Middle Ages - shops, . Guild, . free cities, . in modern times - the insurance companies, . Cooperatives, . association of people with the same interests (scientific, . sports etc.,
. society), opened the solidarity of the workers during their performances against the bourgeoisie and t. d.
Based on the analysis of a scientist based on law of mutual aid and solidarity as universal biosotsiologichesky law, which acts as a precondition for progress of human society as a factor in its evolution. Association, the interaction - the immutable means for security and individually, and collectively, the most important guarantee of the physical, mental and moral development. That is what Nature teaches us, claimed Kropotkin. She heeded the voice of all the animals that reached the highest position in the respective classes. This obeyed the dictates of nature and man.
But there is another extremely important aspect of this doctrine - its great humanism. For P. A. Kropotkin's "mutual aid", "solidarity" - not abstract concepts, and moral categories, the foundation of his ethical views. "With mutual aid, - he wrote - is the basis of all our ethical concepts, quite obviously,. That is why in his latest work "Ethics", which remained unfinished, Kropotkin once again returned to the law. "Public instinct inherent in man, like all social animals - that is the source of all ethical concepts and the subsequent development of morality," - he wrote. It is based on the law P. A. Kropotkin formulated his ethical concept, considering the mutual aid as the original principle of formation of moral rights. The practice of mutual aid in the approval process of a long evolution of humanity, according to Kropotkin, logically, leads to the development of a sense of justice, with its inevitable sense of equality or equal rights ... ". Equality in social terms - this is the ideal of anarcho-communism. However, in Kropotkin's interpretation of equality is the recognition of a free person, the right to its full development, which is also an essential premise of anarchist doctrine. Problems of ethics, thus, Kropotkin is inextricably linked with the justification of the anarchist ideal.
Personal freedom, has always emphasized Kropotkin, stifling state, its military-bureaucratic organization, education system, education and t. d. State - the chief evil, which makes a man a slave. It is the patron of serfdom, "a defender of property, based on the capture of foreign land and labor of others". The theorist of anarchism, posed the question: either the state to crush the individual and local life, or it must be destroyed, that would mean the rebirth of new life. Future is stateless society Kropotkin represented in the form of a federal union of the free self-governing units - community, . Territories, . autonomy etc., . over which no central authority and tends to build their relations on the principle of voluntariness and "anarchy".,
. However, P
. A. Kropotkin, as M. A. Bakunin, . with an overall negative attitude toward the State, . recognized all the same relative value of certain forms of state, . particularly democratic federal republic, . which is not concentrating all power in the center, . and involves the regional and community autonomy,
. In Russia P
. Kropotkin returned in June, 1917. At the station in Petrograd, despite the late hour, he was greeted by thousands of people, members of the Provisional Government, headed by a. F. Kerensky, honor guard, Correspondent. The Provisional Government had hoped to exploit the world-renowned scientist and revolutionary. In July, 1917. A. F. Kerensky suggested that P. A. Kropotkin to join the government, to which he, true to anarchist ideal, replied that he considered the craft bootblack more honest and useful than the participation in state power. At first he lived in Petrograd, in August 1917. - Moscow. Spring 1918. moved with his family in Dmitrov near Moscow.
Poslefevralskaya Russia was far from the ideals of Kropotkin. Freedom in the country largely a consequence of the fall of the former, a very strong power and is often manifested in distorted form. A revolutionary could not see how the ideas of his whole life thwarted by random, sometimes criminal-type people, covering the anarchist slogans. Heavy impression on his meeting with the St. Petersburg anarchists. When you visit their headquarters, he saw a rough, brash, saber-rattling lads. These people really understood freedom as permissiveness. "And for this all my life I worked on the theory of anarchism! - Bitterly exclaimed the old revolutionary at the meeting with Mr.. V. Plekhanov, also returned from exile. With no less pain the first Russian Marxist, he replied: "I'm in the same position. Could I think that my preaching of scientific socialism would lead to everything they say and do now ...".
October Revolution P. A. Kropotkin met with great enthusiasm, seeing in the fact of the overthrow of the bourgeoisie the way to the realization of his ideal. Moving away from his earlier views on the possibility of instantaneous model stateless society, and indeed preference for a federal republic, he was in 1917-1918. participated in the Federalist League, established to promote the ideas of federalism and decentralism. In his prepared address of the Moscow League of Federalists on the tasks of the League (1918) stated that restore the old form of the unity of the country disintegrated as a result of the overthrow of the tsarist, you can not, for this unity rested on violence. The only salvation of Russia was called "transforming it into a closer union (federation) of free areas and peoples ...". It emphasized that "the basis of social structure of Russia should not be based on state centralism, and the local autonomy (autonomy) and federal (union), a voluntary association."
. The idea of the Soviets Kropotkin treated as a great idea, considering that these bodies should become a tool in building a new life
. He stated this in his address to the workers and advanced sectors of the public in Western Europe in 1920, condemning the military intervention of the imperialist circles of the West in the affairs of Soviet Russia. But he saw also a great danger concealed in itself establish a dictatorship of one party and the consequent unavoidable limitation of democratic freedoms. According to Kropotkin, this has already led to the loss of value of the Soviets. But if the dictatorship is still possible to explain the necessity to fight against the old order, . in the transition to a society on a new economic basis of the preservation of the regime, . prophetically predicted Kropotkin, . "make the death sentence of a new society",
. Even a small cut of the public - the life of a provincial Dmitrov - he saw the typical picture of the whole country: bureaucratization of local authorities, the dominance of their party officials, the indifference to the needs of ordinary people.
At the same time, P. A. Kropotkin, by his own admission, did not see the party, "which could take place without the Bolsheviks that this resulted in an overall political and economic reaction and cruel bloodshed". In the rough drafts and letters, he gave a stern assessment of the place in the country. In an unpublished article "The current situation of Russia Kropotkin noted that" long delayed by the need for reform made its way in the form of revolution ". But the attempt to rebuild the country adopted the social character of the Jacobin dictatorship, had killed, as in 1793 - 1794 he. France, independence and initiative of people. Launched in such a way revolution "inevitably leads to a reaction". In letters to B. I. Lenin II. A. Kropotkin condemned the Red Terror, and especially shook him, an old revolutionary, the introduction of the Bolsheviks taking hostages. Such actions he described as unworthy of the leaders of the social revolution. But he issued a public condemnation of the excesses of the revolutionary dictatorship, while many waited. The reason for the silence was, obviously, is that, considering the dictatorship of a temporary phenomenon, Kropotkin was still hoping that the Bolsheviks "through their mistakes come in the end to the anarchy, which is the ideal". Dream on the implementation of this ideal revolutionary carried through his life.
. "I view the October Revolution as an attempt to bring to its logical conclusion the previous February revolution with the transition to communism, and federalism" - he said.
. A. Kropotkin three times in 1919 - 1920 he. met in. I. Lenin. In their conversations raised a wide range of issues. Kropotkin expressed his vision of what was happening in the country, spoke of the irregularities on the ground, defended the interests of the cooperators, passionately defended the ideals of "stateless" communism. In personal meetings with. I. Lenin and letters to him P. A. Kropotkin sometimes managed to soften the rigidity of the revolutionary government. There is evidence of contemporaries that. I. Lenin, under the influence of P. A. Kropotkin overturned this in November, 1918. Local departments of the Cheka permission to carry out executions without trial, that saved many lives.
On his return Kropotkin actually walked away from practical involvement in the Russian anarchist movement. In Moscow he visited prominent anarchists I. I. Novy Mir, and A. A. Borovoy, offered to cooperate in the anarchist newspaper. Similar offers he received in Dmitrov, but refused to accept them. But in a letter-paper "What delatN" (November 1920) Kropotkin expressed his willingness for "postroitelnoy work to" unite around himself capable to the people of the anarchists and called on representatives of other parties and all walks of life to civil peace and accord, . seeing the development of society for the better way to fight the dictatorship.,
. In a hungry, impoverished country, P
. A. Kropotkin lived difficult. Be affected by age, and brings health. Food, fuel, basic conditions for scientific work - everything was a problem. But he bravely endured all hardships with gratitude intelligent man took attentions to her by the country's leadership. At the invitation of his sincere admirers of Sweden to move to the country they refused, believing that in such a crucial moment in his place here, in Russia. As far as possible to health, Kropotkin took part in public life: speaking at the Teachers' Congress and the Congress of cooperators, with interest supported the idea of a local history museum. All the remaining forces of the scientist gave the completion of one of his best books - "Ethics". Historical optimist, he argued in her ideals of good faith in the greatness of man, the wisdom of the people. Logout failed. In February, 1921. Kropotkin died. He was buried at Novodevichy Cemetery in Moscow.
Peter Alekseevich Kropotkin - truly a phenomenon not only domestic but also world culture. All his great talent researcher of nature and society was dedicated to one purpose - to make a decent human life, to harmonize public and private interests, to teach everyone to feel an integral part of nature.