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Norbert Wiener

( Mathematics)

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Biography Norbert Wiener
(November 26, 1894 - ...)
Our hero, Norbert Wiener, who completed his first fundamental work (the aforementioned "Cybernetics") at age 54. This excerpt describes a remarkable way for ever doubting all great scientist. I think the reader will be able to appreciate the degree of "vystradannosti" materials, presentation of the most famous book Wiener, if you remember the first chapters of biographies of "father of cybernetics."
. Boy, I vytsyganil someone from my mother's friends mnogomudryh maroon book, which adorned the cover of the mysterious word "Cybernetics"
. The book is settled on my own shelves, which belonged to all the free space of ten-room, and was largely determined the fate of its owner. This happened not because the ideas of consonance Wiener I invented the world. From first to last page I read "Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and the Machine" only when preparing the introductory part of your Diploma, . name of which is unlikely to play'll take (something there about the use of pattern recognition theory in constructing a mathematical model of X-ray radiometric rapid analysis of non-ferrous metals),
. So what made me with a touching tenderness to treat this knigeN No matter how funny, the reason for this was the story of another remarkable book. My dad (dragged after her divorce from her mother all the love he had assembled library) considered it his duty to closely monitor my mental development. In my list included Lem, strugatskiye, Sheckley, Bradbury and others of that ilk. But one day he solemnly handed me a book of a Robin George Collingwood, English philosopher and historian of culture. I routinely opened the book and in the middle: bored. This uncle was too tough for me. But since I was already lying on the couch with a book in hand (and did not want to get up), I decided to at least overcome the preface, the author autograph. The story described it, is so impressed that I was suddenly painfully wanted at least a little like a small Robin. And it was this way: a strict father ordered his servants to lock up the culprit of the future Lord Collingwood in the library, prankster took advantage of the situation and climbed the stairs to the very top of the bookshelf, she threw a whole bunch of priceless folios. But who of us in childhood did not hide in shkafuN arranging comfortably on a bookshelf, the boy met to put under his head, a thick volume bound in leather. And then his eyes fell on the title. Read him he could not, the letters were unfamiliar. Looking through the book, Robin made sure that the text printed on the same unknown language. Book beckoned and, after putting it under his head, the boy fell asleep with the thought that the study of mysterious texts devote his life. And so it was. That book was "Dialogues of Plato. My - "Cybernetics" Wiener. I have not read it. But I'm already thinking about it. Strange feeling. Strange book.
Our hero, Norbert Wiener, who completed his first fundamental work (the aforementioned "Cybernetics") at age 54. This excerpt describes a remarkable way for ever doubting all great scientist. I think the reader will be able to appreciate the degree of "vystradannosti" materials, presentation of the most famous book Wiener, if you remember the first chapters of biographies of "father of cybernetics."
. Norbert parents were originally from the small town of Bialystok in Belarus
. Are reputed respectable and reasonable people, had relatively high social status and considerable prosperity. Family Winer did not wait no pogroms, no First World, or fratricidal civil. At the end of the nineteenth century, they left the still outwardly calm and quite prosperous Russia, and moved to the United States. The head of the family, Leo Wiener, soon settled Professor at the Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures at Harvard University. Later he became famous as a leading expert on language interference, . and his attention will switch to the Africans and Indians, . but in the first years of emigration among highbrow colleagues, he became widely known as a translator into English of the immortal work of Alexander revealing Radishcheva "Journey from St. Petersburg to Moscow" and the father of a charming little fellow.,
. The child, named American style Norbert, born November 26, 1894
. , This fact was recorded by federal authorities in the book of receipts and expenditures lives District of Columbia, Missouri. I do not know whether he was circumcised, therefore, I trust you to judge whether the Wiener Jr., right chapter in the book "Famous Jews". (Incidentally, a former major in the Soviet tank forces, Pavel Andreev, for the sake of jokes circumcised during fighting in Afghanistan, his friend, a military surgeon, sturdy, assured me that "all Americans cut their children in childhood").
. Leo from the first days nervously started to fuss around her son, meticulously watching his reflexes, with a natural father's quest to find any obvious signs of genius in his child
. Practicing Professor Viner attacked an innocent child with all the firmness of the latest teaching and educational methods. The boy learned to speak and think simultaneously in several languages, and began to read almost before mastered the difficult art of moving on his own two. In 4 years he was admitted to the parent library, and at 7 years wrote his first scientific treatise on Darwinism. Thus, recall, between the first scientific work and the first public effort occurred nearly half a century painful reflection. However, the interests of the young genius is not limited to questions of biology and the origin of the human race. He with the same enthusiasm quoted terza rima of Dante and pseudoscientific monologue fabulous Paganel. He dreamed of the depths of hell and populated by unknown creatures, mysterious lands at an age when normal children dream of sweet pink cocks and the first letters of the alphabet. His early education was not wasted.
Norbert never really did not study in high school. But 11 years of age he entered the prestigious Taft College, graduating with honors three years later. Sexually mature students looked at 14-year-old bachelor with a puzzled look, bordering on the desire to immediately give the neck. But nimble chubby bespectacled usual press in a disproportionately large head in the narrow shoulders and almost always managed to escape from their enemies. The young Norbert battered at times in the rhetoric. Proud Jewish surname Wiener (German wiener - Venice) is not so easy to wear through the corridors of the American school in the teen age. Straight Yankees at all times, not familiar with the subtle nuances of language, so the word "wiener" they are, for brevity, called the German smoked sausages "wienerwurst", and later gave the word, and does an indecent meaning. (If you've ever heard from an American kindergarten age compassionate "Mammy, . my wee-wee want pee-pee ", . 'll realize, . about what sense I am talking about.) But, . Norbert (even though dad is merit in the field of literature) was not the case before the subtleties of language,
. He is quietly furious and promised to eventually recoup on the descendants of pernicious offenders.
. Thus, in the games, quietly ran days, and the age of 18, Norbert Wiener had already listed as doctor of philosophy, specializing in mathematical logic "at Cornell and Harvard Universities
. At the age of nineteen Dr. Wiener was invited to the chair of mathematics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where he served until the last days of his life maloprimetnoy ". One way or something like this could end biographical story about the father of modern cybernetics. And all the above would be true if not for one hitch: if math Wiener and managed to hide from humanity, then hid it in the shadow of his own glory.
Norbert's father developed a morbid passion for my studies. "When I stopped to learn at least a minute, I thought I stopped breathing. It was akin to blunt instinct "- Wiener recalled already in the older age. Soon, an assistant professor Norbert Wiener cathedral managed to convince the authorities to send him to Europe for a "refresher". And again, he studied. Cambridge - a great eccentric and Russell Hardy, in GцTttingen - a meticulous Hilbert. Saying "and was the favorite disciple of" little, say the same about the complicity in the creation of modern mathematics, and banal, and unnecessarily, at the same time. Norbert was growing up, the first time in his life he gained independence. Once out of reach for the hand of a caring parent, he wanted to suddenly catch up after years of "gifted children" (his own expression). No, he was not allowed at all serious. Far. Our boy was too shy and awkward for a romantic adventure. Wiener allowed himself a much greater sin. He questioned his vocation Mathematical. Future "father of cybernetics" had to try his hand as a journalist okolouniversitetskoy newspaper, to test themselves on the pedagogical field, to serve a couple of months as an engineer at the plant. He simultaneously attended the literary circles (where those years were spinning a lot of people from Russia). But pretty soon, Norbert was disappointed in his attempts to change fate and returned to the States, in the wall home department. In Europe, there was a war, it interfering focus
Somehow, Norbert Wiener was faced with one of his students around the university campus. They exchanged a couple of phrases of greeting and soon got carried away discussing the pressing problems of mathematical. The conversation Viner glanced guiltily at the student and asked: "Excuse me, but from which side I came syudaN" Student respectfully pointed out the direction. Aga. So, I have not eaten "- sadly noted professor. It is not an anecdote.
There, at MIT, Wiener been "fruitful wait time of troubles" between the First and Second World Wars. While all of America is hungry quivering in despair, then consoled great-euphoria, a "pure scientist" doing their job. He managed to become a professor at Harvard, . Cornell, . Columbia, . Brown, . Gottingen and other universities, . to own undivided possession of the department at the Massachusetts Institute of, . written hundreds of articles on the theory of probability and statistics, . by Fourier series and integrals, . on potential theory and the theory of numbers, . to the generalized harmonic analysis, etc., . etc.,
. These were the happiest years of his life. He was young, full of creative plans, talented and absolutely nobody knows. His work was purely academic in nature and could amaze colleagues, but in no way disturb other parts of humanity
Everything changed with the advent of Hitler to power in Germany. Wiener was not so much a hermit, social problems, troubled him not only from the standpoint of mathematical modeling. Waves of Jewish immigrants pouring in 30-ies across the ocean to the New World brought with them the musty smell of death. America became more involved in another war, in which the professor wished to be called to. No, he did not go into the attack and did not even managed the radar (as Doug Engelbart), he was not given any army ranks. Norbert Wiener did not leave the limits of their own department. Just refocus. Now, the focus was placed on the construction of a scientist deterministic stochastic models for the organization and management of U.S. forces defense. Wiener, who first suggested to abandon the practice of firing at individual targets (which had a very low efficiency in a real fight anti-aircraft batteries against the squadron of enemy aircraft). He developed a new efficient probabilistic model of management by the Defense. The task was as difficult as it is interesting. And it is absolutely impossible, at first glance, without the use of today's computer technology. Indeed, what song without the accordion, what a rocket without samonavedeniyaN
But the war ended. And the military term "homing" gave way to a peaceful word "self". With the usual gusto Winer is now shared with colleagues observations from the life of Mickey Mouse. The story has now become a textbook called it this way: "Mouse in the maze". Indeed, if the rodent (accustomed to the intricate burrows) falls for the first time in the new maze, it behaves as follows: tyrkaetsya all the holes, remembering the wrong moves and not repeating them. So, sooner or later, he gets to the target (a piece of cheese, cherished female, the door to another world, etc.). If you let him go in this maze again, he has correctly held all the way from point A to point B. VyvodN mouse in a maze - an example of self-learning system. It remained to establish (or at least describe in detail) some sort artificial mouse. What Wiener and took with his usual fervor.
. His lecture, Professor Norbert Wiener, usually began with the fact, . that shot from the nose glasses, . took out his pocket handkerchief and blew his nose noisily, . then a couple of minutes rifled space in search of the Cretaceous, . found it, . turned away with his back to the audience and abruptly down something on the blackboard,
. Then he mumbled something like "wrong, all wrong, and washed down again. All this could be repeated until the end of the lecture. For a couple of minutes before the bell, Viner, saying: "Here!" Here we are now able to put a full stop! " Get a handkerchief, blew his nose and, without looking at the audience, was removed from the lecture hall. From the memoirs of the famous physicist S. K. Chen.
"Cybernetics" Wiener was released in 1948. She almost immediately was recognized as the world scientific community "work out of a series:", translated into dozens of languages, but understanding of the greatness of this creation came much later. Read "Cybernetics" is difficult (though with this I started this text). Readers need to understand good and in mathematical logic, and in neurophysiology, and in statistics and engineering, and philosophy, to enjoy it. Fundamental trudN Well chtoN I know a lot of good programmers who do not even kept "Cybernetics" in the hands. Likewise, I know very few programmers who kept it in his hands. Read, so all units! What is "cybernetics" N Plato (seemingly randomly mentioned above) argued that the word, like this, the Phoenicians signified complex science of his time, the science of navigation. If Plato and Wiener could meet not only on the bookshelf, an ancient Greek would have changed his own opinion (true more expensive!). For Wiener, Cybernetics - the science of management, communication and information processing technology, living organisms and human society. Science to create artificial intelligence. Science, allows you to manage artificial intelligence.
In special depositories could obtain secret U.S. government report Wiener on the theory of extrapolation of random sequences and processes. The report was issued in a bright yellow cover and among the mathematicians who had access to this material and are experiencing considerable difficulties in reading this report, called "yellow peril". From the memoirs of Professor V. Tikhomirov, Moscow State University.
. Viner believed apparent that many of the conceptual schemes which determine the behavior of living organisms for specific tasks, almost identical patterns characterizing the processes of governance in complex technical systems
. Moreover, he convincingly argues that the social model of governance and management model in the economy can be analyzed on the basis of the same general provisions which are designed for the management frameworks that people. These ideas were developed in the next "popular-mathematics" Labor, known in Russian translation as "Science and Society". Although Viner quite sincerely believed the social sciences "worst area for confirmation of the laws of cybernetics", . creators of communist ideas long locked in his writings Spetskhran, . fear is "socio-political consequences" of his ideas into practice,
. The situation improved somewhat in the 60's, when, sitting in the shadow of the banner "Cybernetics - the service of communism!" Enlightened homo-sovieticus, amazed own boundless courage, was reading "Monday" Strugackih. As for the rest of the world, then the Wiener revered as a great contemporary, showered him winning in every way demanded of him of complicity in the development of cybernetic ideas. Together with Claude Shannon Wiener laid the foundations of modern information theory (incidentally, the word "bit" - also their notion of). In the rays of glory "father of cybernetics" to bask in the whole academy. And then, as it seemed to many, "the old man crazy". Wiener publishes authoritative consecutive two works, . novel "The Tempter" and a philosophical treatise "The Creator and The Golem", . which clearly makes it clear to mankind, . that not only scared awakened them to the element "superhuman thoughts", . but ready to offer their services for annihilation diabolical creations.,
. A couple of months before the death of Norbert Wiener was awarded the Gold Medal to a scientist, the highest award for a man of science in America
. At a festive gathering, . dedicated to this event, . President Johnson said: "Your contribution to science is surprisingly versatile, . your opinion has always been absolutely original, . you are amazing embodiment of the symbiosis of pure mathematics and applied scientist: "At these words, Wiener took his handkerchief and blew his nose prochuvstvenno.,
. He died peacefully in the spring of 64-year in Stockholm
. Golem outlived his Creator.
I realized that science - a vocation and ministry, rather than service. I learned to hate fiercely any deception and intellectual pretense and pride in the lack of shyness in front of any challenge to the decision which I have a chance. All this is worth the suffering that have to pay, but from someone who does not have sufficient physical and moral forces, I would not claim this board. Its not in a position to pay the poor, because it will kill him. Norbert Wiener.


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