Panchenko, Aleksandr Mikhailovich( Literary critic, academician.)
Comments for Panchenko, Aleksandr Mikhailovich
Biography Panchenko, Aleksandr Mikhailovich
(genus. February 25, 1937)
"We have a verbal civilization. We certainly can do both - and the railways we have, and some industry, but with all the others are bad. Not bad, we have counted with the economists, that's why we have all these poor, unfortunate, despite the fact that such educated. Throughout history we have invented a single economic law - a steady rise in workers' welfare under socialism. So when we say: "Let us do everything, as there" - it is clear beforehand that it does not work. And to write "War and Peace" or "Crime and Punishment" - this is please. "
Born in 1937 in Leningrad. Literary critic, academician.
. 1957 - First publication of "Czech translations of" Lay ".
. 1958 - graduated Karpova University in Prague.
. 1969 - first book "The Czech-Russian literary relations XVII century.
. 1973 - Book "Russian poetic culture of the XVII century.
. 1976 - co-authored with Dr.
. Likhachev book comic world of Ancient Rus.
1990 - a book of dialogues with Lev Gumilev, "The candle is not extinguished."
1991 - Academician of Russia Academy of Sciences. From 400 articles, books, textbooks.
- We are from simple. On the maternal line - net of Petersburg, genus Pskov, pigeons, but my grandmother was born here. The family was very rich. Grandfather - one of the first drivers to St. Petersburg (he had a certificate with the inscription - "chauffeur"), before the revolution was in charge of a garage metal factory. Then all the money, of course, were lost. After the revolution, his grandfather once asked to become director of the factory, but he refused - and survived because, in general, in our family was not accepted anywhere to climb - not the party nor the authorities - because she survived.
. His father was a poor man - from Khokhlov, who left the Ukraine in the XVIII century, I have in the Kuban still a lot of relatives
. My grandfather died in early 1920 of typhus in Novocherkassk, the pope took a children's home. I have a letter from his aunt with a description of how he sits, reads, barefoot, in hempen ports before you leave home. But he did not lose heart, he graduated from the Novorossiysk University and became the first graduate student at the Pushkin House in 1931 (just this year we have introduced post-graduate). Then he was zamdekana LIFLI (Leningrad Institute of History and Philology) - in fact it was the same яLпTп¦яLп¦п¦. And my mother was a student, they met, married, with the result that in 1937 I started. My father was a Ph.D., before the war it was much, we lived well - on Havana Street, 44a, facing the beach.
Then the war began, which his father had gone and died. I, too, lie down under the pellet. The war began on Sunday, and on Friday with the nurse took me to the village, which was over 360 kilometers from St. Petersburg. And then my mother came running after me, and we went back to the boxcar. Different movies are often shown firing - so shoot people, they have never not seen. And it was this: the plane swooped down, the sight of trains unfolds, comes from the tail and shoots. The engineer at this time manages to stop the train - and all lie in the bushes. Rode a lot of us - mother, pregnant with my younger brother, I and my two second cousins, sisters. One of them still remembers the fountains of dust raised by the bullets. By the bottom of the station we arrived at a time when it took the Germans, we were sitting in the funnel with a sort of fighter, it was night, and he shot. I, four, asked for stupidity: "Is that a duck strelyayutN" He replied: "Ducks, ducks ...
Then we went to Kazan - the center of academic evacuation, return home "to pull" a very early - and May 1944. In Kazan, . room Dmitry Likhachev, . who with his family endured in Leningrad, the first winter of the siege, . I taught his daughters French language taught us Parisienne, . but interesting, . that none of us are French and do not know, other languages - please, . but the French had disappeared,
. Mom Likhachev was edinoverka (from the Old Believers, succumbing to the Synod), she had a lot of icons. We played a ball, he flew in the curtain, and rang salaries.
- After the war life naladilasN
- Then all was good. Flats we changed the long line of Vasilevsky Island (read "The Insulted and Dostoevsky), then followed the boys' school and university, where I was sent to Prague - I graduated from Charles University. I have not been there 37 years (until 1995): I gave my word that as a single soldier will remain in the Czech Republic, I will not come - and not come.
. I studied in humans, . many of whom ended their universities before the revolution, . They were completely different people: Varvara Pavlovna Hadrian-Peretz, . perfect man, . mother superior of our ancient "monastery", . or Boris V. Tomaszewski, . which he graduated in Liege Polytechnic, . and philology at the Sorbonne, . - It could only shoot or not to touch,
. He's read different courses, including poetry and style, and one day he was kicked. He said: I do not care, what to read - poetry, style, or higher mathematics - and went to LIIZhT read advanced mathematics. Semester honored, and then returned it to our bosses. And there were many - and Viktor Zhirmunsky, and lecturers were younger, such as Grigory Abramovich Byalyi. They have learned many, many. And the classic chair we had a wonderful. I do not know whether such department before the revolution - I find it hard to say, but then have these chairs was not, and never will.
"I had another wonderful teacher - Vladimir Malyshev, which I must participate in expeditions. It was only during the Soviet era collector of ancient manuscripts and books. That he founded in 1949 drevnehranilische Pushkin House, and began to collect in 1934. He took me in 1956 on an expedition, consisting of two people - him and me, 19-year-old. We went to Pechora, in the original place of old-believers (Pomorskie-bespopovskoe consent) - where the foot, where a boat where riding. How many times he was arrested - and me too! - In these expeditions. I remember in 1957, the Volga, what is called in the woods: no matter where you come, always say - you have British paratroopers - and in "lyagavku" lead. I speak: English parachutist here only while drunk can fly - what you have here interesnogoN in the local newspaper is written, there's a road built for three years, built 600 meters - her or something, he blow budetN
. - Alert was the people.
. - In 1959, the Perm edge, too, constantly arrested, then, the truth, was let go - you show them the documents, a travel certificate
. A Malysheva still in the 30 years, all the time was taken - hands up, and over 15 miles, under the gun. These teachers and I owe everything. And in Prague, I had a very, very good mentors. In Prague, I became friends with the emigration. There was an Pyotr Savitsky, the great Anglo-Indian, who have 11 years п+я-пЁя-п+я-п¦п¦, his 45-m was arrested - in Prague, he was director of the Russian school. I Savitsky I first heard the words of Lev Nikolayevich Gumilev also on Eurasia - there read his letter. Then it became my senior friend and co -. Lucky my mentors and friends. We were also very decent people - do not think that was continuous throughout the district committee and regional committee (and the party was not entirely bastards - were ordinary people trapped there, or stupidity, or if necessary).
. - When you start izdavatsyaN
. - The first article came out in 1957, when I was 20 years old, is very modest: "Czech translation" Lay "
. And then, in general, was given to write - and not just me. So when they say - this is something we do not know, did not understand, read and we were not given - this is all lies and nonsense.
. - He knew and understood the man who hotelN
. - Moreover, here I have nine books, most published under the Bolsheviks, not a single footnote to Marx-Engels-Lenin no, and no I did not do anything, anywhere without lugging
. Once forced to refer to Lenin, I refused - and then they left behind. To remain a decent person under Soviet rule was permissible, though not for all. I remember Boris V. Tomaszewski said: "Do not worry, if any, the most heinous regime two or three places for decent people to set aside". No one is forced to invoke the classics of Marxism, but who would, he shoved her around these links, but who would not, he did not do it, and lived quietly. The waiters and slaves say: "This was a time", time is always bad, but we cope with it or not - depends on us.
Vladimir Propp in the worst 40-ies published his famous book "Historical Roots of a fairy tale". It is not broken, for all sufferings, crop and bullying. His disciple Yury Yudin told me, as Propp, already an old, sent off somewhere to the hostel to look after the students (there was a tradition - for all teachers, without exception). And there were dances, modern, of course; Propp came out and said: it's like a ritual dance of a certain tribe - and danced right there on the sidewalk ...
. It was important to the selection of antiquities as a professional matter, because when Khrushchev put forward the slogan that the main thing - it is modern and old - so, kind of nonsense
. We therefore have a particular attention and do not pay. Everything is quiet, and their popuhalo but how many of the present: the praises of some objectionable author - and lost. How dare praise some Zamyatin! Our country is in this sense is very interesting - we have since planted for reading books, and, as a rule, poor. I am aware, thrown to his reading of War and Peace "- for good reason, so no, for any nonsense.
- Maybe it was such a pedagogical measure ...
- I have an explanation. Russia before the revolution somewhere in the 96% of the rural country, a country of oral culture. In the village, unless it is a village with a church, there was one book: Psalms. Because when a person dies, the psalms of the 17 th Kathisma read for the dead. So, apparently, the head village vtemyashilos that book - it is the truth. There is a real book, but there are false, renunciation. And these poor village people perlite on philosophical faculty - for the truth. They imagined that there would be as substitutes for priests - people who know the truth - not about Jesus Christ, so about materialism and the Empiric. So they, poor fellows, because the truth is not reached, but now that we have suffered this revolution, the Bolsheviks were a candle to hold, the left hand is baptized in hats (but now somehow to the cool down - awkwardly still, shame). That we lost - on the fact that the book is just and the unjust. Now this division is no longer - just a book, and you're really there to choose which are good, some bad
- What are you currently rabotaeteN
- All the time some articles I write. That son now has written "The Eighth Wonder of the World" - about the Mausoleum. About three years ago in Vienna was a conference "Death in the world's religions and cultures," then its materials from afar - that's what we wrote about the Mausoleum as a kind of religious phenomenon.
- So how, we must remove the Mausoleum
- No. You know, like a monument, and it can be removed, but what to do with Lenin and all that kladbischeN can, of course, defer to the Volkov Cemetery - and that fans budetN Pilgrimage and pilgrimage thugs, there will need to raise a battalion of. In my opinion, everything is solved very simply: the cemetery of the wall moved to the mausoleum, and Lenin's just a cover - so we buried him, and. After all, there is huge room, with huge cellars, judging by the stories (I myself have not been there). Let this be a bolshevik necropolis, the more that is there and decent people, in no way implicated - such Gagarin, Chkalov.
- Is not it strange - the necropolis on the main ploschadiN
- Well, that is, there was a necropolis. It was place of execution, but there is almost no one was executed - put to death in a swamp, where the Marsh area. "House on the Embankment chitaliN There they built a house - and were executed, in other places, and then they themselves were executed, and properly done. And the Red Square was a cemetery at Pokrovsky Cathedral, which we know as St. Basil's Cathedral. This famous fool buried there and done around the chapel, and many were buried near. So the bear did not need anything, all this energy that must be applied in another direction.
- You taught so many wonderful people. You yourself taught at the Institute of Culture, in the Herzen Institute in Bulgaria, Hungary, Paris, USA; by virtue of their occupation you thought a lot about Russian history. Do you think - what is still with us proishoditN
- We are in a state of disaster. It happened not because they were wicked idea, though they were. The main problem of the XX century - the problem of cities and villages. The city became a village - not very clear what - long before the revolution (read Chekhov's "Peasants," "In the Ravine" and "Village" Bunin). Expansion of the village may have been, but the city attributed the blame for this is not himself, but the village. This, I think the worst thing in the XX century. Gorky wrote: when these stupid people die of the village ... And he had someone takoyN
At some time, though, had to back down (the infamous NEP) - d resisted, was made "Redistribution". In the village at all, no one could handle - even Stolypin, whose reform has failed: he could not break the community has begun. The village resisted government authority strengthened and attacked her. This year 1929, the program of Trotsky, which Stalin carried out, making people slaves of the village without a passport, without a pension. Colossal negative role was played by the fact that the city began to teach the village - "dvadtsatipyatitysyachniki", "desyatitysyachniki" drove, say, learning to plow the Don Cossacks. As they plow or something, not umeliN I know the horror stories about them. But there was still the memory of serfdom, the community - the village is not very grumbled. And then the war is hardest hit by the village, through which all and restored so quickly. And the village was run in the city, to avenge him - is the main problem.
. Remember, we always crushing phone booths ...
. - Yes, and all new, beautiful, that appeared on the streets, I had always dirty, break - pochemuN
. - Village people different from us on the outlook
. It had universal: it predicts the weather better than television, he would have to be able to take a calf from a cow, and help his wife give birth, and cut down the house, not to mention the garden and the like. So he thinks he knows everything, is Russia's knowing better, he is not guilty, but that's life. And in the city should be an expert: know how to drive a tram - and perfectly. We in the streets that tvoritsyaN all go to the red light. PochemuN Because it is d. And power is also d. Khrushchev from the village Kalinovki Kursk went to America, visited Garst farm in Iowa, saw corn. Rural people, Khrushchev never never studied, he decided that the way it should - we have to plant corn, it never occurred to him to look at a map of where it is clear that New York City at a latitude of Baku, Iowa - further south. I later saw those tiny sprouts grown in the Arkhangelsk region.
. What else did the village have vlastiN in the village because as proishoditN All week, hard work, on a Saturday night drink - and at parties, singing - do not have any voice, nor hearing, especially Philharmonic and conservatories
. All that is shown on television - this is barney. And they believe that everything can talk.
What we have national mechtaN scratched any - want to be a writer. So maybe, these writers and silent. Another problem - the problem of abdication. In XX century, we are constantly abandoning. This is the century impostors. We rename. That's the name of Ina, look in the church calendar, which marks the day: this holy - man, and look how many walks around the Inn. All impostors: and Lenin - not Lenin, and Stalin - not Stalin and the Kirov - Kostrikov, and Gaidar - Golikov. The worst thing is that renunciation has developed a national inferiority complex.
- What is it proyavlyaetsyaN
- First, in the renaming. Cultural Institute of the Academy have to be a culture, the mayor - the mayor or governor. This is evident in the refusal of Russian cuisine, one of the best in the world. You must eat pies with cabbage, which we consumed for centuries, and the body are accustomed to them, not pizza - it is bad for you! Secondly, we became envious of the people, countries that can not be envious of, for example America.
. - I think America can be envious of - the order that has been established way of life ...
. - So this is one of the parties abdication - envy of the good connection to the home
. It's all of them, the village boys, which we were forced to leave their homeland. Russia's feeling now - this feeling of stranger in his house. So I do not feel it was not you, but the vast majority.
In this all to blame. We all have a fool. There are three types of idleness - did not do anything bad and do not do what must. And we all XX century did not that need, and with perseverance, regrettable. And all the power we have this, so no election did not give.
- But we know that intellectuals have traditionally opposed to power, not ennobling it themselves.
- It was not always, it started only with Nicholas I. But long ago the situation really is that decent people in power will not go. They come only selfish people - appointees.
. - Why are all the same - for centuries - in America, the West is striving to basic comfort, cleanliness of the houses and streets, to a reasonable prosperity, and we always dirt, poverty, and in general - the grass is not rastiN
. - I think they have accepted, but we are not resigned
. The good life can be no life - is a painful burden. They, too, was any - and the colony, and Hitler - it was also a rebellion against being. We are now "new Russian" build castles (it locks, but not at home), they can not be rich, because it is more difficult than to be poor. Thus, ate oatmeal in the morning, drink coffee - and all. But to be rich - it does not mean to eat in the morning bucket of red caviar and drink champagne. And they do not know what to do, and invent all nonsense - a bath with the girls, for example. Well, you have a mistress, alone with her, but did not you - shame ... Or there are those crimson jackets and gold chains - because there is no concept of what good manners. But the biggest trouble - as we have managed to raise so much negodyaevN It was like around decent people - and suddenly ...
- How do you think we have grafted onto Westernizing - at least to some extent - or not
- Bad grafted onto. But the professionalism, punctuality, responsibility - I do not know. I am afraid that we were trapped in and we can not manage - because a nation exhausted. Still, I think this will be a dark band. Fortunately, a man not control the world processes, whatever the theory, under which no carts, as well as not subject to weather. Just today, it is bad, tomorrow will be good. Calculation only this, to reduce the number of villains and selfish people. Lord suffereth long, but it hurts. And if you look historically - that have been the era of religious wars was the Thirty Years War in Germany, but then people came to a. What we got to the stage of fracture (this is said Lev Nikolaevich Gumilev), but it will not last forever: people are tired of the evil, horror, from the abominations.
. Once again, even under the Bolsheviks, Vasily Pavlovich Solovyov-Gray on Holy week, after Easter, was in the Pskov-Pechersk Lavra (tell me about this poet Gleb Gorbovsky, who also was there)
. They were treated there was fish table (the monks do not eat meat, even at Easter). They drank and ate, making the book for honored guests, the party bosses directly into the corner - how can you leave a message in monastyreN - and Soloviev, Gray picked up and wrote: "God is, especially package he needed, and Gorbovsky added:" We fully agree " .
. I think the Russian people - I learned this from experience - there are lots of wonderful people
. I do not want to say that they will win - the beautiful people have never win, but they will play a role.
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