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Newton, Isaac (Isaak Niuton)

( Distinguished British scientist who laid the foundations of modern science, the founder of classical physics)

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Biography Newton, Isaac (Isaak Niuton)
photo Newton, Isaac (Isaak Niuton)
(January 4, 1643 - March 31, 1727)
Prominent British scientist who laid the foundations of modern science, the founder of classical physics, a member of the Royal Society of London (1627), President (since 1703). The works belong to mechanics, optics, astronomy, mathematics. The scientific work of Newton played a crucial role in the history of physics. According to Einstein, Newton was the first who attempted to formulate the basic laws that determine the time evolution of a broad class of processes in nature with a high degree of completeness and accuracy "and" ... his work has had a profound and powerful influence on all the world as a whole ". It is named after a unit of force in the International System of Units - Newton.
The basis of a descriptive science, which concerns a physicist, is the concept of the heterogeneity of natural bodies and natural phenomena in the environment, they studied. The radical change occurred in the early twentieth century., In the years 1905-1915., 37 years ago, when a deep thinker and mathematician A. Einstein, then in Munich, but still alive in the United States, marked the beginning of radical revolution in our understanding of the surrounding reality.
This change in meaning is comparable to those that have made the Englishman Newton (1643-1727) in Cambridge, more than 270 years ago, have passed since more than 10-12 generations. The main achievement of Newton preserved, have been further developed, but understanding of their radically changed. Newton understood the reality in the ancient Hellenic miropredstavleniya. We can not forget the historical scientific environment in which he worked
. At this time, the first time based on the open in the sixteenth and seventeenth century manuscripts Hellenistic geometers and mathematicians, . their publications and translations, . creative thought of Western scientists in this field of knowledge picked up the thread, . loss of a few centuries ago, . and quickly surpassed the achievement of the ancient scholars (as they were then known), . initiating new math,
.
Newton finished and decorated the mathematical idea of Aristarchus of Samos, who lived more than a thousand years before him, the rotation of Earth around the Sun, gave the scientific structure of the solar system, accurate and indestructible since the geometric representation of her.
At the end of the seventeenth century. He finished two centuries before him: Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo. After a long struggle with its Cartesian ideas came to life only in the second half of the seventeenth century. and finally mastered the science only at the end of it and in the early nineteenth century. when creating celestial mechanics. But even in the nineteenth century. such a great thinker and naturalist as Goethe (1749-1832) stood apart from his world.
Newton's ideas entered the science with a radical amendment of physicists: the empty three-dimensional Euclidean space of Newton was replaced by the same space filled with a material continuum - ether (Huygens).
Speaking of Nyutne, we should not forget about other features of his personality and his environment, his belief about the environment, similar to the Puritans - his contemporaries, but other than theirs, among whom he lived. Newton was a devout Christian, engaged not only in science but theology. For him, one was inseparable from the other.
Christianity it was largely subjective, as it was subjective Christianity of his great contemporary, Milton, also a deeply religious Christian and a philosopher-materialist, who believed the human soul, angels, devils and material.
If Newton was not alone in his understanding of Christianity, it belonged to a tiny handful of people who agree with him. He took a single God and believed Jesus only a man. But at the same time, he took the Bible as true fact, . who led his life, . and much effort spent on it, . to accurately determine the time of creation and the end of the temporary peace, . in which he lived, . understanding of which he discovered the laws of gravity,
.

Laws of peace, which he opened for him were the laws of the time available the end of the world. By the Apocalypse he regarded as the truth, indicating the near future. His empty space he regarded as an attribute of God, and it allowed "as it were instantaneous, the forces of gravity at a distance that seemed to science of his time and seems so impossible now. In fact, he introduced the science of theological thought, allowing the "miracle", the ever-present and continuous action, manifestation - a single attribute of God.
In an environment where he lived, there were few people who could so seriously believe, as Newton. Reflecting on a biography of Newton and his work on the Apocalypse, it is impossible to recognize the correct charge by Leibniz in his impiety in a printed pamphlet in French, with whom he had asked one of the members of the British royal family. Newton replied to this accusation is not himself, but the answer was given, too, in the form of a pamphlet, with his consent, one of his friends, Clark, just as he did, theologian. This book is still interesting as a historical monument. But it must be noted that Newton could not be reconciled with the action of gravity at a distance as it instantly ", as he took to its laws. For more than two hundred and fifty years of brilliant, the first at that time in the history of science, confirmation of the natural laws of this magnitude - and with such precision - and their further development are forced to reckon with the fact. Preserved indications, however, that Newton was searching for an explanation of instantaneous action of gravity in the development of ideas Fote du Dyuiye (1664-1753), a Swiss scientist, explaining the attraction of the pressure of small moving particles, filling the Cosmos.
Scientific thought went the other way. Physics and Astronomy of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, could not follow Newton and filled the empty space of Newton's physical space - a hypothetical pervasive global fluid (continuum), ether (Huygens). Only under this condition, scientific idea of the force of gravity (force of attraction of the world of matter) could occur.
In the late nineteenth century. When the idea of light as a wave-like motion of the ether, it seemed, finally came to life, the existence of the ether seemed contested. Just at this time, dynamic view of the matter was part of life, and I remember very well one of my conversations with my friend from Moscow University, one of the leading scientist, Professor of Physics P.N. Lebedev, who claimed that he believed only in the existence of the ether. We have not noticed how quickly the idea of the ether had disappeared and was replaced by scientific atomistics, the flowering of which we are experiencing. All attempts to prove the real broadcast experimentally failed. The results of experiments gave a negative answer. Scientific and mathematical criticism (mainly Lorentz in Holland) has dealt the final blow in 1906


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  • sexqala for Newton, Isaac (Isaak Niuton)
  • miyvarxar isaak. chemi ocnebis amamakaci xar.ar ginda chemtan ertad ...? uiiiiiii exla mitxres ro momkvdara isaaka !
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    Newton, Isaac (Isaak Niuton), photo, biography
    Newton, Isaac (Isaak Niuton), photo, biography Newton, Isaac (Isaak Niuton)  Distinguished British scientist who laid the foundations of modern science, the founder of classical physics, photo, biography
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