Walter Raleigh( Special Interests)
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Biography Walter Raleigh
Twice a year, in a quiet little park, London, in the center of which stands a monument to a man who lived over three hundred years ago, serious passions boil. The cause of unrest deans of Londoners is he, Sir Walter Raleigh. His birthday notes from grateful followers. A day of execution - bitter opponents.
Wet snow sprinkled with gray London sky and immediately melts in the brown traffic jam at the gloomy walls of the Tower. Suddenly started singing pipes and opened wide the gates. Winter sun sparkling on the helmets and halberds convoy, splitting in embroidered cloaks suite of semi-precious stones and studded with emeralds dress Elizabeth. The procession slowly moved forward and stood still in a huge puddle: the Queen does not dare to set foot in the mud woven silver morocco slippers. Courtiers puzzled frozen in a respectful stupor ... And nobody knows how many have lasted for confusion, if not for a young gentleman. He came out from the crowd and threw it under the feet of Elizabeth of England his scarlet velvet cloak. And the only decoration wardrobe Walter Raleigh, for which he paid all that has been accumulated over the past three years, set foot statuesque fiery red empress. Their eyes met. Her piercing eyes and firm chin spoke of a man's mind and strong will. She looked at the bent before her in an elegant bow, all right young man, said to himself, his slim, muscular legs, showing the endurance of love battles ... Elizabeth smiled almost imperceptibly and majestically floated by Walter Raleigh, followed moved suite. Cape, boots trampled hundred courtiers, remained lying in the dirt - a young man traded him as part of Fortune.
. This happened in 1581 - England in those days was the ideal place for strong and courageous young men, deftly wielded the sword and pen, trying to bend themselves under the age
. Raleigh was one of them - but this has not yet guessed neither he nor those around him.
. ... In one of the London theaters started his career as an actor Shakespeare: stout gangly young man gave no hope, no one took seriously
. In a restaurant "head hog" every night knocking on the table with a mug of London frequenter of brothels brawler Marlo. Through drunken hubbub and clatter of dice often heard desperate screams tavern girl - fucking Marleau left again without paying!.. The fact that this drunk and rowdy become the pride of English literature, nobody, of course, not even guess. It consisted of a salary in the royal secret service and wrote best-selling pieces.
Many of these have not yet recognized geniuses happened to exchange their tvoreiya a bottle of wine and spend the night at the tavern bench. But such was Walter Raleigh: he firmly clutched in his good fortune, and she carried it to the top.
Elizabeth English was an intelligent woman, she could see right through people. The young officer galloped up with a report from the rebellious Irish, it seemed a sensible young man, his speech and manners occurred queen virgin taste. Raleigh remained at court, and soon the gentlemen of the suite respectfully took off their caps to him.
He receives a wine monopoly. Now he does not have to rack your brains than with the innkeepers to pay for dinner. For wealth and honor should be: in the throne room of Raleigh kneeling, Elizabeth strikes him on the shoulder blade naked - and he rises from the earth knight. Now the royal hunt, he rides next to the Empress: the hounds rush forward, crash on the sides of a deer, an animal keeper enough fallen by the horns, and Walter, obeying the royal nod, he cuts off his head with a sword. At the court balls he has Elizabeth in a ceremony of court dances. But even the royal maid did not know when he was able to pave the way to her bedroom.
Love Empress - a special art: too much perseverance sometimes punishable Plakhov and timidity - excommunication from the court. Life and death of Walter Raleigh is now caught in the dry freckled fist of Elizabeth of England. He has to wait for a barely perceptible nod, gesture, smile ... Finally she decided, she said with a chest hoarse: "Stay here, Sir Walter". And more ... More rustled ties woven gold dress, look dim, thin lips relaxed, and the queen fell on his chest to Sir Walter.
. Shortly Raleigh got a tin monopoly, and the rank of captain of the royal guard and settled in the magnificent mansion, granted by him to the Crown.
. ... On the table are scattered folios, dymyatsya cup with grog, Sir Walter, in soft boots stretched out on a carved wooden bed
. In the corner of a huge globe peacefully side by side with a human skeleton, the wall in full readiness to stand knight's armor - chest cuirass paved with gold ornaments, the visor is omitted, gauntlets squeezed the hilt of the sword. At the table sit friends
In his youth he studied at Oxford, Raleigh, and there acquired a taste for belles-lettres. His poetry has enjoyed great success with the British Humanist and philosophical works he studied diligently university professors. Here and now in his house gathered a circle, which is called "School of night". Well-meaning Londoners are afraid of the members of this community and called unchristian. Christopher Marlowe, Thomas Harriot, and George Chapman read poetry, criticized the Scriptures, discussing the creation of the world. By the fireplace nestled Lawrence Kemis, he also no stranger to poetry, but it more appealing to the sword. After several days of Raleigh and Kemis climb aboard armed with heavy guns of the ship and go in search of the legendary country of Eldorado, where houses are built of gold and silver are paving the road, and people live without knowing cares and sorrows
. Raleigh searching for El Dorado in South America: the expedition took place 450 kilometers along the Orinoco, has lost most of the people, but El Dorado was never found
. But Raleigh was brought to England a lot of gold, and founded a colony on Roanoke Island. But twenty years later, when Raleigh returned to this land, he discovered: the houses, warehouses and walls remain, but the colonists disappeared without a trace. Blond and blue-eyed Indians on Roanoke occur and to this day, but the fate of their ancestors had remained a mystery.
Walter Raleigh had long disappeared, hunting for glory. In the New World, he founded the first British colony, naming it Virginia - in honor of his queen virgin. From there, he brought tobacco to Europe, first started smoking a pipe and put this thing in fashion. Meanwhile, in the heart of the Queen have been major changes ...
At the court appeared Robert Devere, the second Earl of Essex. To the best kind and the extent of cocky, ingratiating, amiable and smarmy, Essex became the new favorite of Her Majesty. Now, Walter Raleigh, having escaped the castle Kilkolman could give in science and poetry. But Essex insulted monarch: he had married for love, and paid for it with his head. Rejected favorite Walter Raleigh returned to the palace - but here and with it came a great tragedy: the poet and scholar, courtier and famous pirate fell in love with a boy.
... Ship heels and squeaked, and the wind shook the royal banner, carved stern enveloped in sea foam. London Sir Walter gave a splendid sendoff: the Queen herself drank to success of a new military campaign. The fact that it is rather flee, Elizabeth English has not yet guessed, not knowing that her lover had married a young maid of honor, a charming Elizabeth Trokmorton.
. In Raleigh had many enemies - including those in the Star Chamber, in whose jurisdiction was the secret police
. And soon the Queen knew all. The vaunted restraint changed to Her Majesty, . when young Trokmorton gave her a silver basin of water for a morning wash: pelvis wretch flew in the face, . and Raleigh went to the royal frigate - the captain received orders to return to England Sir Walter is alive or dead.,
. There was a chase, honorable conclusion in kapitnskoy cabin and, finally, the camera in the Tower of London
. Queen (in red hair and appeared gray paint from the color become almost fiery, . and covered with a thick layer of white and ruddy face was like a carnival mask) did not hesitate to sent him behind the Essex on the block, . but Sir Walter fortune smiled again,
. Ship Raleigh without him back in London, leading the Portuguese schooner full of gold. And then it turned out that sailors stole the queen and the proportion of well-hidden ends. Crown started a long lawsuit with glorious popiratstvovavshim crew. Monarch came to the aid of Sir Walter: straight from prison, he went on board his ship - and the share of Elizabeth has grown from ten to eighty thousand pounds sterling. Raleigh bought his freedom, but the doors of the royal palace were closed to him forever.
His era was buried along with his queen: burning torches, in the cold bedchamber lay shriveled body of the deceased, bright-red hair removed the diamond mesh. In London entered a new monarch, King of Scotland, James I: to the British crown, he traded his mother's life of Mary Stuart, and waited patiently for the death of Elizabeth, bequeathed him the throne. Jacob was a complete nonentity: he only became famous treatise on witches so hard about the dangers of tobacco. Strong people are impressed on him the last of the reign of anxiety: the first casualty of the new king was Walter Raleigh.
Against him, was absurd accusation: he allegedly conspired to put on the throne of another monarch. Part of the jury, shocked by how courageously Raleigh behaved in court, on his knees begging to give the defendant lives. Yet the royal court sentenced him to be quartered: rejected by heaven and earth traitor should be hung between. Heart and entrails thrown into the fire, because in their innermost recesses, he nursed his intention lower. His castrated, so on the ground after no remaining seed. Head otsekut, for the mind directed his actions. Earth does not take the body of the traitor exhibited for the amusement of the crowd, it will become food for crows ... Execution of Sir Walter waited for more than ten years: Jacob hung over Raleigh's sentence as ax
Tower Tower, which for many years languished a captive, is still called "Tower of Raleigh". Here, Sir Walter wrote sonnets and wrote the famous "History of the World". Immediately, in the chamber, he gave lessons to Prince Henry: sentenced to death became a tutor heir to the throne! Jacob needed Raleigh, and he often resorted to his advice. In particular, when his daughter Elizabeth to woo an Italian prince, King discussed the candidates for the suitors with his captive. Sir Walter advised to refuse an Italian look and groom in Germany - such a union can best serve the interests of England. Jacob did, but the sentence did not revoke his advisor - the King was true to himself. He was afraid of the conspirators, did not like the wise men, and hated tobacco, with a light hand of Sir Walter went into the increased use.
Raleigh was not afraid of death. His hair each year was added silver, and, increasingly, at night he dreamed of a happy land of Eldorado.
. And again he was looking for the blessed country ships, and faithful comrade Lawrence Kemis seized and plundered Spanish town, and the Spanish ambassador demanded that Elizabeth satisfaction ..
. When 66-year-old Sir Walter put his head on the block and the executioner in a red cap, said his head is not rotated, Raleigh smiled and cheerfully said: "It does not matter, would the soul is turned right". These were his last words: the sun shone upon the sharp blade of an ax in his ears thunder struck, his eyes blazed thousands of lights - and all ended. Body of Raleigh exhibited for the amusement of the crowd.
.. Twice a year, a quiet park in London's seething passions, and bronze Sir Walter silently watching the noisy scuffle smokers with those who do not accept this pernicious habit. Maybe he remembers the verse "On the soul-saving benefits of tobacco smoking", which infuriated King James, not without reason, ascribed to him, an atheist and freethinker:
. Looked at the smoke going upward,
. And the futility of the earth be surprised.
. The world of beauty - only smoke empty.
. Khoury tobacco, and think ...
. When the grass will burn to ashes
. Will an ash.
. With our plotN Ashes pinch.
. Khoury tobacco and think ...