Edith Wilson Bolingo( The second wife, 28 th President of the United States.)
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Biography Edith Wilson Bolingo
(October 15, 1872 - December 28, 1961)
. In October 1914, two months after the death of Eline, Dr. Grayson presented the President's cousin, Helen Woodrow Bones, do the honors of the White House, a beautiful widow named Edith Bolingo Gal't.
. In March 1915, Helen invited pretty Mrs. Gal't Tea
. A few days later the president proposed Mrs. Gal't dinner with him. Then he began to invite her more often and for longer rides.
Family and friends of Wilson in this friendship had seen a chance to save the president from melancholy and loneliness. Public opinion, by contrast, expected duration of mourning.
Wilson wanted a very intimate person, and so he not only quickly put it in my heart, but also has locations. Wilson's biographers say that he did not trust anyone because, as his wife.
Edith was similar to the women of Rubens. Once Wilson sent her orchids and put card with the words: "You have only known me a woman who may be an orchid. Usually - this woman is Orchid. For America's First Lady Edith was somewhat unusual origin. Through her father's lineage derived from the Indian chief's daughter Pocahontas, who married in Virginia, an Englishman, John Rolf. In 1675 her granddaughter married first Bolingo.
In the middle of the XIX century among Bolingo were rich planters. Edith was born on October 15, 1872 at 9 am in Viteville in Virginia. Her father, Judge William Holocaust Bolingo, so eagerly awaited birth of the child that did not open the doors of the court until he learned about the appearance of Edith. Later, he joked: "The first thing my daughter did in life, so it is forced to wait for the gentlemen."
Edith grew up in a wealthy family. Her father studied law at the University of Virginia and there is the beautiful girl he married Sally White. During the Civil War, as befits a Southerner, he fought in the Confederate army under General Robert E. Lee. After the defeat of the southern states with his wife and two children returned to the plantation of his father in Viteville, where he was offered the post of judge. Sally gave birth to eleven children. Edith was the seventh child. I was six years old my grandmother taught her French language, literacy, home economics, was reading her Bible. Grandmother was 26 canaries, and the duties Edith was to clean cages and feed the birds.
His father was also involved in the upbringing of children, he read to them by Shakespeare, Dickens and other writers. Shortly after the first marriage Edith died, but his mother lived to see the day when her daughter became the first lady of America.
Judge Bolingo believed that her daughter must first attend a private school, and then in high school. So he sent fifteen Edith school in Abingdon, about which she remained very bad memories. The level of teaching was low, at school economize on food and heating, so that on vacation Edith came home so weak and emaciated, that next year was forced to stay home. When she was 17 years old, parents are Edith prestigious school in Mr. Powell's show in Richmond, where she had been studying a year with joy and willingly would have remained still, but his father could no longer pay tuition. During his life Edith went to school only two years.
After a while she went to Washington to elder sister Gertrude, who was married to Alexander Gal't. Edith loved her sister in the house, but the financial situation of the spouses are not allowed to enter into society of the city girl of marriageable age.
One evening, Edith was at the concert Adelina Patti. She managed to get a ticket at the last second, and therefore not having time to change clothes, she went to school in a modest dress. The concert made a deep impression on her. The excitement, she hurried home to tell his sister and brother-on experiences. Edith found them at dinner in the society of a young man, Norman Gal't, cousin and son-in-law the owner of the famous jewelry store in Washington, "Galts". Serious young man, being ten years older than Edith, fell in love at first sight. Vicious by nature, he nonetheless could not long conceal love for Edith. She was not in love with him, but valued his company.
April 30, 1896, after four years of "close" and "a wonderful friendship, they were married in Viteville. It was a happy marriage. Gal't was rich enough, and traveling in Europe, bought her clothes in the best Parisian atelier. This was the beginning of long-term cooperation, which proved beneficial to both. Edith had a weakness for beautiful dresses, and she soon became interested in this than other things.
. In 1904, Edith was the only woman in Washington, vodivshey car that aroused admiration and amazement of passers-by.
. We Gal't couple had no children
. During the first pregnancy at Edith had a miscarriage, after which she remained a fear of the hospital that, when necessary to remove an appendix, doctors had to do surgery at home.
. Edith soon recovered after the operation, as January 28, 1908 from cirrhosis of the liver husband died
. He was 45 years old.
She inherited her husband's jewelry store, and with it, and debts, which he did to redeem part of their sisters. Edith decided to continue to do business and sold all only a few years later.
Shortly after the death of her husband she adopted an orphan, seventeen-year daughter's friends, Alice Gordon, with which many traveled. Alice met a frequent visitor, and the White House physician, Dr. Gray, Grayson, who then presented the Edith Helen Bones. Both ladies were equally sympathetic. One day they rode in a car park on Rock Creek in Washington. Helen invited to call after dinner at the White House. Initially, Edith refused, referring to the dirty shoes. But Helen assured her that the White House, they do not meet anybody, because her cousin with Dr. Grayson busy playing golf. Edith agreed, but when they left the elevator on the second floor of the White House, it suddenly collided with Wilson and the doctor, who - also in dirty shoes - back from the playground. Later, Edith, to poke fun at surprisingly untidy clothes president, she herself was in an elegant black suit and a beautiful hat.
Men dressed ladies gave servant to fix shoes, and all met for tea. Wilson happy to listen to stories that Edith was able to tell interesting, accompanying gestures, words and convincing mimicry. Wilson was so fascinated by it that he asked to stay for dinner. She refused, but accepted the invitation to have dinner with him the next day.
During the second meeting they talked about childhood, about family and about life in the southern states. Then Edith Wilson was invited to walk in the car and on the presidential yacht.
. He read her favorite books, wrote her letters, not hiding his feelings, and even ordered a private telephone line between the White House and its headquarters
. In 1915, during the first meeting with Edith Wilson, the Washington Post has crept following misprint: "In the evening the president had made contact with Mrs. Gal't"
. Instead of the word "entertaining" (to meet, to take) was mistakenly typed the word "entering" (to contact). Revision tried to remove the whole circulation, but part of it has already hit the stands. Opponents of Wilson used this typo to put out the word, presenting the President of the hero-lover. He criticized the fact that he has intimate relations with the "Merry Widow" as they called Mrs. Gal't. In the salons of Washington went to this anecdote: "How to react Mrs Gal't, when the president made her predlozhenieN" - "She fell from the fear of the bed". Whispered that Wilson had an affair with Edith during the lifetime of his first wife Elin, that Edith was the mistress of the German ambassador in Washington.
Wilson and Edith first met in March 1915. 4 May Wilson made her an offer. Edith asked for time to consider. "You can not love me because you did not know ... and besides, after the death of your wife even more than one year ", - she said. - "I know -" he. - I know how you feel, baby, but here time is measured not in weeks, months and years, but the depth of human experience. After her death I was nothing but loneliness and pain in the heart ". Then he added, had already announced his intentions to his daughters and her cousin Helen Bone, who applauded him.
Edith did not give a definitive answer, breaking the heart of Wilson, according to Helen. Continuing to meet with Wilson, she put forward a condition that would marry him if he wins the presidential election in 1916 ...
. In September, during the car rides in the park Rock Creek, she suddenly put her hand on his shoulder and said gently, that if he had not abandoned his proposal, she accepts it with joy
. Wilson was delighted. He wrote to a friend: "She has a special gift from Heaven came into our life ... I purchased my dear companion, which will help me to quickly overcome the unbearable loneliness that surrounded me in the difficult months of this terrible war ". Edith feared that the announcement of the wedding will affect the presidential election in 1916. Therefore, they were engaged in secret, telling only family members.
Two advisers to Wilson, his son, William Mack, Ed and Colonel Edward M. House warned the President that the scandal could happen if the public learns about the secret engagement. They reminded Wilson of the press trying to create a scandal because of acquaintance with Mary Peck.
. Wanting to push the date of the wedding of Wilson, they fabricated a letter stating that Mrs. Peck is ready to give publicity to an affair with the president, if he married Edith Gal't
. Mak-Edu put the president in recognition of this letter. Wilson doubted that Mrs. Peck could sink to such despicable lies, but asked Dr. Edith Grayson warn about possible gossip. If she believes them, he is ready to break off the engagement. It was a dramatic decision deeply offended people. Edith spent in meditation all night, not knowing what to say to Wilson in the morning, wrote him a long and touching letter strongly stating that in difficult moments of her life she was on his side, despite the attacks of false press. The messenger delivered the letter to the White House, which accepted, but not printed out. Edith impatiently waited for an answer. Three days later, at her home, suddenly appeared and asked Dr. Grayson immediately come to the president, because he was very ill, "does not say, never sleeps, eats, and Edith only be able to help him, but stressed that he had come on their own initiative. She hesitated, she had to think about, because Wilson did not respond to her letter.
Still, Edith went to the White House. The President was lying in a darkened room, emaciated and pale. When she went to his bed, he stretched out her hand, she pressed. It was a symbolic expression of their unity. He pointed to a sealed envelope. He did not have the courage to read the letter out of fear to get the news about the cancellation of an engagement.
To avoid scandal, they decided to bring the wedding date. October 6 announced the engagement of President. Wilson personally typed text ads. Wedding Wilson and Edith Bolingo Gal't held December 18, 1915 in the house of Edith. At the celebration, which was of a private nature, was invited only a small circle of friends, about 40 people. Edith was 43, Wilson almost 16 years longer. For the American press this wedding was a sensation. After John Tyler Wilson and Grover Cleveland was the third president, who married during her reign.
Crown them with two pastors: one, like Edith, belonged to the Episcopal Church, the other a Presbyterian, of which Wilson was. Edith was a black velvet dress and black hat with white margins. After the wedding reception, they went to a two-week vacation in Hot Springs, Virginia, which remained a secret.
. Although President Wilson asked not to send him any wedding gifts from many countries and from many American organizations received congratulations
. Three girls from California sent to Edith a little nugget of gold, which they engagement rings.
In early 1916 the president and his wife returned to the White House. Edith has set in motion the entire residence. At dawn she lifted the president and forced to play golf. Wilson was obedient to his wife as a child mother. She called him "Tiger", living in a cage called the White House.
Biographers say that she gave Wilson a full sexual satisfaction. Wilson and Elin had separate bedrooms. With Edith, he slept in a big bed of Abraham Lincoln, which moved into the bedroom of the president.
When Edith assumed the duties of First Lady in Europe came the First World War. From the outset it became clear that Edith may be not only a caring wife, but also secretaries, assistants and even presidential advisor. Wilson, she completely trusted. He even told her personal code, which was used for talks with his envoys in foreign countries, unknown even to the Minister for Foreign Affairs, Robert Lansing. Every morning, Edith accompanied spouse to the Cabinet and kissed good-bye. And after dinner, she sat with him in his office and listened to the conversations that took place there. In the evening they looked important state documents, read, sort mail. Edith served as an informal assistant to the president of the United States.
. Wilson taught his wife so welcome guests at official receptions, so as not to tire, advising, offering his hand, lowering the middle finger, then you can avoid too strong shake.
. June 4, 1919 Congress approved the addition to the Constitution, giving women voting rights
. Wilson supported him, but ran into resistance to the parliament, whose approval was necessary. After much debate, the document was ratified by. Edith could not stand suffragettes who fought for women's suffrage, calling them "despicable creatures, and their purpose is considered" unworthy of the ladies.
. Wilson daily contact with women - two sisters, three daughters and wife, so he is very well aware of their
. He made an unprecedented act, inviting the first time in the history of the United States for the post of vice-minister of the woman. In 1920, Ann Abbot Adams became Deputy Attorney General of the United States. In this position she was before Sept. 15, 1921.
Joining the United States into the war in April 1917 led to a significant increase in responsibilities as First Lady Edith. To set an example to other women, she sewed clothes for the army, organized a meeting with soldiers and officers. At the White House, she kept sheep and income from the sale of wool gave the Red Cross. Confidence in the presidency to her was so great that he allowed her to participate in discussions on military topics and listened to her advice.
December 4, 1918, after the First World War, Wilson went to Paris peace conference. He was the first president of the United States, who crossed the Atlantic Ocean during the reign. Wilson insisted that Edith was accompanied by his. She was the first wife of the president, who left the United States in that capacity.
Edith visited hospitals, rehabilitation centers, enterprises and canteens. At the same time, she took care of his wife, sick flu. In Europe, Edith met with crowned heads. At a reception at Buckingham Palace, a lady asked her if she does not belong to the Quakers, and received a negative response, explained: "I thought you belong to the Quakers, because I do not wear a tiara". - "I would love it wore, - replied Edith, - but my husband can not afford to do so". A snobbish minded representative of the "high society" declined the invitation to Mrs. Wilson, explaining that the Serbian Ambassador so that she - a simple American. Serbian ambassador told her that Edith is a descendant of an Indian prince of the tribe of Pocahontas Pouheten, and the proposal was accepted. Throughout the story told Ambassador Edith. At first she was indignant, . then laughed, . saying, . that this will send a postcard with a view aristocrat hotel Pouheten in Washington, . on the reverse side write, . that is the palace of her ancestors, . the time of war became a hotel for yourself needlessly and the Treaty of Versailles, . who ran into the opposition of the Senate,
. Then the president decided to ask the public to support its policy. He made a trip to the United States, despite objections from Edith, who was afraid that after the Paris conference tense husband does not survive such a trip.
From 4 to September 24, Wilson has visited 29 cities and 40 speeches delivered. Edith, seeing the tired wife, his headaches and asthma attacks, asked to interrupt his trip: "Let's cancel all these activities and go rest, at least for a few days". Wilson firmly refused.
September 25 in Pueblo, Colorado, the president suffered a heart attack. The trip was interrupted, and Wilson returned to Washington. Within days the president's health condition has not improved. On the morning of October 2 Edith noticed that her husband was sitting on the bed and trying unsuccessfully to get a bottle of water, standing on the dressing table. She gave him the bottle and saw that his left arm dangling off the bed. "I do not feel this hand. Massage it for me "- he said.
When Edith began to massage his hand, he asked to accompany him to the bathroom. To his dismay, Edith noticed that, taking a step, he winced in pain. She left her husband and ran to call the doctor. Wilson was lying unconscious on the floor. It was the second, more severe attack. Council of physicians agreed that Wilson should remain in the White House, as in the hospital it will be difficult to protect from "the pack of journalists."
A week later, Wilson felt better. Returned to him his spiritual, not physical strength. Despite this, he wanted to continue the interrupted journey and fight for the U.S. entry into the League of Nations. Edith was strongly against.
Initially, Edith believed that her husband should leave the presidency for health reasons. A neurologist, Dr. Dirk, convinced her that it is neither in the interest of the patient, nor in the interest of the country. Wilson should be protected from stimulating conversations. Edith agreed with this.
During the next seven months, Wilson was in complete isolation from the outside world. They came to him only Edith, Dr. Gray T. Grayson and his personal assistant, Joseph P. Tumulti.
In the memoirs of Edith emphasized that it is always the most important was the concern about the health of a loved one and have a second priority concern for the President of the United States. So she listened to the advice of doctors and ignore the suspicions and accusations by politicians. Only once did she resisted the instructions of doctors: When they wanted to operate his bladder. And he was right, the disease was by itself.
Daily Edith sort mail the president, wrote summaries of the content, brought them to her husband in bed, and refer appropriate individuals comments and proposals of the President. In his memoirs, Edith, wrote: "Personally, I have never taken any decisions on state affairs. Sometimes I just decided what is important and what is not, that can be offered to her husband. "
In the United States gradually spread the rumor that actually governs the country's First Lady. But in reality, Edith did not take any political decisions and did not seek to control government. Caring about the health of her husband, she watched those, and for some cases could be admitted to the president. This led to conflicts within the administration, as one of Edith sympathized more, others less. Wilson's closest associates - Colonel Edward House and Minister of Foreign Affairs Robert Lansing - she did not like. All without exception had to ask permission to talk to Edith president.
After a conversation with Senator Hitchcock, she tried to persuade her husband to compromise and support the doubts of the Senate regarding the establishment of the League of Nations. But Wilson did not change the decision and accused his wife of treachery. Edith was painful to hear the reproaches of her husband, and later she had not addressed this topic. Republicans attacked Wilson for what he gave into the hands of his wife all the political power. Ironically they called Edith, "Mrs. President" and he called his "first gentleman" of the United States. Press wrote about the "regency of Mrs. Wilson," calling it a "regent", "administering the affairs of the First Lady" and "secret president".
During the illness of the President The White House looked lonely and deserted. Once Senators Albert B. Fall and Gilbert M. Hitchcock visited the President to ensure its capacity. They talked about the political affairs. Senator Fall said that Edith was recording the entire course of the conversation, and said sarcastically: "I see you are very busy". - "Yes, - she said - I do recording, so you do not have any misunderstandings and incorrect explanations". After this conversation, the senator has openly declared that mentally president quite well.
For Wilson was a blow that in March 1920, the Senate was to ratify the Treaty of Versailles. The health status of Wilson began slowly to improve. In April 1920 he convened the first meeting of the Cabinet over the past six months, but was considering retirement and. In Edith would be no objection if it were not for the fact that the house in Washington, where they wanted to move after the end of his presidency, has not yet been landscaped.
. At some point, Wilson doubted whether he should not be in 1920 to run for a third time to rescue the U.S. participation in the League of Nations
. But Edith strongly dissuaded him.
March 4, 1921 the couple moved to Wilson's own house. Edith was moved to tears when she saw a crowd of supporters of her husband, waiting for their. It bothered that her favorite furniture and other personal belongings were previously transferred to a new apartment. She persuaded her husband to write his memoirs and tried to help him in this.
The book, which he was not destined to finish, he devoted to his wife: "E.B.V., who told me what is the true meaning of life. Her heart is not only right but wise. Her thoughts are not only free but also full of fantasies. She teaches and directs, while being itself. Her path sanctifies deep, instinctive understanding of faith and emerged a sense of duty. Her ability to sympathize greatly facilitates the work and the process of thinking and brings to the fact that mean. - Woodrow Wilson ". Edith often read aloud to his wife, gave the house film screenings, played with him at cards. Saturday night they went to the theater. It scans e-mail, trying to shield him from unpleasant news.
In early 1924, it was announced that Wilson at death. Before his home crowds of people. Death occurred on Feb. 3, 1924 at 11.15. Wilson's last word was "Edit". The most stubborn opponent of Wilson on the League of Nations, Senator Henry Cabot, was appointed to the Senate Committee on the funeral. Edith wrote to him that his presence at the funeral of her husband's inappropriate and she sees it as a persona non grata. Senator from participation in the funeral refused.
Edith survived her husband for 37 years and 328 days. During these years she did everything to preserve the memory of Wilson. Defiantly constantly attended meetings of the League of Nations in Geneva. She has appeared at the Democratic party in 1928 and 1932. In 1960, it visited a certain gentleman, a car which sported slogans calling for the election of Nixon. When the visitor left her house, she told him an energetic tone: "Never leave a car outside my house with posters of the Republican Party."
. While in January 1961 there were severe frosts, Mrs. Wilson took part in the inauguration ceremony of President John F
. Kennedy. Then she was 89 years old. Attended the ceremony, former President Harry C. Truman kissed her.
Edith Wilson died on December 28, 1961 at the age of 89 years in New York from cardiac abnormalities. On this day, she had to take part in the inauguration of the bridge across the Potomac River, named in honor of her husband: "Woodrow Wilson Bridge". It was the 105 th anniversary of the birth of Wilson.
Edith was buried in Washington in the Church of St.. Joseph next to her husband. She left a voluminous autobiography entitled "My Memoirs". Above this book, she began working in 1927 and graduated in 10 years. It was published in 1939, that, as said Edith, to make public the private life, tell her the truth, which is so often distorted by ill-informed people.