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Delvig Anton Antonovich

( Russian poet, translator, journalist, critic and publisher. Founder of `Literary Gazette ')

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Biography Delvig Anton Antonovich
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Leafing through the yellowed pages of time, one-volume edition of poetry and letters of Anton Delvig - now a rare edition, came across a phrase commentator of the book (in. E. Vatsuro): "Creativity Delvig easy to understand. It requires a historical perspective, in which only can be estimated his literary discovery "confused.
Shrugged. Why did I write about nemN And not too dalekoN And not too nenuzhnoN: But where - in the corner of this cardiac memory surfaced the other lines, read a long time - long ago: "Death Delvig catching up on my sadness. In addition to the beautiful talent, it was perfectly arranged by the head and soul extraordinary temper. He was the best of us. Our ranks begin to thin. ": (Pushkin - E. M. Khitrovo. January 21, 1831) The eyes filled with tears. Unsolicited, funny. I decided. Pushkin never threw words in vain. And if you said: "He was the best of us," it is truly so.
Allow me to introduce "better." Friend of Pushkin. Russian poet. First publisher of the first Russian Literary Gazette. Criticism and publicist. Interpreter and collector of folklore. Simply Baron Anton Antonovich Delvig, "whose life was rich not romantic adventures, but good sense, pure light of reason and hope" (Pushkin - from the letter P. Pletnev January 31, 1831)
Anton Antonovich Delvig was born Aug. 6, 1798 in Moscow. Belonged to an old but impoverished family dvorryanskomu barons Delvigov.Otets he was the assistant commandant of the Moscow Kremlin, the old way - the parade - Major. Mother Love Matveyevna kind of Russian noblemen Krasilnikov. On the survey question "how much is in the possession of souls, people krestyanN" heir-baronial title after the death of his father candidly replied: "I have not."
. Primary Antosha Delvig received in a private boarding school and under the guidance of a teacher's home
. D. Borovkov, who instilled in him a taste for Russian literature and an aversion to science.
. In October 1811, Mr. Borovkov brought plump, rosy clumsy Antosha Delvig in St. Petersburg.
. On October 19, 1811 began his Lyceum life.
. From Lyceum characteristics Delvig:
. Baron Delvig Anton, 14 years
. Ability to mediocre, like diligence, and progress is very slow. Meshkotnost all his property and is very noticeable throughout, but not when he is naughty or sports: here it is ironical, a joker, and sometimes indiscreet; it to notice a tendency to idleness and distraction. Reading various Russian books without proper selection, . and perhaps even pampered upbringing, . poisportili it, . reason and morality it requires a long surveillance, . however, . perceptible it bonhomie, . his diligence and attention to admonitions when starting the competition in Russia's literature and history, . oblagorodstvuyut its propensity ",
. From this very valuable, somewhat contradictory, characteristics can be seen as a high plank requirements Lyceum students, and how subtle observations were teachers for their developing souls.

On laziness Delvig in the Lyceum legendary. He maintained his reputation bumpkin - lazy, dreamy and scattered:

I noble work
Even my friend did not conceive
Lazy, they say, is the point:
I'm in trouble this drowning man.
But whether he was lazy at the deleN Hardly. Rather, it was the demeanor, the pace of life, lessons in childhood, and converted to enduring habit. Delvig no hurry. He thought. Amass power.

I must say that meshkotnost and slow it never manifested itself in cases where the required determination and rapidity of action. In conversation with Benckendorff about the fate of the Literary Gazette Delvig behaved so bravely, firmly and tactfully, that the general at the end of the conversation was forced to apologize to him. But it was later. In December of 1830.

Yes, and be lazy so true, is it time to be Anton Antonovich so much in so short zhiznN ... Hardly.

Progress Delvig in the study of literature noted by teachers. Delvtga imagination knew no bounds. Often Lyceum students gather in the evening and tell different stories about imaginary adventures and exploits. Pushkin later recalled in a brilliantly - an unfinished article on Delvig: "One day it occurred to him to tell some of his comrades march in 1807, posing as a witness of the then crashes. His story was so vivid and believable, and so much effect on the imagination of young listeners that a few days about him going to a circle of curious, demanding new details about the campaign. Rumors reached our directors (in. F. Malinowski, who died early, he was replaced by E. A. Engel), who wanted to hear from the Delvig story of his adventures. Delvig ashamed to confess the lie is as innocent as intricate, and decided to support it, which was done with remarkable success, so that none of us doubted the truth of his stories, while he himself did not admit in his fiction. "

. Then A
. Pushkin remarked: "Delvig, telling about his mysterious visions and imaginary dangers, which supposedly been in the train of his father never lied to justify what - anything to avoid a reprimand or punishment."

. Delvig excellent knowledge of German poetry, by heart and quoted Schiller Gelti
. However Kuchelbecker and Pushkin, she memorized odes and poems Derzhavina Zhukovsky: ancient and Horace, whom Anton carefully analyzed the classroom under the guidance of Professor H. Koshanskogo.

"His first experiments in versification - wrote a. Pushkin - have been emulated Horace. Ode "To Dion", "By Lilete", "By Doris" were written by him on the fifteenth year, and published in his collected works without any change. They have markedly unusual sense of harmony and the classical harmony, which he never changed. "(Pushkin. Unfinished article A. Delvig)

In 1814 Delvig sent his first verse experiments publisher of the popular magazine "Herald of Europe" Vladimir Izmailov. The poems were printed without the author's name, but also attracted the attention of one expert, who saw the work of a new, unknown pen, already wore the stamp of experience and maturity, racking his brains trying to guess the secret of an anonymous ... " (Ibid).

. It is to Delvig, knowing about his "friendship with the Muse" asked the director Lyceum Egor Antonovich Engelhardt requested to write a farewell song for release.

. Delvig request fulfilled
. Posted anthem face that everyone knew who in different years had the opportunity to study at this institution:

. "Six years have raced as a pipe dream,
. In the arms of sweet silence.
. And, Homeland vocation
. Roars us: the procession, the children!

. Bye, brothers! Hand in hand!
. Embrace the last time!
. The fate of eternal separation,
. Perhaps here is akin to us! "
. (Delvig AA
. Lyceum song)

Upon leaving the Lyceum Delvig was determined to serve in the Ministry of Finance. But since September 1820 he was "employed" entered the public library, under the command of Ivan Andreevich Krylov, and October 2, 1821 was approved as an assistant librarian. However, Ivan Andreevich many times jokingly grumbled at the Assistant, who preferred to read books, but is not put them in catalogs. Soon the Russian Branch of the Public Library was under the threat of chaos. In 1823 Delvig left his post. He then served various official agencies, but the soul has always been full in his anthology "Northern Flowers".

. Delvig was a member of the Free Society of Lovers of Literature of Russia, . which joined in 1819 and where there were members of the Northern Society of the Decembrists - Rileyev, . Bestuzhev, . Troubetzkoy, . Yakushkin: Noisy debate about poetry, . Civil and political liberties lasted till midnight,
. Delvig for the first time led to a meeting of "free society" and the disgraced E. Boratynsky, which at that time had become very friendly (cm. essay E. Boratynsky). We Delvig was an amazing gift to recognize the literary talents and support him, than you can! He first predicted Pushkin's great poetic fame, in a difficult moment in a friendly watched over E. Boratynsky helped H. M. Yazykovo printing of poetry.

In. A. Zhukovsky - very good genius talent - highly of this psychic ability Delvig: do not be jealous, understand, sympathize, give your attention and good, a bit confused shortsighted smile to all who surround him ...

. Sam Delvig written as - that in response sonnet H
. M. Yazykovo following lines:

. From an early age I wasted no flame
. I am keeping in mind, thanks to the gods,
. I was attracted to his exalted singers
. With what - that love biased.

. This partial love was expressed mostly in the fact that the gift of poetic friends, Delvig valued more than their own
. Worse, critics later said that half of the poems written Delvig Boratynsky, second half-Pushkin. Modesty Delvig rendered him a very bad service ..

May 6, 1820 Delvig spent a. Pushkin in the southern link in Odessa, then in Mikhailovskoye. I wrote to him constantly, . encouraging, . consoling, . fun, . telling all the latest news and news of St. Petersburg parent families Pushkin, . with whom he was extremely friendly, . rasprashivaya of literary plans: Many of these letters have not survived, . not extant,
.

They could devote an entire separate study. This is - this literary monument to, . that is true friendship, . that escaped and eluded us, . predecessors, . descendants, . go deep, . Ages, . in the shadow of the alleys, . dim candlelight, . Fireplaces, . creak on the white sheets of paper thin quill pen: Here's a few lines of the surviving letters: "Dear Delvig, . I received all your letters and answered almost all,
. Yesterday, I breathed the life of the Lyceum, praise and thanksgiving for you and my Pushchino: Recently I came across your lovely sonnets read them avidly, admiration and gratitude for the inspiring recollection of our friendship: "(Pushkin - AA. Delvig November 16, 1823.)

Dear Pushkin, your letter and "Proserpine" I have received, and also the day of receipt, thank you for them. "Proserpine" is not poetry, and music: the singing of the birds of paradise, which, listening, not seeing how to be a thousand years: "In the same letter and business talk-Delvig drawn to Pushkin as a publisher:" Now it is about money. If you want to sell the second edition of "Ruslan", "The Captive" and, if possible, "Fountain of Bakhchisarai, then send me a power of attorney. About this I have three publishers ask, do you see what I can make a bargain between them and sell the benefits your needlework. Publications are also good. I'll wager. "(Delvig - Pushkin. September 10, 1824.)

Anton Antonovich always sincerely worried and concerned for each other. Already in Mikhailovskoe Pushkin received a letter:

"Great, Pushkin, a small child, come, like walking, that is, do what you want, but do not be angry at the actions of people are already pretty scared! General view for you and there is good revenge. I have not seen a single decent person who would not scold you for Vorontsov, in which all the buds fell:. None of the Russian writers did not turn our hearts of stone so as you. What do you nedostaetN Little mercy for the weak. Do not tease them a year or two, for God's sake! Better used the time of your exile. Selling the second edition of your works, and will send you money, and if you want, new books. Journals will receive all. My sister, brother * (* Olga and Lev Sergeyevich Pushkin was at that time, Michael - author), nature and reading them will not die of boredom. I'm really going to build it: "(A. A Delvig - A. Pushkin September 28, 1824)

Anton Antonovich all the time going to visit a friend in St Michael's, but the literary and publishing detained, and then toppled to the ground disease. In Mikhailovskoe Delvig got only 18 - April 19, 1824. Pushkin was glad to see him unspeakably. Began intimate conversation, the discussion continued publication of the anthology "The Northern Flowers", a detailed analysis of all literaturnyhz novelties. Refined the new collection of poems by Pushkin. Ate, recalling their common acquaintances, playing billiards, walking. And the evening went to Trigorskoye, the neighbors - young ladies Osipov - Wolf on raspberry cake with tea and punch.

. All the family Osipova - Wolf unanimously fallen in love with good-natured, cheerful clever person Delvig, all the time drop to the floor and into the grass funny pince-nez on a cord
. Youngest children Praskovya Aleksandrovna Osipova - Mary and Eupraxia Delvig liked to swing on a swing and called gently: "little friends". Those not responsively chayali it soul. Time has flown by imperceptibly. For April 26, 1824 Delvig left Michael in St. Petersburg.

And soon, in response to a humorous accusations Praskovya Alexandrovna, on her accusations in silence, Delvig said: "There are mixed up love and love happy. Your acquaintance Delvig marries the girl he loves long - the daughter of Saltykov, found Pushkin's "Arzamas" * (* Literary Society, of which Pushkin was still in the years of study at the Lyceum - the author).

. Sophia Mikhailovna Saltykova was at that time only 19 years old
. Her mother died, my father, a man of the freedom of views, writer and hospitable, lived out their days in Moscow. Sophia Mikhailovna was intelligent, charming, adored literature and most of all - Pushkin. She wrote to her friend: "You can not have more sense than Pushkin - I was losing my mind from this. Delvig charming young man, very humble, not very nicely, that I like is the fact that he wears glasses. As regards the points himself Anton Antonovich ironically: "In the Lyceum forbade me to wear glasses, but all the women seemed to me beautiful, I was disappointed in them after the".

But in the case of marriage to Saltykova frustration seemingly happened. Youth, charm, distinct temperament, excellent literary taste, the natural goodness - all this has earned the young Baroness Delvig sincere respect among the friends of her husband: writers, editors, publishers, attending their home. There were fans, but this - we come ....

Sofia Mikhailovna tried to create in her salon a relaxed atmosphere of a friendly and fun. Often arranged musical evenings, filled with songs based on poems Yazykova, Pushkin and most Delvig. Once the young composer Alyab'ev wrote the music to the words of his poem "The Nightingale, a romance began to sing the whole of Russia.

Delvig as a poet, famous for his "Idyll" - poems in the style of ancient poetry. Most thought that this translation of Theocritus, Horace, and Virgil: But it was the fruit of the imagination Delvig.
Pushkin wrote about the work other: "Idylls Delvig It's surprising. What is the power of imagination must be, . so so completely carried away from the 19 th century, the golden age, and what an extraordinary sense of fine, . so as to guess Greek poetry through the imitation of Latin or German translation, . this luxury, . this bliss, . This charm, . more negative, . than positive, . which does not allow anything in the feelings of stress, thin, . tangled in thoughts; excess, . unnatural in the description!,
. (A
. S. Pushkin. Excerpts from letters, thoughts and observations. 1827)

Delvig was also known as thin - a ruthless critic, instead deals with every new books: a novel, poem, story, poem, and especially - translation. Sometimes he wrote bitterly: "rejoice good book, like an oasis in the African steppe. And why in Russia knigN little more from laziness to learn ".... Does not that sound very sovremennoN

. His "Literary Gazette" often withstand attacks bulgarinskoy "North bees, Delvig soundly battered for criticism and fierce rejection of the novel Buе-haryn Ivan Vyzhigin," adopted by the cheers undemanding audience
. Melodramatic, . deserted - lachrymose novel about the adventures of loving hero could not evoke the positive reviews of a man and a writer, . which is famous for its delicate taste and exacting professional views on literature! Delvig could not prevaricate,
. He wrote:

Literary Gazette - impartial, it has long been a publisher wishes to Mr.. F. BA * (* F. Bulgarin - author.) Wrote a good novel; praise as "And. Vyzhigin "and" False Dmitry "- no power!" (A. A. Delvig. Response to criticism of "North bees.")

Delvig in his newspaper also often published works by Pushkin and half-disgraced "absolutely" disgraced Kuchelbecker, withstanding attacks and the noisy discontent Censorship Committee. Written and oral explanations of censorship, and with the Chief of Police, Earl Benckendorff, delayed, sometimes indefinitely.

. Rigid literature - magazines struggle and worries about the family - in May 1830 at Delvig daughter, Elizabeth - sometimes completely exhausted poet
. He rarely could schpokoyno sit at his desk in order to write a few lines of poetry. The damp climate of St. Petersburg is not very suitable Delvig, he caught cold and was sick a lot, but to go away - the rest had no opportunity - prevented the publishing concern, and lack of funds. It is hard Anton Antonovich experienced separation from friends, belonging now to the "Decembrist tribe": Pushchino, Kuchelbecker, Bestuzhev, Yakushkin: Try to support their letters, parcels, all that could. This also led to a quiet resentment of power.

The official cause of sudden death Delvig is still difficult conversation with Count Benckendorff, held in November 1830. Benckendorf Delvig accused of disobeying the authorities, printing offending in the Literary Gazette "and threatened to exile in Siberia ...

. Delvig behaved so honorably and in cold blood, at the end of a call graph, remembering the dignity of a nobleman, was forced to apologize: Delvig quietly left the room
. But when he returned home, they soon collapsed in a fit of nervous fever, complicated by pneumonia.

The reason for the informal, but emotionally more understandable, was a banal adultery.

According to the memoirs EA. Boratynsky (little known and never published!) Poet, returning home at an odd hour, he found the Baroness in the arms of another suitor.. There was a stormy scene, Sofia Mikhailovna was not trying to justify himself, reproaching her husband's coldness and inattention. Innocent was vinovatym.Tyazhelye impression from talking with Benckendorff and family tragedy led to a severe attack of nervous fever. All complicated by cold. Almost half months Delvig spent in bed. One night gave way to facilitate two nights of attacks of coughing, chills and delirium. Doctors tried to alleviate the suffering of the patient, but to no avail.

. January 14, 1831 Anton Delvig no more: He died without regaining consciousness, whispering in delirium the same thing: "Sonia, why did you do etoN!" In the house hurriedly dismantled festively decorated Christmas tree
. Draped in black lace mirror. Lighted candles. Who - is in turmoil opened casement. Blast of icy wind blew out the candle. For a second everything went out into the darkness. Then poslyshos singing: Sofia Mikhailovna never left the last days of bed husband, crying and rubbing his chilled hands, velvety contralto tried to withdraw the first lines of the song:
. "Nightingale, my nightingale!
. You going, where letishN
. Where all Nochka propoeshN .. "
. (A
. Delvig. Nightingale.)
The voice broke at a very high note. Stopped. Answer skrbnomu singing was only piercing silence. Nightingale could not meet. His trill sounded in different heavens.
P. S. A few months after the death Delvig, Baroness Sofia Mikhailovna Delvig married a brother of the poet Boratynsky - Sergei Abramovich. He was an admirer of those whom he found in his house late at night Baron Delvig. Throughout his life, Sofia Mikhailovna could not hold back tears when they heard the first bars of "Nightingale". The house Boratynsky - Manor House Muranovo this romance never ispolnyalsya.Sofiya Mikhaylovna believed that the ghost of a past life need not be confused with the present. Perhaps she was right ....






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