GrachevEfim A.( Scientific, agriculturists)
Comments for GrachevEfim A.
Biography GrachevEfim A.
(1826 - 1877)
Humorous magazine posted a cartoon: a man, straining, pulling a cart on which a head of cabbage - one, but the size of a barn. Caption under picture: "This cabbage-head enough for my family for a whole winter,". The magazine was Vienna - in the same year, 1873-nd, was held at Vienna International Exhibition of gardening and horticulture, the hero of which was the Russian gardener Yefim Grachev.
. ABC GARDEN AFFAIRS Yefim comprehended the shores of Lake Nero, under glorious pealing of bells of Rostov.
. From the lake, then clean, the surrounding peasants caught surprisingly fertile sediment - sapropel
. Because space is wetlands, the beds were made slightly raised above the ground, with wooden sides - so the land is better warmed. Seedlings were expelled early, drawers with her briefly carried the cold, then to either tomato or cucumber is not "afraid" spring frosts ...
. Yields were taken to their Yaroslavl, but mostly in Moscow, where he competed with highly experienced Klinskaya yahromskimi and Bronnitsky craftsmen
. It was then that Grachev and began to dominate. A knock together kapitalets, served in Petersburg, where he quickly raised himself in Pervak and even swung to a foreign voyage.
. Bearded, with a smooth parted blond hair, purple with rage, Yefim Grachev shumstvoval:
. - Ah, the hats in front of them is broken, and oniN lie, that the goods have not arrived at the exhibition
. Oh, wait! Two days are already boxes, dry luggage. And the place on the margins given. Nothing, the morning of their noses.
Looked at him, but the Russian did not understand. And the week before the opening of something conjured in his zakutke with cotton wool and loose sacking, for some reason or sprayed with water. Then the crowd gasped exhibition - Russian guest arrived at the opening of bizarre beautiful green coat. Live, from germinating barley ... And the goods: cabbage, melons, cucumbers are, what is not seen.
. Curieuse curiosity, but it's amazing how our first breeder who has lived with 51 year (1826-1877), managed to bring so many new varieties of vegetables and potatoes, that many of them still not been surpassed
. A mere enumeration of them barely fit on the seven-page typewritten.
At the largest international exhibitions of the time Grachev was awarded 11 gold, 41 silver and 11 bronze medals. Members of his family for the demonstration Grachevskij vegetables have more than one hundred different awards. About Gracheva wrote that his "big, medium and small" medals can make a "Muntz-cabinet" ( "Muntz-cabinet" - a collection of coins and medals).
. IN THE CATALOG, articles and reports Grachev necessarily reported, who, where and when the first began to cultivate vegetables, which he checked, and given its characteristics, talked about farming methods produce a good harvest
. Creator, step by step ascended to the heights of excellence, he could not be kept secret, generous in sharing everything, what has been achieved in a hurry to withdraw more crop from the beds to release it, and immerse oneself in new experiences.
. He does not look like the fast-growing rich magnates, is struggling to break out in the "suppliers"
. Another would be offered free housekeeper Petersburg orphanage, is concerned about the peasant school, put a cheap inn at Narva highway. And the most amusing: "Andreich some potatoes chegoy some powders ..."
Over the years in your garden Yefim Andreevich felt cramped, had to rent another plot for Moscow Gate. At the time, when because of high rents, many exiled potatoes with urban gardens, Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, wrote about a new base Grachev:
"Here do experiments over two hundred varieties of potatoes. This experimental culture can not deliver commercial benefits, only significantly increasing altogether non-productive expenditures ".
Grachev realized that potatoes - Russia's second bread hungry guy. But it that no year is not enough until the next harvest. Wide dissemination of such a terrible potato disease, as phytophthora, commonly referred to as the people rot, now and then caused a famine. Grachev painfully seeking remedy against this scourge. Gradually he came to the conclusion that to get grades, do not fall ill rot, it is necessary to get the source material not from the tubers, and seeds:
. "In the first summer, some things make a life-size potatoes, which happens rarely, the greater part of potatoes are the size of an ordinary nut
. With this method of cultivation of potatoes are lots of new varieties, but little useful, but persistent work can get variety, characterized by their good qualities. "
. HOWEVER EFIM ANDREEVICH not take action only to the selection of seedlings grown from seeds by self-pollination
. With extensive material from the different countries of Europe and America, . including primitive forms and wild relatives of cultivated potato, . Grachev and began to "puff" of, . display varieties by artificial cross-pollination followed by selection and thorough education of hybrids.,
. Outstanding scientists AV
. Councils and п-.п°. Butlerov proposed the establishment of the Grand Gold Medal of memory Grachev and award it "for special services to improve the Russian market gardening". In recognition of the enormous contribution to world horticulture talented Russian peasant-nugget was elected an honorary member of the National Academy of Agriculture, Manufactures and Commerce in Paris.
. VEGETABLES, annually demonstrated this nugget on the exhibitions in Petersburg and Moscow were so varied and excellent quality that the other participants was not even going to compete with
. At the exhibition in 1866 attended by the most eminent masters, among them were the head gardener and professor of horticulture Peter agricultural and forestry academy RI. Schroeder and the owner pomologicheskogo nursery and garden for the acclimatization doctor E.L. Regel. But here exhibits Gracheva sharply distinguished not only in size, excellent flavor - they are new forms of plants.
. Absolute superiority Grachevsky potato emerged in the international exhibition of horticulture and market gardening in 1869 in St. Petersburg, where craftsman introduced 80 varieties
. This will show and the best samples, cultivated in Europe and America. Exhibited their inspector general fruit and vegetable production in Prussia, director of the royal gardens and gardens in Potsdam, IB. п-п¦я-п¦п¦. However, the jury under the chairmanship of the same п-п¦я-п¦п¦ Grachev awarded the first prize.
His vegetables were exhibited in 1873 - in Vienna, in 1875 - in Cologne, in 1876 - in Philadelphia and Brussels, in 1877-meters - in Paris. In Vienna, wrote: "Entering the Russian department of horticulture, here we find only one exponent of this great state, it Gracheva gardener from St. Petersburg. It would be desirable that every country has at least only one exponent, but such as Grachev. Exhibited them vegetables surpass all that has hitherto been videno in Vienna on this branch of agriculture. Here we see the white and cauliflower to the foot (30.5 cm) in diameter, white and blue headed cabbage to 1-1/2 feet in diameter, radishes, potatoes, yellow and white turnips, beets, cucumbers and pr. All this has a size greater than three times the vegetables, known in our markets. But the gem of the exhibition are a head of cabbage, with a diameter of up to 2 feet (71 cm). This loaf is enough to produce a barrel salted cabbage.
. The question arises: how to evaluate all this with contemporary pozitsiyN As shown Grachev exhibitions - "monster" (heinous) exhibits, . masterfully expelled ample fertilizer, . to impress publikuN Or were they new plant forms, . derived by mating, . hardening, . culling and acclimatization,
. His varieties of corn, melons and water melons, accustomed to the north, we have a warm and Europe supplanted the fact that they primarily zoned ...
It's hard to believe. Much easier to accept the conventional wisdom the idea that our destiny to get the best from the outside. But, as here described, was. It was - 130 years, a dozen wars and a dozen revolutions ago. Largely disappeared. But not all - forever. And someone's garden of ripening strawberries the size of a plum tomato and the size of a small watermelon ...