Iosif Shklovsky Samuilovich( physicist)
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Biography Iosif Shklovsky Samuilovich
(1.07.1916 - 3.03.1985)
All his life he was searching for extraterrestrial intelligence. Not find. Research has shown that it is not. IV.. gave rise to the generation of enthusiasts that it is still looking.
Representations of the plurality of inhabited worlds exist already at the dawn of astronomy. We can recall such statements inquisitive minds, like Epicurus, Lucretius Carus, Giordano Bruno, Mikhail Lomonosov. On the inhabitants of other planets, stars, even talked about the inhabitants of the Sun at the time, and Cyrano de Bergerac and Kant, Voltaire, and Newton (he also thought the sun inhabited!). These thoughts live in harmony with faith. Let this in the Bible is silent, but if God is omnipotent and created man on earth, it is quite a feet, and intelligent life somewhere else ...
. October Revolution in Russia expelled God from the minds of the citizens "eresefesera", but instead provided them with an uncontrollable lust for conquest of nature, the disclosure of its secrets
. Iosif Shklovsky was one of those with the same enthusiasm to build socialism in general and railways in particular, and even chewing granite science, dreaming necessarily enter into it its bright page.
. Over time, his works are respectfully say astronomers and physicists around the world, but first he had to declare itself in the strict scientific community for beginners
. And this he succeeded brilliantly. In 1957, his hypothesis that relates the death of the dinosaurs with the explosion of a star "far" from our planet, provoked heated debate ...
Future astrophysicist Iosif Shklovsky was born in the Ukrainian city Glukhov, in 1916. Baikal-Amur "piece of iron". Vladivostok University, Moscow State University, State Astronomical Institute. Sternberg. These external milestones ...
Everywhere he raised his hand to the most difficult topics. His work in 1957 was the first and probably not fully conscious step on the long journey searching for extraterrestrial intelligence. Moreover, a talented scientist engaged in more traditional astronomy, and even space technology. This activity is so captivated him that he had long disappeared from the house, leaving a mortally sick mother in a tiny room with deaf neighbors. Later he would write in his memoirs: "... until the end of his days not forgive myself."
. Why on Earth originated zhiznN And as proizoshloN Can life, . least theoretically, . exist on other planets and what the parameters of these worlds must obladatN If space many industrialized civilizations, . why their is still no vestochekN Or we see these signs, . but wrong to ponimaemN might look like such tsivilizatsiiN,
. It was first conceived Shklovskiе? use a deep scientific analysis of a topic that had not all scientists generally considered a serious
. In the puzzle of life in outer space, he decided to throw all the knowledge of modern physics, biology and astronomy. And he had in varying degrees to master all these disciplines ..
In October 1961, at a meeting of "space" figures Academician Keldysh appealed to scientists: "Next year will mark five years since the launch of Sputnik. This date should be noted properly ... "Then rose Shklovskii and publicly announced that the remainder of the term will have already begun to write his book about the possible existence of life in the universe.
To rent the manuscript had to be by July 62 th. Shklovsky cunning. In fact, he is no book has not yet started, but figured that none of his colleagues "not to mention books, but also a good article in such a short time will not have time to write". But it proved difficult to create conceived. This material is combined a number of scientific disciplines, and even the author has given to the court the readers a lot of new ideas. But at that time Shklovsky had other duties, and he worked on the book in snatches.
A funny story came out with an epigraph. Once Shklovsky received a letter from his old friend with. Solovieva, where he wrote: "Recently re-read a new poem Aseeva. In old age he began to write better. Here, read a revamped my stanza:
. Curious, damn
. What will come after us with people --
. After all, that's because the point is what!
. Which dress will shitN
. Who's hands will bitN
. Which planets plytN "
. An astrophysicist was struck - this is the epigraph that he needed
. Only in the last minute Shklovsky remembered about "slightly" stripped down lines. With great difficulty they found the verses Aseeva, and - humiliating disappointment - it is the last line was added Solovyov away! Had this line to erase. Yet after the death of Aseeva in subsequent editions of the book, Shklovsky returns that string in the epigraph.
Despite all sorts of vicissitudes, the book "The Universe, life, mind, became a major difficulty Shklovsky, appeared in the period. She endured six reprints and replenished each time the latest data of science. The book was translated into many foreign languages, but especially Shklovsky proud that it issued in Braille for the blind. He rejoiced that he could at least talk about wondrous stars of those who will never be able to see them!
Why space molchitN This was the drama Shklovsky. He proved that on the existing equipment could be sufficient to carry out deep space radio. If around the myriad of stars, many of which are similar to the sun, why even from some of them we do not hear the call sign razumaN
. Perhaps, he reasoned astrophysicist, while the existence of intelligent civilization on the universal standards, so little that we simply do not intersect with a similar time
. And really, what 10 thousand years of history of human society, compared to about ten billion years of life VselennoyN Or at least a two hundred million years - the period of rotation of our GalaktikiN
. And how else can we prozhitN To master all the resources of the solar system and its full of artificial adjustment, we need only a few million years, thought Shklovsky
. A dalsheN Perhaps mighty civilization moves with the times to the point where it is already quite interested in the surrounding miromN
. A famous Byurakan international conference on communication with extraterrestrial civilizations in 1971 among the American participants was a Mr. Oliver, a millionaire and vice president of the firm "Hyullet-Packard
. With him on the road to Armenia had a tragicomic case - for the transplant somewhere in London, he had lost his suitcase. In Byurakan a millionaire was not even a change of underwear.
This, of course, did not prevent the holding of an interesting collection of. It lasted several days, and, among other things, the scientists calculated the probability that a certain number of planets in our galaxy is intelligent life. And now comes the final evening banquet, and here comes the news: a suitcase, Mr. Oliver found.
Shklovsky, who was one of the organizers of the conference, unexpectedly won this finding. At the banquet, he gave a final toast:
"During all these days we talked about a lot of subjective probability. But if yesterday I put before you a question: what is the subjective probability that the suitcase Mr. Oliver returned to the owner, you would answer me in chorus: "zero". What zheN Today worthy vice-president Hyullet-Packard gets his suitcase, and with it much needed in this eastern republic shorts and, . seems, . gloves! This joyous event gives us the confidence, . holds that the subjective probability, . somewhere, . far beyond the constellation Tau Ceti ", . so expressively sung remarkable Russian poet Vysotsky, . attending banquet, . similar to our ... ",
. Shklovsky believed that this witty speech somewhat increased the number of scientists, optimistically approaching the program CETI (English acronym for "communication with extraterrestrial civilizations")
. Alas, Shklovsky, who died in 1985, has not seen, in which global scale, this resulted initially modest, almost marginal project.
However, this project for several years now renamed as the SETI (ie "search ...", hereinafter the same). But the essence remains - to regularly "hear" the sky at different frequencies and in a variety of fronts to with the help of computer programs to distinguish among the radio noise is clearly an artificial signal. For this purpose, has for decades used the giant Arecibo radio telescope in the crater. In life Shklovsky main problem of the search was a monstrous mountain of calculations in real time required for the analysis of reasonableness or unreasonableness of the signal.
. World Boom "flying saucers" Shklovsky would not accept as proof of the existence of aliens
. "Most likely we are alone in the universe, or at least in the local system of galaxies - to the same conclusion the scientist came to the end of his life. "And even more likely - he said - that the reason itself - is nothing more than the dead end of evolution of life and we all vymrem as extinct thousands of dead-end species on Earth". He was a true scientist, and a negative result in science, is also known to result. Shklovsky cold blood run through his past enthusiasm ...
However, he always added that the first would be glad if someone can prove that its conclusion is wrong. Alas, during the life Shklovsky did not happen. And now the reality of extraterrestrial intelligence remains a subject of heated debate, or, if you will, faith. But the paradox: Shklovsky, who believed only in the power of science, with its skepticism spawned a generation of optimists, who undertake to boldly search for the brothers on reason