Armand Hammer( create a museum, research center and a charitable foundation named after himself.)
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Biography Armand Hammer
(21.5.1898 - 10.12.1990)
Armand Hammer lived for 92 years and has done everything possible that his name not forgotten after death. He wrote a memoir, ordered several biographies. Constantly speaking in the press statements and did not skimp on the interview. A museum, research center and a charitable foundation named after himself. Made sure that his name was lined with golden letters in the Hall of Fame in New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art. He founded the film studio, which was supposed to embody the life of Armand Hammer for future generations. For many years the persistently sought the Nobel Prize and the British title of nobility. He was the only capitalist United States, awarded the Order of Lenin. And also received awards and became the holder of 25 honorary degrees from twelve countries of the world.
In general, Hammer did not doubt in his posthumous fame. So he said: "I will do so that people will remember me only one thing - that I helped mankind with hitherto unheard-of scale. My life would take a miracle. "
Armand Hammer was born in New York in 1898. His parents and close relatives were from Odessa. My uncle worked as a distributor of Odessa Ford. His father, Julius Hammer, was a practicing gynecologist, and after moving to America and founded another pharmaceutical company. This Hammer Sr. was an ardent communist, one of the organizers and the owner of the ticket бL 1 U.S. Socialist Workers' Party (Communist Party of the future). The elder son, he has given "speaking" name: the translation from English Arm and Hammer - is "an arm and hammer.
. When Armando turned 21, his father was arrested for illegal abortion at home, ending in the same patient's death, and sentenced to ten years in prison
. Hammer Sr. went to New York at Sing Sing, and Hammer, Jr. decided to continue his father's business. He graduated from medical college, but not one day has not completed a medical practitioner (although his life was known as "Dr. Hammer" and very proud). He was more interested in his father's pharmaceutical company and the American prohibition. He devised an ingenious way to bypass it - as a drug Hammer began selling alcoholic ginger tincture, which, when mixed with ice, turned into a coveted reviver. One year later, Hammer was a millionaire.
In 1920, Hammer, a successful businessman and member of the Communist Party USA, went to Russia. One of the reasons for the trip - the need to deal with the Russian, owes his company $ 150 thousand. But there was another interest, find out whether it is possible profitable to sell drugs in the country, where in addition to the outbreak of famine and devastation, and yet terrible epidemic of typhoid. Meeting with Lenin, whom Armand had heard from his father almost from the cradle (Hammer Sr. met with the leader of the world proletariat in Europe in 1907), did not disappoint his expectations. Later, Hammer Jr. recalled that he was ready to jump out the window, if so requested by the leader. But Lenin asked him about something else: to make Americans understand the benefits of trade with the Soviets. Of course, the percentage of each transaction. Ham-measure, this perspective so inspired that when he returned to Russia for several months, he stayed there for nine years and has represented more than 30 American companies, including Ford Motor Co. and Underwood Typewriter. He opened it in Russia and his work.
Armand Hammer quickly realized that the vanguard of the proletariat of the world needs more food than medicine, and arranged the delivery to the country of American grain in exchange for furs and caviar. For this the Soviet government gave him the first in Soviet history, a private concession - on the extraction of asbestos in the Urals. But the biggest achievement of Ham-measure in Russia has been building in Moscow pencil factory - the first year of its profits exceeded $ 1 million
Life in Moscow Hammer liked. He married the daughter of the king's officer, Olga von Root, and settled in the 24-room mansion, which served eight excluding the driver. And most importantly, a Humvee was almost the official status of "red capitalists", which enjoys the patronage of the State and personally acquainted with its leaders - with all, beginning with Lenin and ending with Gorbachev. This image of Hammer, as he could, cultivated. In his memoirs, he explained his position to the Soviet leaders: that Lenin on his deathbed ordered successors always around to help "young Hammer". But life as we know, prosaic. When in the late 20's in the Soviet Union began fighting Nepmen, Hammer was forced to hand over all their enterprise to the state. Most of the money invested in Russia, failed to take. But as compensation, Stalin proposed the Hammer to become a financial agent of the Soviet Union and seek in the West in exchange for tight means the Soviet government. Of course, for a Hummer, as any agent relied generous commission. In addition, Hammer for 70 years was a Soviet agent of influence for the West and engaged in money laundering that are shipped to foreign friends (as evidenced by documents from newly accessible archives of the KGB and FBI). But this is not all. Leaving Russia, Hammer on behalf of the Soviet leadership had brought for sale in the United States objects of Russian art (paintings, jewelry, silver, FabergцL items), which he named only as "the treasures of the Romanovs". At the same time with the state took control Armand Hammer and his own private collection of Russian paintings. The Soviet period of his life ended.
In the U.S. Hummer quickly figured out how to sell the profitable Russian art. Since a picture things went slowly (many of them were actually just the old stuff or fakes), . he put them in department stores and managed to extract the maximum benefit from this, together with Government property he sold, and their own values,
. A little later established in America, production of fake Faberge eggs - Hummer nameplate stocked up back in Moscow.
Naturally, he continued to operate and its first gold mine, a human weakness for alcohol. When in 1933, was repealed prohibition, Hammer, using connections in Russia, began to import into the U.S. of Russia's timber for beer barrels - the demand was huge. In this way earned the money was acquired plant in Kentucky, who took the questionable quality of whiskey. By selling this swill at very low prices, Hammer was able to capture significant market share. The next step-the creation of United Distillers of America. Although during the Second World War in the United States was again temporarily put dry law, Hammer was able to bargain for a permit to manufacture liquor. Moreover, he knocked a state grant to expand its production. By 1946 United Distillers became the largest private company in America, producing alcohol.
. The idea of expanding its business prompted the second wife of the Hammer (the first ran soon after his arrival in the U.S., went to sing gypsy songs in Hollywood)
. Wastes from the production of alcohol started to sell Hummer as feed for livestock and even carried away by livestock on the farm of his second wife in New Jersey. Way, his second marriage, too, proved unsuccessful. He set his mistress, and when she became pregnant, had promised to marry her. But instead sent her to Mexico and forced to conclude a marriage of the child is not wearing his name. Meanwhile, he divorced his second wife, and soon, in 1956, newly married advantageously - a wealthy widow, Francis Barrett.
He was already 58. He sold the United Distillers and moved to Los Angeles. The couple was shown that there comes a quiet old age, when a friend suggested Armand Hammer to purchase a small oil company Occidental Petroleum - "Oxy". With its purchase started a second life Hammer in business, although he knew nothing about oil. Five years later it was discovered the first major field, and another five annual turnover exceeded $ 500 million. By the end of the 80's "Oxy" was published in 14 th place among the industrial companies in the U.S..
Hammer, an extended stay in Russia, of course, left its imprint on his style of doing business. The laws of the free market were alien to him. He built his business based on the fact that all the benefits (under their Humvee understood primarily money) come from the state, but because the main thing to get the state order. In this area he was not equal. He did not hesitate to ask the Secretary General, presidents, kings, dictators, terrorist. I always knew how to find the key to their hearts and wallets - money, gifts, threats, promises, finally, just flattery. For instance, Brezhnev and Gorbachev, he was flattered by the fact that they remind him of Lenin. Hammer considered friends of Prince Charles, Queen Mother, Margaret Thatcher, the French president's wife Danielle Mitterrand, the son of American President Franklin D. Roosevelt, James, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin. Frank Sinatra devoted Hammer serenade, entitled "Mr. Wonderful ".
Thanks to contacts and ability to build their Humvee was commissioned to build a gas pipeline from Siberia to Japan, the development of huge coal mine in China, the supply of chemical fertilizers in the Soviet. Shortly before his death he planned to establish an international Aircraft Corporation involving Israel, the U.S. and the USSR. When the militants threatened to disrupt the construction of the pipeline in Colombia, Hammer bought off them, paying $ 3 million. Greatest, the success of the Soviet approach to business brought him to Libya, where they found a large oil field. Local officials received large bribes, and the King of Libya - a very tempting offer. Hammer told him that he was ready to drill water wells and a water on the "small homeland" of the monarch. Zhelannaya concession was obtained.
The hardest thing was with American presidents - but neither the Republicans nor the Democrats could not avoid meetings with the Communist Hammer. This helped him Albert Gore Sr..
Albert Gore Sr. was a modest school teacher, but one day decided to try his luck and in the late 30's began to fight for a seat in the House of Representatives. This is the place he received. But at the same time and location of Armand Hammer, who has always cared about the fact that Gore did not empty his pockets, and after the resignation awarded him a place on the board of directors "Oxy" (Gore led the company's coal division and received $ 500 thousand. year). In response, courtesy of Gore Sr. ensure patron access to Washington's corridors of power. It was he who helped Hammer acquainted with several American presidents, and one Albert Gore had even managed to stop the FBI investigation, which is not without reason, suspected of having links with the Hammer of the KGB. Family tradition continued Gore Jr., was elected to the Senate in 1980: at its invitation Armand Hammer watched the inauguration of President Reagan's special box reserved for the senators.
. But once, when the duo Hammer-Gore tried to win the favor of President Nixon, have resulted in scandal
. For illegal donations in cash to the Nixon election fund Hammer was brought to trial. At first he tried to deny everything, but this only made things worse. Then he immediately went to the hospital, saying that he could not attend the court hearing for health. When that did not help, he entered the courtroom in a wheelchair, accompanied by dozens of doctors who were supposed to follow the testimony of numerous sensors that runs around the patient. Court, of course, showed leniency to the elderly and the sick man, sentenced him to imprisonment conditionally. A few days Humvee as if nothing had happened already received visitors in his office. Yet the verdict (Hammer was pardoned only in 1989) badly tarnished his reputation. Because of his Humvee had not received the Nobel Prize and longed English nobility. And because he was forced to spend huge sums to charity, so in memory of descendants remained exactly the brighter the image.
. By the end of the 80's Hammer owned only 1% of "Oxy", but regarded himself as its rightful owner, often without noticing the difference between the budget and the company's own purse
. He spent her money on the purchase of works of art, the exhibition of his collection, Conference on Human Rights, celebrating his own birthday, personal, lawyers, bodyguards, and, finally, on a personal Boeing 727. But the most significant investments were made in own name. Once through the "Oxy" Hammer even bought 15% stake in Arm & Hammer, baking soda produces, "just because a company with that name should belong only to the Hammer.
. Money interested him only insofar as they helped to create the image easier to remember descendants
. The same objective - the promotion of its own name - and pursued patronage Hammer, which seemed to him one of the easiest ways to stay in the history. He once said that he had two goals in life: to stop the cold war and defeat cancer. The first was achieved, although the merit of the Hammer in this, obviously not as great as he would like to think. A set up at his own expense Center for Research on Cancer, was undoubtedly one of the really useful exercise, but the cancer has remained undefeated - that he died from cancer Hammer (although at his age he could die from the cold). But his actions in the field of charity and philanthropy as well as in business, is not above criticism. For example, Hammer hired a reinforced protection for the transport of paintings only in order to exaggerate the public perception of their value.
But this is a trifle. In 50-ies Hammer made a collection of 49 works of old masters, with great fanfare drove her across America, and then gave the University of Southern California. This gesture did not go unheeded - Hummer received a tax exemption to $ 1 million. True, future tax audit showed that the gift is far less valuable than it was said, and Hammer had to pay the Treasury $ 267 thousand to settle the case. But the story is not over. After some time, Hammer borrowed from the University of two paintings by Rubens and Brueghel one for some TV show. And then refused to return - was offended by the fact that the university had not bothered to award him any honorary degree. Paintings returned to the University only after the death of Hammer.
. The last big project was the creation of a grand, more like a mausoleum of the Art Museum and Cultural Center named after Armand Hammer - by means of "Oxy," will spend on this venture almost $ 100 million
. On two fronts meter lined letters addressed Hammer. The lobby is decorated with a portrait Meter Hammer, a central courtyard - a bust Hammer. For the manuscripts of Leonardo da Vinci, Hammer bought for $ 5.6 million. and renamed the Codex Hammer, "built a special room (such as the chapel). It seemed that the name is immortalized.
Two weeks after the inauguration of the museum in December 1990, Armand Hammer, died. Commentators and newspaper people mourned the outstanding citizen of America. However, the image of Armand Hammer, which he painstakingly created all life, rewriting my autobiography, buying politicians, journalists and tamed, turned out to be shortlived.
. A few months after the death of Hammer's become clear that he is unlikely to remain in the history of the way a saw - an outstanding businessman, a powerful diplomat, and a generous patron
. In postmortem biographies Hammer appeared before the public in a different guise-man immensely greedy for money and power, treacherous, narcissistic and extremely cynical. His biggest and most unfortunate transaction was just buying his own immortality.
First of all, it turned out that the wealth of the Hammer - a myth, as well as his exceptional talents in doing business. His condition at the time of death was estimated at only $ 40 million. - An insignificant amount, based on how much noise was around Croesus Hammer. And then it should be deducted from the debts, unpaid bills and taxes. Only claims from charities that Armand Hammer promised the golden mountain, reached almost $ 2.5 million
Immediately after the death of Hammer's company "Oxy" get rid of all the obligations imposed by the former boss. Was eliminated hammerovskaya studio, sold the share of "Oxy" in the Arm & Hammer and Chinese coal mine. Hammer Museum was transferred to the university located in the neighborhood and turned into a multi-cultural center. His portrait bust and gathering dust in the basement. Only the letters on the facade: Armand Hammer.
Feel betrayed even relatives of the Hammer. Almost none of what remained of his son, the illegitimate daughter, grandchildren, his mistress, even though all they were promised permanent alimony. Not surprisingly, his grandson, who headed the Foundation for Hammer, has not fulfilled the will of his grandfather. He at one time the Metropolitan Museum paid $ 800 thousand to have posted his name in golden letters in the Hall of Fame. According to the rules of the museum, this service cost $ 1.8 million. But the name appeared. In credit. However, the grandson flatly refused to pay the missing millions. Instead, he gave the museum $ 200 thousand - for the fact that the grandfather's name was removed altogether. And Armand Hammer is powerless to change anything.
. Finally, after the death of Armand Hammer found that once the Hammer Sr. took the blame his son - in fact, abortion is an unhappy patient did Hammer Jr., then still only studied at a medical college.