BREM, Alfred( naturalist, naturalist, author of the famous 'Animal Life')
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Biography BREM, Alfred
The future scientist, naturalist and author of the famous and interesting "Life of Animals" Alfred Brehm was born the second in February 1829 in the small duchy Germanskoy Empire - Saxe-Weimar (Thuringia). His father was a pastor of a small village Unterrentendor. Cheerful, . friendly, he was a favorite of all the parish, . a little, . cozy cottage he was known not only in Germany, . but almost the whole of Europe: Pastor Christian Ludwig Brehm assembled a large collection of skins of various animals and birds (over nine thousand!), . he sent copies of their collections - for a more precise definition and description - Scientists from around the world,
. The house was kept a huge library, containing not only the theological works, but also all kinds of popular descriptions of flora and fauna of different parts of the world, together with the works of Schiller and Goethe. The sons of the village priest often walked with him through the woods, made a diary of observations for the inhabitants of the local fauna. For eight years, Alfred knew almost no heart, the names of all bird species in their native lands. Parents instilled Bram brothers love them not only to science but also to other sciences: mathematics, history, philosophy, literature. Brother, Alfred, Oscar was not only a talented naturalist, but also tried his hand at translations from the French spelling and small theater plays. One of them he co-wrote with another brother - Reingold, she successfully took several years on the stage. The works of Schiller and Goethe, the brothers knew by heart. All three were very sociable, friendly, make friends easily with people. Alfred, in addition, possessed extraordinary talent for storytelling.
Similar people certify that of Alfred the result would be a good singer or actor.
"However, - as wrote in his biographical essay on Bram K. Krause - he has not chosen a career that. There was even a doctor or scientist and zoologist, as would be expected ... "He chose architecture, which I began to study in Altenburg, in the university, v1843 year. But their lessons, as an amateur naturalist did not leave, his knowledge was very extensive and deep, and the glory of them went beyond the department of architecture.
. Wц+rttemberg lover of nature, adventure and travel Baron Muller suggested Bram traveling with him to Africa, then still a little to explore the "Dark Continent"
. Bram with enthusiasm, without a moment's hesitation, accepted this proposal.
The journey began in the summer of 1847. I started with the adventure. The moment he arrived in Cairo two travelers took to her bed, getting sunstroke. Soon recovered, survived all the horrors of the Cairo earthquake in 1847!
This slowed their preparation for the trip and only 28 September 1847, they got on board the barge, is directed upwards along the Nile. The ship dragged on very slowly, but naturalists have an excellent opportunity to all leisurely observe and record in the log.
. January 8, 1848 travelers arrived in Khartoum, where they were hospitably received the local governor-general.
. In Khartoum, it was decided to establish a headquarters of the expedition: here have been gathered mining hunting, here was established a menagerie for pets
. Bram was a good hunter - used to keep a gun in the hands of eight years, and mining in the tropical forests of the Blue Nile was more than the rich. But Baron Muller somehow seemed that Bram produces few skins for his collection.
This offended the young scientist. He wrote: "I am deeply angered the ingratitude of man who has not experienced any difficulties staying in the African forests, especially with fever. (Bram suffered by it, but even in this condition did not stop observing and hunting!) Then I realized - The scientist - that the works of the naturalist rarely recognized by outsiders. Only a great love for science and a deep understanding of pleasures, which gives it kept me from breaking with him. "
In February 1848 travelers began to travel overland to Kardofanu in the basin of the White Nile, and spent four months in the valley, collecting samples of local flora and fauna
Especially a lot of them came across the lions, eagles, vultures and falcons. For the hunter-naturalist country has just a real paradise, but heavy tropical climate is just exhausting killed and travelers returned to Khartoum very sick. From there, some time later, they went with all collections and menagerie in Cairo. January 29, 1849 Baron Muller sat in Alexandria on a ship to go to Europe. Bram remain in Egypt and the subsidy Mueller made a second trip to Africa. All collections gathered by them, acted in favor of Muller. In Egypt, Bram remained until May 1850. He is very thorough study of the life, manners and customs of the people of this country and enjoyed great respect among them. They gave him the name of Khalil Effendi. 24fevralya 1850 Bram received money from the Baron Mueller, taken in company with his older brother Oscar, a talented scientist and an entomologist, and the physician P. Firtalerom journey along the banks of the Nile. They reached the rugged and little-known village of Wadi Galfa. The collection is enriched their increasingly rare species, growing with each passing day. But then came the terrible misfortune.
Oscar Bram drowned while bathing in a river in the town of New Dongola. Mount Alfred was profound and inconsolable - he passionately loved her brother, believing that his great future scientist and naturalist. Oscar was buried in the desert, . Alfred and despair expressed in, . in its extensive encyclopedia "Animal Life" he is extremely restrained mentioned insects and left for many reprints without editorial changes those texts, . prepared by Oscar,
. June 13, 1850 the convoy returned to Khartoum, where the governor has already changed
. However, it took more than welcome travelers and even lent Bram money when he has exhausted the means, and the Baron Mueller did not send new ones.
Activities Bram was short-lived in Khartoum. Soon he went to the forests of the Blue Nile, Sennar and then far beyond the. Expedition provided rich material for the collections Bram and descriptions of different species. In March 1851 in Khartoum has come, finally, the long awaited letter from Baron Mueller, but its content saddened Bram: Baron wrote that he was totally bankrupt and therefore could not send money. The situation was desperate scientist: no money, far from home ... What could be worse etogoN "good thing - writing E. Krause - that the local Muslim merchants, who fed him the respect, had loaned him small sums. But not all the same to him mooch! And had to include not only members of the expedition, but also a large menagerie of animals: there were birds, monkeys, crocodiles, lion ... All these wild animals in the capable hands of Bram become home of friends at home. "
Not knowing how to cope with their situation, Bram spent the whole Sudan! 4 months. He was then loaned the money the governor, and one fellow, a German merchant, who arrived in Sudan, offered a naturalist in vain to bring all the animals and the collection in Cairo. After taking away all their luggage Bram went to Cairo, to rest during the winter and summer of 1852 went to Europe.
In Vienna, he had to sell part of its treasures, and leave with a right, the beloved hand-lioness Bahidoy to pay debts. But he was now completely independent and with a light heart went to his home, where he arrived July 16, 1852.
. He finally stopped thinking about the architecture, all devoted himself to natural science, for what and entered first in Jena, then at the University of Vienna
. At the same time he began his literary career: he printed ornithological essays in magazines and was one of the founders of the German Ornithological Society.
In 1855 they were issued "Travel Sketches from the north-eastern Africa. In 1856 he went to travel to Spain, then he visited Norway and Lapland. In 1861, all the individual articles have been collected and published in a book titled "The Life of Birds".
It wants to see that the life of Bram - true life zealot - a scientist, a lover of nature and animals. In the biographical notes on Bram we will find the date of travel and date of publication of his popular science works, but the date of his personal life, his personal dramas and tragedies, will remain for us a sealed book. Same E. Krause wrote, . that Duke Ernst of Saxe-Coburg, invited the young scientist to travel with him to Abyssinia and Upper Egypt, and Alfred Brehm took with him on this journey a young wife, . But who was this woman - should be brave, and extremely fond of her husband, . once went with him to a distant African Switzerland (so-called Bram Abyssinia) - Unknown,
. In books and encyclopedias name Bram faithful wife, accompanied him everywhere, sharing with them the sorrows and joys, reared children, and died in 1878, not mentioned at all!
. The result was a new travel book of essays, which appeared in the world in 1863
. In this work the first time clearly supports talent Bram, as surprising a narrator and observer of life of animals in all its forms, habits, inclinations, character, habits, habitat.
. At the same time in Bram was born the idea - to present common language, . in interesting stories and essays, . understandable and not professionals, . Observation, . made to them from their travels, . - And here, . in 1863 Gildburgtauzene, . appears the first volume of the famous "Illustrated Life of Animals",
. Taking into account that until now there has been such a description, one can imagine that this was a huge effort!
. Bram help: Professor Taushenberg, has taken the articles on insects and spiders, and Oscar Schmidt accepting the articles on the development of the lower animals
. Work illustrators divided among themselves artists Krechner and E. Schmidt. But the main part of the work lay entirely at the Bram, it only in 1869 could finish his work. In the light came six bulky volumes.
During the publication of the first volume Bram offered a director of a zoological garden in Hamburg. He readily accepted the offer with his usual zeal, arranged and expanded the garden, but could not get along with fellow zoologists, who denied the innovations, and in 1866 he left Hamburg and venue director.
. After Hamburg Bram was the organizer of the Berlin Aquarium, one of the most popular and most beautiful in Germany
. Here, the scientist used all his strength, applied all the knowledge (including architecture), to make the aquarium model. He made his point, but are not able to get along and in 1874 gave place.
. Since then, he lived only a literary work or lectures, lecturer, he was fine: read the simple, but extremely exciting.
. In 1872 he began to write his book "Birds in captivity"
. She became a desktop for all lovers of birds. This work was written and processed to 1876 Bram. Having dealt with him, indefatigable worker began for the second edition of his "Life of Animals", much enlarged and revised them.
. Few people know that in 1876, Bram also undertook a trip to Siberia on the funds delivered Bremen merchants and Russian industrialist Sibiryakov.
. Alfred Brehm then traveled part of Turkestan to the Tau and much of Siberia to the Kara Sea
. Traveling has given him a wealth of material in zoology and ethnography. He met with representatives of many nationalities: Kalmyks, Kirgiz, Ostyaks, Samoyeds. Undoubtedly, the description of your trip would give a lot of interesting. But Brehm did not have time to do this. Traveling across Siberia, the last great journey into the life of Alfred Brehm. Since then he has made only small, albeit with a scientific purpose, trips to Hungary and Spain (1878-79). In 1883 he also toured in North America, where he read popular lectures on his travels.
. It was a time when it was on all sides poured insignia: honorary title of professor of various universities, a member of the popular scientific societies, orders
. Being by nature a modest man, not lyubivshem flattery, Brehm said little about its merits and awards, but with enthusiasm, he could talk for hours about travel, visions and domesticated animals they. On any evening or a public lecture he became the soul of society, conquering originality of mind, manners and subtlety of a magnificent sense of humor. Around him was always a lot of young people, students, who adored the cheerful and witty professor with cheerful and radiant blue eyes and proud bearing and magnificent mane of gray hair. Bram said that communicating with them, he does not feel his age!
But along with joy and recognition followed the scientists and the great tribulation. In 1877 Bram lost his mother in 1878 - a spouse, but during a trip to North America, died of his favorite - the younger son.
. These hardships, combined with enhanced classes, so failing health Alfred Brehm, that he returned from America, very ill
. He started kidney disease. November 11, 1884 the famous naturalist died.
Outstanding work of his "Life of Animals" was subsequently reworked again and added a German natural scientist, Professor Pehuel-Loesche, which released in 1890, third edition. Additions were made later, respectively, as the study of new species of animals and birds.
. Book, . excellent written language, . available, . intelligibly, . complete thin and live observations on the mysterious world of animals up to date so far, . not lost its value not only as a fundamental research work, . but also as a fascinating and informative reading for all ages and generations,
. In the words of E Krause, "it (ie. Bram book - the author.) and now stands at a height of modern science, while remaining deeply interesting and instructive for any reader. "
March 9, 2001, Mr.. Svetlana Makarenko.
In preparation of this article draws upon the sketch of Dr. Z. Krause's "Biography of Alfred Brehm", placed in 1 volume edition of "Animal Life" Moscow Izdatel'stvo "Terra" in 1992