Nixon, Thelma Ryan( The wife of U.S. President)
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Biography Nixon, Thelma Ryan
Thelma Ryan Nixon, called simply Pat, was the first that her husband had sent abroad with an official diplomatic mission. In May 1970 she flew to Peru to help earthquake victims. Peruvian President, General Velasco Alvarado, who awarded her as the first American Grand Cross of the Order of the Sun, the highest award in the Western Hemisphere. In 1972, Pat Nixon was present instead of her husband during the inauguration of Liberian President. She is often called the "ambassador of goodwill".
Although she and trusted execution of important diplomatic assignments in the White House, she played no political role. Among the first lady of America of our time, she was one of the smallest, did not say the official speeches, wrote no articles, the journalists' questions gave general evasive answers.
. Her biographer, David Lester, called it "a lonely lady of San Clemente (California at San Clemente house was Nixon)
. Others called the wife of Nixon's "Plastic Pat," Pat antiseptic "or" Pat-robot ". People have seen the smile of Pat, but she gave the impression of an artificial. They said that it looks like a plastic doll, smiling the whole time of one and the same smile, regardless of what happens around. Pat's daughter, Julia, devoted mother several publications, among them, and the volume biography, which argues that people underestimate her. Julia sees her mother in an entirely different light, and describes her as energetic, witty and gentle man.
Pat Nixon was born March 16, 1912 in the small town of Isle, in the mountains of Nevada. Her father, William Ryan, worked at a copper mine. On the birth of his daughter, he learned only after returning after a night shift on March 17, the day of Sts. Patrick. Without thinking twice, William Ryan decided: one daughter was born March 17, then be it Pat. And all my life, she celebrated his birthday on 17 March and, of course, remained with that name - Pat.
Her mother, Kate Halberstadt Bender, was born in Giessen, near Frankfurt. When Pat was two years old, my father for health reasons left his job at the mine. Finding a new place he and his family moved to California and bought a small farm in Atizine, 30 kilometers south-east of Los Angeles. Since childhood Pat, along with two older brothers grew vegetables.
In 1925, when Pat was 13 years old, her mother had died. Since then, along with the school, she performed all the duties of a housewife: cooking, cleaning, helping in the field. And two years later began to care for seriously ill father. It was an unbearable burden for a young girl. "The sad life was, but I try and give other forces," - she recalled later.
Her favorite pastime was the book: "Books have the greatest impact on my life. They expanded my horizon. Thus I learned that the world is more and more, and not only that surrounds us. "
At age 17 she lost her father, that was a great grief for her. Even many years later, she confessed: "I do not like to remember this time". She faithfully led the household, both attended high school in Novokom and participated in performances amateur troupe School. In 1974, when Gloria Stein asked her about her childhood. Pat answered sadly: "I had a difficult childhood. I do not like all of you, you have all been easier. "
Despite such a difficult life, she graduated from senior high school and dreamed of traveling to learn about life in other countries. So I decided to study further. She worked as a cleaner, then served in the First National Bank in parallel Atizine and attended lectures in Filletone, in college part-time training course.
. In 1930 he decided to try his luck in New York, but to save money for the trip, hired a driver
. With great luggage, along with an elderly couple who went to Pat in the biggest city in the U.S.. Despite the severe economic crisis, Pat soon found work in a hospital, where the first two years she was secretary and then a radiologist assistant and took care of pulmonary patients. "Nothing gives him such satisfaction as helping others," - she said. In New York, Pat has been active in public life, but lived very modestly, save for further education. Several years later she already had enough money to return to Los Angeles. She settled in the apartment the brothers, Bill and Tom, and the autumn of 1934 began to study at the University of Southern California. Pat was a good student and has specialized in the trading business, but she had to constantly work to provide a living wage and training. She worked in a department store, then a telephone operator, she assisted the dentist checked the work of students and even got a few roles in films statistok. Her biggest role in the film consisted of one sentence, for her, she was in Hollywood, $ 25. Frank Baxter, who attended a seminar on Pat Shakespeare, later recalled that she always came to class tired. "I remember I once went to the buffet dining room and saw Pat. She stood behind the counter and gave out food. An hour later, I met Pat in the library, where she gave out books. When I went back to university, she checked the work of students. But despite such pressure, it was a good student. "
In 1937, Pat graduated from university and wanted to work in the trade, but received an offer to work in schools in the city Witter, Calif., for $ 190 per month. In those days it was extremely tempting offer. The city was founded in 1887 as a settlement of Quakers. When Pat arrived, he counted 25 000 residents, and lived there for not only the Quakers.
In high school, she taught geography and typing. Subsequently, her students remembered her as a young, slender and attractive teacher with reddish hair, who spoke a soft, pleasant voice and offered for students is extremely high demands.
. Pat quickly blended in with the cultural and social life
. A young lawyer Richard Nixon heard about the new "charming" teacher, which was supposed to play in the play Alexandra Vulkut and George Kaufman's "Tower of Darkness. To see the young lady, in the autumn of 1938 he came to a rehearsal of amateur theater, and even obtained a role. It was a romantic role, and his partner was Pat. Later he recalled the meeting: "I felt like I know everybody in town, and suddenly before my eyes appeared a beautiful, energetic woman with a copper-colored hair, which I still have not seen. I could not look away from it ". She had bewitched him. For him it was "love at first sight". There is nothing surprising in the fact that that evening he told her: "I'd like to meet with you". - "I'm too busy" - she said. - "Do not say so, I will still marry you."
Pat was not happy about this conversation. "I could not even imagine that anyone could talk about this so suddenly," she recalled, many years later. At home she told her friend: "Today I met a guy who wants to marry me". Shortly after that rehearsal, he proposed to her. Internally, it was not ready for marriage, let alone with the man who hardly knew. He waited patiently, even when she met with other men. Together they went to the movies, eating ice cream at the weekend went to the sea. Pat loved to skate, and Nixon wanted to learn, but unsuccessfully falling on the ice, abandoned the venture. They have become increasingly go to the dance. He helped her to check the work of students, gave flowers, writing love letters and his own poems. Sometimes she pretended that she was not home, and he slip into the letter under the door. There were times when she sent the girls with whom she lived, on a date appointed by Nixon. He had a car and he drove her to Los Angeles for a meeting of rivals. They waited patiently, and in the evening drove her home.
Nixon was rewarded for restraint. Pat began increasingly to meet with him and became more serious attitude to his advances. Once she even told friends: "Someday he will be president". She began coming to Nixon, to help his mother.
Autumn of 1940, two years after their first meeting, Pat Nixon said the agreement. In a large bouquet of flowers she received from him a gift for an engagement ring.
June 21, 1941 held their wedding, according to the ritual of Quakers. Pat was 28 years old, Richard - 27. Pat recalls that "it was a beautiful wedding". In the honeymoon, they drove to Mexico. During the elections in 1968 Nixon wistfully remembered about this trip: "Sometimes we drove all night to save on hotel. It seemed that at $ 178, we visited all the temples and churches in Mexico City.
Nixon was a lawyer, and in California, he had enough income, but he was not going to stay there forever. Pat continued to work in school.
In 1941 they moved to Washington, where Nixon won a seat in the Bureau of price controls. In Ottumwa, Iowa, Nixon learned and attained the rank of senior lieutenant of the Navy, Pat worked in the bank. When he was sent to the South Pacific in the area of active hostilities, she moved to San Francisco and worked there until his return from the front in 1944. During this period, they wrote daily letters to one another.
February 21, 1946 Pat gave birth to a daughter in California, first. She was given the name of Patricia, but her parents called her Tritsiya. The second daughter, Julia, was born July 5, 1948 in Washington, DC. In 1968 Julie married David Eisenhower, grandson of President Eisenhower.
Nixon's political career began after the war. Pat was not interested in politics, but had nothing against the decision to choose a husband's political career, putting the two conditions. First: politics should not intrude into their privacy, that it can safely engage in child rearing. Secondly: the husband would not require it to make political speeches. Nixon, of course, took these two conditions. Needless to say, even that both conditions were not feasible.
In 1946, the 12-th constituency California Nixon fought for a seat in Congress. Pat worked at his campaign office, typing text, answering letters, distributing leaflets, but it was quite clearly seen that this occupation does not give her any pleasure. Her smile at the pre-election activities were artificial, and the behavior is too nervous. Direct contact was always tense. She still had a lot to learn.
Although Nixon kept an unusually dirty election campaign, and many criticized him for it. Pat has always supported her husband. To help Nixon beat off enemy attacks, it is in shorthand of their speech. Also, always tried to save him from unnecessary worries that he could concentrate on the most important issues.
In 1952, President Eisenhower proposed the candidacy of Nixon's vice-president. Pat doubted whether her husband to accept this proposal. She did not know whether endure another election, this time across the country, and was afraid that might not be sufficiently attentive to the children, but eventually agreed. In 1952, during the Republican Convention in Chicago, she once dined with friends and suddenly I heard a radio message that her husband was elected by acclamation the candidate for the post of vice-president. She hurried into the conference room and managed with her husband and the couple, Eisenhower, climb the podium.
Campaign in 1952, Nixon and his wife held "in harness," recalls Pat. She met with women who make statements, distributing of leaflets and answered letters. This time they visited the Isle in Nevada, where forty years ago, Pat was born. Despite the fact that the voters of the city were mostly Democrats, they have prepared a warm welcome.
During the election campaign it became known that Nixon secretly received financial support from the California Business. He had been asked to withdraw his candidature. Nixon was ready to accept, but Pat resisted. "You have no right to give up, - she said. - If you now turn away, Eisenhower defeated in the elections. He may himself remove you if you want. But if you do not go on the offensive, if you go back down, you will be destroyed politically. And all your life, the life of your family and especially their daughters will turn into a pipedream. "
He held consultations with his advisers and decided to fight. September 23, 1952 appeared on television to appeal, which is broadcast throughout the country. In a trembling voice, with tears, telling the difficult material conditions of his family lives. His wife does not even have fur coats, as the wives of corrupt Democrats, it is usually a Republican coat of cheap materials. I always repeat that to her all-to-face.
In this melodramatic appeal, he disputed the fact that he received expensive gifts, except that his little daughter gave little dog.
Pat is suffering from this fraud. When Eisenhower's wife told her that this financial scandal did harm to her husband, she replied: "You even have no idea what we went through."
. After the election, Nixon said that his wife "will do everything to support my political career, but she hates politics, and dreams of the day, when will the political chapter in my life."
. As the wife of Vice-President, Pat led the household, shopping, cooking, ironing, raise children
. Always tried to be in the background, avoiding the media and any statements that might embarrass the husband and the Eisenhower administration. Nixon was proud of her: "Pat is so clever, that says only what you need, and avoids controversial issues". When reporters asked more detailed questions, she smiled sweetly and said nothing.
Friends thought Pat direct, sincere and cheerful woman who loves to joke. She could even laugh always serious and somewhat inflated Nixon, but did so only in a narrow circle of friends. Publicly, it is nothing like this had never allowed. One evening, Pat entered the room, holding a tray with various delicacies and handing it to friends, said: "Try!" It tastes better than what Dick the electorate! "
. In family life, they also had a quarrel, mainly due to the fact that her husband was rarely at home
. "Unfortunately, were the good old days" - Pat complained to friends after her husband's election to the post of vice-president. If they began to quarrel, Nixon telephoned to California mother that she had calmed his wife. When once the conflict between them was long, he brought to Washington's mother, and she reconciles them.
Pat took an active part in all the election campaigns of her husband. She dressed modestly but elegantly. Attached great importance to its appearance and permanently recorded, where and in what was a dress that does not appear twice in the same place in the same suit.
. Her daughter attended the best private schools, Chapin Fink in New York and Smith College in Washington, DC
. As wife of the Vice-President, she visited 52 countries. Each trip was prepared with special care. Often visited schools, hospitals, orphanages, readily met with representatives of women's organizations.
In May 1958 on a trip to Latin America, Nixon was met by mass demonstrations and protest meetings. In Caracas, the capital of Venezuela, Nixon was stoned. In this dramatic situation, Pat remained calm. Nixon was forced to seek protection in the American Embassy. Later he wrote that "Pat was the calmest member of the entire delegation". One of the security staff believed that "it had shown more courage than some of the men". She admitted that she was more in anger than in horror. "In this situation, people do not think about fear. Bad that this happened during the trip, conceived as a goodwill tour.
In 1960, Nixon decided to run for presidential elections. Pat was not as enthusiastic about this idea, but supported her husband during the campaign. Republicans believe Pat's trump card of their candidate, and particularly highlighted its importance: "If you choose to Nixon, then choose and thereby the First Lady, which is known not only for their attractiveness. It has its own problems. It represents America all over the world. Pat Nixon's loyal team man. More than anyone else, it is suitable for the role of First Lady ". Voters handed out badges with a portrait of Pat.
Some traditionalists have questioned whether Pat take such an active part in the election campaign of her husband. At this Pat responded that their participation, she demonstrates the growing influence of women in the political life of America. "There were times when women stayed at home, now they have voluntarily begun to fight for those goals, who believe" - she said.
Pat Nixon was compared with Jacqueline Kennedy, and recognized that each of them made every effort to win her husband's. In 1960, Kennedy defeated Nixon in the election, with the advantage of 118 000 votes, it was the smallest victory in the history of the United States. Pat suffered a heavy defeat in elections and her husband first began to cry on everyone's mind.
. After the abortive election of Nixon resumed revenue advocacy.
. High profit, thanks to which he could raise the living standards of the family, was a sort of compensation for the defeat in the elections
. In Beverly Hills, he built himself a luxury mansion with pool. Pat thought he had permanently retired from politics, as she had dreamed. When in 1962 he decided to make the post of governor of California, then told her about it at the last minute, over dinner at a restaurant. Pat got up from his desk and went to the bathroom to cry there. "At this time I move away from the elections," - she told him firmly.
Nixon took a sheet of paper and began to write the disclaimer. "Wait - she interrupted. - Do what think is right ". She put her hand on his shoulder and kissed him. Nixon tore leaves and then took a new and wrote a statement in which they formally declared their intention to fight for the post of governor of California.
In this election campaign he called "Pat" secret weapon ", which proved unsuccessful. After the defeat in these elections and began to spread rumors that Pat is thinking about divorce. Since then, relations between spouses spoil the final. When Pat lived in the White House, she allegedly confessed to the doctor that since the early sixties, no longer sleeps with her husband.
. In 1968, she was initially against her husband's participation in the presidential election, but when I saw how he wants to nominate his candidacy, he promised to actively participate in the election campaign
. In her view, this campaign was to raise its credibility and to change its image. She represented all of Nixon's affectionate husband, caring father, a witty man, as well as responsible and experienced statesman.
. One reporter asked her once how she helps her husband, she replied that gives him courage, and sometimes gives him advice, especially if it is the opinion of the female half of the voters.
. With tears in his eyes Pat by the report that Hubert Humphrey, the candidate of the Democratic Party, was defeated
. These were tears of joy. Nixon's daughter, Julia, said: "Finally, the father will be at the place where he could be useful not only our country but also worldwide."
. When on the eve of bringing her husband's inauguration in January 1969, she was asked whether she supports him in his political career, she honestly said:
. I never wanted it to be a politician. I see it now much less frequently than I would have wished. So hard to live. "
After winning the election Nixon gave his wife a diamond brooch with pearl earrings.
Initially, Pat does not feel very well in the role of First Lady. She was imprisoned and excessively hard, but eventually became free and won the sympathy of many people. Gradually she began to like her job at the White House. She willingly took visitors - domestic and foreign politicians, the elderly, orphans and the disabled, in constant contact with women's organizations, at receptions participated in conversations with guests and show understanding to their concerns.
. Although she avoided public appearances and never gave interviews, the press believed it active First Lady
. From January 1969 to August 1974 attended 986 official events.
. In March 1969 Pat has taken a long journey to the United States, urging Americans to help the poor and disabled people, encouraging women to participate more actively in political and public life.
. Press start to write about "the new Mrs. Nixon," which differed sharply from the timid, constrained and not very sociable lady, known to all in the past
Although Nixon was in the case warmly of his wife in the White House, he treated her badly. Gripped by lust for power, he pointedly ignored her, that White House staff sympathized with her and often took her under his protection.
. When the August 9, 1974, after scandals in the case of Watergate, Nixon was forced to leave the White House, in a farewell speech, he mentioned his mother and no one said a word about Pat
. Nixon's biographers have pointed out publicly that he never spoke of love for his wife never took her hand, as is usually done by other American politicians to please voters.
. Nixon's daughter, Julia, justifying them, said her parents did not like to openly express feelings, while biographers have argued that Nixon sought to create the impression of an ideal couple, which they in fact were not
. Nixon's adjutant, Lt. Col. Jack Brennan, once joked that in his responsibility to teach the president how to kiss his wife.
Michael John Sullivan wrote that it had long been noticeably indifferent attitude Nixon's wife. "He repressed it, considered her personal property and demanded from her flawless performance of duties during the election campaign, she was performing as a beast. Having a high post, he took it the role of a silent shadow. Its task was to bolster its shaky and I support him unconditionally. He was sent down to its furniture on the stage. She was always smiling and enthusiastic to look at him, when the fiftieth time he uttered the same speech. All sympathized with her. "
. Richard Bergholz from the Los Angeles Time "wrote:
. "He always made fun of her, except that not only physically."
. Pat The White House has demanded that a separate bedroom, stating: "I want to have their own room
. Nobody could sleep with Dick in the same room. At night, he wakes up, light up, wrote something or slanders on the tape ". During the long flights, they also slept in different salons. When the plane landed. Pat woke it comes out with her husband. Smiling happily, both appeared at the door of the aircraft.
The White House, Nixon lived in different wings of the building, located opposite each other. With his wife he saw no more than one hour a day, usually over dinner, they barely spoke. If the table was empty, except his wife, the waiters hurried to the kitchen staff serving dishes. "Why such speshkaN" - once asked one of the cooks and the waiter got the answer: "Every minute is too long, if the table is silent."
. A staff member Pat White House, Kandy Stround once in a conversation with biographer Pat Lester David said: "She gave a great deal and in return received too little so needed a woman: the attention, warmth and Society
. Sometimes he was so cruelly indifferent to it, that I hurt for her tears.
Pat did not have any influence on the political decisions of her husband and did not want to. In an interview, Nixon said that he sometimes speaks with Pat about public affairs, but never asked her opinion and asks the Board. Meanwhile she once said: "I have no right to give him advice. He is a strong man. "
On many political issues, they had different views. Nixon was an opponent of abortion, Pat felt that the woman should have the right to decide for itself the question. Pat had been expressed for the right of women to work in the Supreme Court, her husband and would not hear about it.
Nixon's wife received about 1 000 letters a week, trying to read every letter and respond to it. It took her 4-5 hours daily, and still she did not have time. One of the journalists asked her why she spends so much time writing, she replied: "If the response from the White House will have a small town, the letter will show the neighbors, it will appear in the local press. It will be a great event in the life of man. "
June 12, 1971 in the Rose Garden of the White House took Nixon's daughter's wedding, Tritsii, with Edward Cox. At the reception on the wedding day Pat danced with Richard Nixon, it seemed unlikely event. When Pat put her hand on the shoulder of her husband, there was applause. Later, Nixon explained that the parents were Quakers and did not approve of dancing. Asked whether he would dance and followed by a reception at the White House, followed by a decisive answer: "Of course not."
Pat has paid great attention to interior of the White House. Some felt that it would remove everything that reminded him of Jackie Kennedy. It was bought about 500 new paintings and antique furniture. In February 1972, Jacqueline Kennedy for the first time after the death of her husband visited the White House and praised Pat for their endeavors to update the situation.
As First Lady Pat frequently traveled abroad, she has done in the way of 200 000 km. During the war with Vietnam was in South Vietnam. In addition to Eleanor Roosevelt, but Pat Nixon traveled to the area of military operations. In 1972 he accompanied her husband on a trip to China.
. Andrei Gromyko, for many years worked in Washington, once said: "I knew many of the wives of presidents, but Pat Nixon was among them most enjoyable.
. Pat was very nervous when it arose "Watergate"
. At first she thought that the invasion was the headquarters of the Democratic Party, in the high-rise Watergate, and the installation of listening devices there is an artificially inflated case. Nixon suspected that he had instigated the action. For the first time in the history of Congress filed a lawsuit on the line positions, the obvious outcome of which was the resignation of Nixon. Later, she felt that the Democrats want to destroy the political career of her husband. Then there were rumors that Pat began to drink. When the House of Representatives had drafted the charges against Nixon, she said journalist Helen Tomes: "You know, as I believe my husband and I love him."
. Nixon's daughters, Julie and Tritsiya, persuaded him not to give up and fight till the end, just thinking and Pat
. Julia wrote: "Regarding the case of" Watergate ", my mother most regrettable that the father had followed her advice on the tapes until they were discovered. His mother insisted on the destruction of these tapes ". Nixon recalled: "My departure was for my wife a lot harder than for me, she thought that I should not have to retreat. I still can not stop it surprised it 48 hours without sleep watched as packed our belongings before leaving Washington to San Clemente.
August 9, 1974 Nixon and his family left the White House. Pat was so depressed that he never even said goodbye to staff, and when Nixon was saying goodbye to staff, she stood silently beside him and could hardly keep back the tears.
. Later, she shared with Julia: "Nothing ever since I was not depressed, as a matter of" Watergate "
. In this scam Pat around the nearest officer accused Nixon, Haldeman, Robert. In San Clemente, Pat completely withdrawn into herself, turned down all interviews. Does not maintain any contact even with close friends.
Unlike past years, when Nixon was not paying any attention to his wife, after the case "Watergate" he felt the need in her community, in conversations with her. "I do not know how to appreciate my story, but do know that Pat will always be regarded as an amazing woman". Pat, according to a poll of opinions, even after the scandalous case was the most respected women of America.
In October 1975, Nixon was in the hospital, and Pat did not depart from it. He wrote: "My life-threatening illness lay down a very serious burden on the shoulders of Pat, I was physically and mentally goner, but it has stood me.
June 8, 1976 Pat was stricken with paralysis, the entire left half of his body was paralyzed by. It was difficult to say, but thanks to daily systematic exercise, it gradually began to move.
She read a lot, especially the historical and biographical books, took care of his beloved garden and listening to music. She saw her husband in a swimming pool, but she still avoided journalists and activism, explaining that the state of health.
In February 1980, Nixon moved from California to New York to be closer to grandchildren. In October 1981, they settled in Sedl River in New Jersey, near New York.
In autumn 1983 she suffered a second attack, at that time less dangerous. In 1984, she refuse to provide her personal protection of the opinion that her little contact with the outside world does not justify that at the expense of taxpayers keep about a bodyguard round the clock. A year later, Nixon did the same. Savings amounted to three million dollars a year.
June 22, 1993 Pat Nixon died at the age of 81 at the residence of Richard Nixon in Park Ridge, New Jersey. The cause of death was lung cancer. A few years before his death, she wrote the epitaph for himself:
"I would like to be remembered I stayed as First Lady."