Thomas Lipton( Inventor Lipton tea bags)
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Biography Thomas Lipton
Chinese "cha-e", "young leaf", "marvelous elixir". Japanese ceremony, the complex and fascinating as a character. The aroma is comparable with the smell of Indian spices. English five-o'clock. Yesterday - this is big politics and big money. Today - a paper bag labeled with a thread and still a lot of money. All this - tea. In the long history of tea from becoming a luxury in the most popular beverage on earth visible role played two men - a Glasgow grocer Thomas Lipton and a trader from New York, Thomas Sullivan.
. In May 1850 the family of Mr. and Mrs. Lipton, newly arrived in Glasgow from Ireland, fifth child was born
. Thomas was the last hope is already middle-aged Lipton - the first two children died in infancy, the health of the remaining sons and daughters of parents caused serious concerns. Who does not like a little Tom will assist parents in the grocery lavkeN Since five years he had the wisdom to know the trading business: though a tiny shop of his parents' capacity less than five customers at the same time, the work lacked all. And since Tom left an only child (his brother and sister died when he was not even ten), had to forget even about classes in school. Parents could not get enough of: good grows assistant, if things go smoothly, may, instead of the small shops will open the store more.
But Tom was not attracted by the prospect protorchat entire life in his father's shop. His native of Glasgow, which is located near major shipyards of the time, was the main point of departure of ships carrying cargo and passengers to America. Every day, Tom, graciously smiling customers, wistfully thinking about those who at this very moment, crossing the Atlantic - they surely face extraordinary adventures in the New World. And in 1865, fifteen-Thomas Lipton joined their number.
During the first three years of his life in America, Thomas traveled to the western states in search of work. Recent graduate civil war plunged the country into deep economic depression. To survive, Lipton had to take on any job - to grow rice in South Carolina or twist tobacco leaves in Virginia, but it's obvious destiny to become a grocer Lipton was not avoided.
. In 1868 he became a seller of one of the grocery department stores in New York (department stores have appeared in America recently - born in Philadelphia, a new form of trading quickly spread to all major cities)
. Becoming a cog in a huge commercial machine, Lipton received a unique opportunity to see how well organized its work - thought everything: the location of goods on the shelves before the methods of communication with customers. And the motto of American merchants "In God we trust, . all others pay cash "(" In God we trust, . all others pay cash ", the first part of this motto from the middle of XIX century printed or minted at all U.S. banknotes) Thomas Lipton remembered for a lifetime.,
. In 1871 he returned to the UK
. His new knowledge, lessons learned and earned 100 pounds, he decided to invest in their own business - a grocery store in his native Glasgow. At first, Lipton had to combine the duties of, the seller, buyer, cashier, and messenger. He brought in a cart the goods from the quay, . he delivered purchases to customers, . personally pay a visit to vendors and not for a moment stopped to reflect on, . how to attract customers and make, . to, . going into his shop once, . they became his regular customers,
. It would be good to resort to advertising, with the possibilities that Thomas had met in America. But money is not enough - Lipton stubbornly unwilling to raise prices in his shop, even for this, even had always wander in the surrounding farms, and, without intermediaries, to buy goods directly from manufacturers.
. Without extra funds, Lipton was forced to complete the coil used their imagination and ingenuity
. In the window were intricately laid products themselves showcases painted with funny pictures, posters, inviting the store changes every week - they drew a specially hired cartoonist Willie Lockhart. It worked: the people at the shop was crowded day and night (illuminated display gas burners). Gradually venture Lipton became more ambitious. What cost, . example, . the world's largest piece of cheese, . ordered them in America, especially for Christmas 1881! Living in Glasgow had a long discussion, . as the mountain of cheese delivered to the store by dray, . What turns him lined up and how all cheese was sold in two hours.,
. Business went so well that 11 years after opening its first store Lipton is owned by twenty outlets across western Scotland, and in 1885 acquired a factory for packaging and food stores in Chicago
. Later it was opened a few stores in America. Income 40-year-old Lipton allowed him at any time to retire and finally relax - to go, for example, in the distant voyage. But better - in a journey that could be usefully.
In 1890, Thomas Lipton tea business starts. Time to start was not chosen by chance: coffee, the only drink that can make tea competition, was in extremely short supply because of the disease has spread to Ceylon coffee leaf. Most of the coffee plantations on the island went under the hammer, or was planted with tea bushes. Land prices unheard fell and enterprising Lipton, competitors confusing stories about what goes next to open stores in Australia, secretly went to Ceylon where he bought five tea plantations with total area of 5500 acres.
. Lipton tea conquered the market for all the rules of military science
. His plantation, he made a testing ground for all comes at a time of technological innovation. When it seemed that the delivery of tea from the plantation to the point of processing takes too much time, he invented cable cars to transport baskets of leaves. He even had her own fleet - first clippers, light sailing ships, capable of developing great for those times the speed, and then the ships, more spacious and less dependent on the weather. The arrival of the ship with tea and unloading in the port accompanied by a real parade with the participation of the Singhalese orchestra, colorful members of which, dancing and playing on exotic instruments, followed by the boxes of tea.
. Lipton clearly see the target: tea should be affordable and not lose as
. "From the plantation directly into the cup" - this slogan appeared on posters plastered Lipton in all British trains and buses. Having a large planter, he could dispense with many intermediaries - and Tea from Lipton became significantly cheaper than the rest. But that's the problem: from the time of mixing in the sheep manure tea for cheaper tea firmly entrenched bad reputation. To convince the public opinion, Lipton had to hire the best blenders (specialists comprising tea mixture) - let them take into account even a nuance, as water hardness, which also depends on the taste of tea. In addition, he has changed the mechanism of trade - declined from the sale of tea on weight and sold it packed in a carton box. Finally, he made a very recognizable packaging for tea - to the public, once tasted beverage company, has remained faithful to him.
. Here, Lipton was not mistaken - his tea, packaged in neat bundles with the image of the Singhalese beauty with a basket on his head, became a kind of symbol of the era
. A Lipton himself firmly entrenched in popular culture of the time - he was in the cartoons, couplets and non-repertory music hall. Big fan of tea, Lipton became Queen Victoria - she felt that the contribution of Thomas Lipton in the case of an "English way of life" worthy of the title of Sir. In 1897, Lipton was knighted. But in order for tea was not just affordable, but also the most popular beverage, it was not enough. We needed one more little step. Its the beginning of XX century, and made an American, Thomas Sullivan.
There is now a huge variety of disposable paper bags - they are flat and wide, round and square, with threads of and without. Pack everything in them that requires boiling water - tea black, green, red, leaves, roots, flowers, herbs. The most common folded twice rectangular bags (a form they were given in 1952 by specialists Lipton) - so hot water to better penetrate tea leaves. But the very first tea bag was a small silk bag. His hand-sewed a young New York dealer Tom Sullivan.
Sullivan, of course, heard of the Lipton, but not even guessed that he first began selling tea is not on weight and packaging. He just delivered tea of New York restaurants and really wanted to get rich. Considering that the tea in small packaging possible to gain more money, in 1904, Sullivan offered customers tea, packed in small silk bags stitched by hand. And has not lost: restaurateurs like new. From tea leaves, there was so much debris in the kitchen, and silk bags could not even untie - easy to brew and tea in them.
New idea quickly spread. In restaurants, cafes and tea of New York began to brew tea in bags, only made them no longer made of silk and gauze - both cheaper. Ten years after, . as the first silk bag with the tea found its buyer, . TEA was leaked not only professional chefs - many traders found, . that sell tea in disposable packaging is very beneficial, . and began to acquire a special apparatus for packaging tea,
. In 1914, the convenience of tea bags appreciated and Europe: for the soldiers who fought in the First World War, they were just what we needed
. And the tea bag started its rapid and triumphant march around the world. It is now impossible to find a man who would never in my life had a cup of tea bags. Although fastidious gourmets do not recognize this tea (he says, and sort of not the leaves and small), but a gourmet - he is a gourmet and to always criticize.