John Dryden( Businessman)
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Biography John Dryden
In the life of every person from time to time, bad things happen. That house burns down, the machine with the slippery road, fly off into the ditch, the watermelon rinds so out of place on the road will fall. And then, as we know, woke up - gypsum. First guess to make a misery of others, in such a way that the victims were satisfied with John Dryden. Its truly a golden idea not only served as the basis for a yield of modern business, but also completely changed the life of the civilized world.
In fact, insurance existed long ago. Military and religious communities of ancient Rome to pay compensation in case of death of their members, on the same principle works and the medieval craft guilds in Europe. An important event for the insurance business happens in the XVII century: the famous Edmund Halley, the one that discovered the comet, briefly came down from heaven and was the first consolidated mathematical table mortality. In this he laid the scientific basis of the insurance business. But then, that few people understood. Over the next two centuries, any compensation in case of misfortune and death paid only the church and rare charities.
. The real work began to turn only at the end of the last century in America, where he found a wise man, smeknuvshy that life and health - the most valuable thing a man has, and if so, it exists and its cash equivalent
. This simple and seemingly cynical mind has turned a provincial American boy named John to John Dryden - the founding father of life insurance, without which today's America and Europe can not conceive of its existence. A special gift to the sound of sympathy helped Draydenu do almost the impossible: to turn into addition and subtraction to build on the business of charity. Today, life insurance - an essential item in the budget seven out of ten adults, . living in highly developed countries, . with the poorest (in the U.S., . example, . uninsured two-thirds of families with annual incomes of $ 3000 to $ 5000 and half of families with incomes below $ 3000),
. For clarity: 78% of American families fear of life and only 74% have a car.
Younger old son of the miller, but at the same time and mechanics of John Dryden, John Jr. was constantly mocked for his brothers and sisters. While other farmers' children shrieking floated over the vast expanses of Maine, . thoughtful, John spent hours next to his father, . helping him to understand the cog, . Nuts, . springs and gears, . of which miraculously evolved mechanisms of magic - from the mower to the mill,
. Carefully, not missing a single detail, John Dryden Senior collecting these machines, and a little John laid out on a handful of small parts, each counting a pile. His passion for the classification betrayed him in the near future, a scientist, and a passion for accounting - accountant. And besides, as it happens in fairy tales, the younger John had good hands and good heart. My father and mother could not get enough of the boy, but the idyll did not last long - the father of the future founder of the insurance system died in 1849, when the little boy with a kind heart, was ten years old.
. They certainly were not in distress
. John Sr. was a highly qualified mechanic and together a good state. Dryden favorably with other middle American households that already in the late 30's had his own house, which after the death of her husband Mrs. Dryden let the tenants, making the family nest to the main source of income. But the money still not enough, and every morning began with John raznoski bread, then ran to school and after school - in the studio, where he found work as an assistant engineer. Life of John is still filled with nuts and screws, he saw his calling was to repair, mend and repair. But he wanted to mend the increasingly complex ways, and for this it was necessary education and tools. After school and after working several years as a mechanic, he with his consistency and dedication have saved a little money, who to everyone's amazement let not your own business, and education. Thus, by 1861 John F. Dryden son of mechanics has become a student at Yale University. Unheard of for America the end of XIX century. Then do not act like one.
So, John studied. Then John married. Princess. That is, the daughter of his landlady. He graduated from a university, however, prevented the disease - during an impoverished youth, he seriously undermined the health of. Money for treatment was not, and the only solution was to move to another state, with a more healthy climate. He and his wife chose Ohio because it settled one of the Dzhonovyh married sisters. There was a blessing in disguise. The disease has prompted John to think about the fate of the world's poor and begin to learn the insurance business. For the practical study of insurance arrangements, John settled into the insurance company Aetna. He had studied in detail the experience of the largest British insurance company, which was founded in 1854. Insurance Business in Europe continued to be a charity or a kind of a sect for the elite - rich people put their money to the rich as the insurance companies to insure the expensive precious lives and health. The stakes were very high, and compensation, of course, also. And then John came up with an explosive idea: sell the same insurance is not secured the people, and workers at the factory. The idea was, . to insurance agents weekly avoided homes subscribed to the insurance program for workers, . and those weekly pay insurance agents available amount - a few cents a week, . instead of getting at least some confidence in the future,
. Employers John rejected the new idea out of hand. Retribution is not long in coming. Two years later, Aetna bankrupt. Then went bankrupt and the next insurance office, where settled, John. He seemed to bring them luck.
For John entrenched notoriety, his name was confused insurance agents, and the work he could not get. John and his family moved to Brooklyn, where he founded their own business. And while his partner was a kind of Goodman, in what good it did not lead. The State Government refused to give loan for the unfolding of life insurance and health in industrial areas, and the company burned through. John was in despair. Despite the joyful event in the family - the birth of the long-awaited first child of Forrest in the 1864 meters, John did not leave thinking about the total failure of his business life. In 1873, Dryden moved to Newark - the third largest industrial center of America. John rented a small room as an office for a successful realtor Allen Basset.
But luck is not smiling at him. Company John hung in the balance, and it was hard to imagine a less favorable conditions for the unfolding of a fundamentally new case of safety. Around the closed and burns through dozens of companies, including insurance companies. Advancing increasingly dark times. The country was experiencing severe depression, along with her depression experienced by John Dryden. But, as has happened at a time when the spring of his fate, it seemed, was ready just about to burst, some unknown gear catch on each other, and the wheel of fortune again began to spin.
. In the worst days of the crisis in 1873, John found the strength not to lose heart completely and see the other side of the situation
. It was during the recession of working families than ever needed in at least some support. Thousands of people lost their jobs. Rational Dryden began frantically counting.
"... If the average wage worker makes $ 513 a year ... potential number of interested, moreover, that the total population of Newark is equal to 115 000, yes, plus another 70 000 German and Irish immigrants, most of whom were working ... aha everything is! "John jumped up and began rushing around the office. The door stuck his head master's office Basset:
- John, what are you begaeshN
- Now ... now ... Come. Look ...
After forty minutes realtor Basset did not exist, next to John, looking over his shoulder at the columns of figures, sitting ardent enthusiast insurance agent Basset - new partner Dryden. The next step was to study the situation on the ground. John Allen, and combed the workers' quarters, and got acquainted with the life of its inhabitants. During a raid in the eye rushed announcement, quickly sticky to a dilapidated factory wall: "Dr. Ward. Accepts patients on Tuesdays and Fridays. Fee moderate "
Young Dr. Ward has been a notable man in Newark. He belonged to the famous and wealthy family of hereditary physicians and engaged in charity work in the industrial districts of the city. Dryden and Basset easily turned it into their faith. No wonder, because they offer a system of life insurance and health permit life much easier for many patients of Dr. Ward. The three of them started to collect the initial capital. Despite competencies Basset, . authority Warda and stubborn obsession Dryden, . took many months, . before they were able to convince business leaders in the, . that the new insurance system is not a kind of charity, . and promising an investment,
. In February 1875 the first desired amount of $ 30 000 has not been collected, . but prudent Dryden decided, . what to expect nothing more, . and the insurance company Prudential Friendly Society (loosely translated Society of Friends of prudence), despite its name make the voyage at your own risk,
. All spring and summer of Dryden spent his scientific pursuits - he studied the demographic situation in the working-class neighborhoods of Newark, in order to calculate the optimal ratio of deposits and payments.
This work started in autumn. To the account of Dryden still it was exactly $ 5900, about $ 30 000 had to forget. Initial rates ranged from $ 3 to $ 25 in case of illness, $ 100 per year for those over 65, from $ 50 to $ 500 in case of death. These were the minimum amount, which, however, could save them from ruin hundreds of working families. Compensation paid within 24 hours. All business Prudential held by a thread, on which without insurance were Dryden, Basset and Ward. Bassett as the official president of the company received $ 150 a month, Dryden as a secretary - $ 100, the rest of the staff have been an accountant with a salary of $ 40 and the boy-courier, who received $ 3 a week. Dr. Ward was not involved in the state and continue to work on a voluntary basis. Company's office was located in the same old basement Basset, furnished shabby furniture. Nevertheless, after several months of hearing about "the curious little company that fundamentally new insurance business" was held around Newark. They noticed them talking. The scale of their enterprises staggering - low rates and prompt payment provided influx of customers. Their business grew in her eyes. The conservative newspaper Newark's Register wrote: "Neither the board nor a company does not enjoy the confidence of the inhabitants of the city". In December, Dryden began to recruit agents, but the highlight of the program remained himself. Going around factories, he shocked the establishment of Newark that the hours talking with the workers, patiently explaining to them the benefits of a new insurance policy. Past helped: Dryden spoke to workers in their own language. By the end of 1875 on the program the company Prudential signed 279. The summer of 1876 the first for the company at a crucial hour.
Dryden sat at the table, his head in his hands. Bassett stood at the window. They nervously awaited messenger from Dr. Bard, who is already the fifth day of fighting for the life of the patient.
Dryden did not even know the name of the patient. But life or death of this man meant life or death of his company. Patient of Dr. Bard was insured for $ 500, and that this was the current balance of the company Prudential, which recently had to pay some significant compensation. Another claim of $ 500 automatically would mean bankruptcy.
Knock at the door. Dusty and flushed from the long run boy ran into the office, waving the note by the Bard.
- The patient will live ...
- Prudential is live - exhaled Dryden.
By the end of that year, the number of customers increased to 7000. Dryden went to London, where he consulted the leading British experts. He returned two weeks later elated and began to methodically rebuild the entire mechanism of the company - from accounting books to the new statistical tables. The result did not wait. 1877-nd, the hardest year of economic crisis, was a year of resounding success of the enterprise Dryden. Neither criticism nor malevolence competitors, spread news that the low fees and high interest rates encourage mothers to kill babies, and children - elderly parents, could not stop the triumphant march of Prudential. July 31, 1877 Prudential agents crossed the Hudson River and plunged into the working-class districts of New York. By the end of 1879, the first turnover of $ 3 866 913, the number of clients increased to 43 715.
It became clear that fortune had mad friends of prudence in his arms. In the 1881-meters Dryden became the official president of the company. Fortune's wheel whirled faster and faster: 1885 th - million customers, 1896-nd - 2,5 million. John Dryden died in 1911, the president of the insurance company with ten million customers and cause him to live, moving into the hands of his son, Forrest.