Eleanor Roosevelt( The wife of U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt)
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Biography Eleanor Roosevelt
(Nov. 11, 1884 - November 7, 1962)
Like her husband, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, was not a normal president, she was not usually the first lady. She entered the history of America as a social and political activist, author, journalist and diplomat, in 1946 she was elected by acclamation chairman of the Committee for the Protection of Human Rights at the United Nations. Harry Truman called it "the First Lady of the world" and stressed that "it is interested not only in the United States, but also the whole world."
. Eleanor Roosevelt, the only one among the wives of U.S. presidents served as first lady more than four terms, from March 1933 to April 12, 1945.
. Like her husband, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, was not a normal president, she was not usually the first lady
. She entered the history of America as a social and political activist, author, journalist and diplomat, in 1946 she was elected by acclamation chairman of the Committee for the Protection of Human Rights at the United Nations. Harry Truman called it "the First Lady of the world" and stressed that "it is interested not only in the United States, but also the whole world."
. In the next thirteen years Eleanor Roosevelt after the poll was "a woman who is most admired in the world."
. Unlike all previous presidents wives Eleanor has used the media to acquaint the public with its broad and comprehensive activities
. Eleanor - a prototype of the modern First Lady, which takes part in public life, demonstrating the autonomy and independence. As none of her predecessors in the White House, after the death of her husband own achievements further enhanced its prestige.
. Anne Eleanor Roosevelt was born on November 11, 1884 in New York and was the first child Elliot and Annie Livingston Hall Roosevelt
. Parents' marriage broke up because of his father's addiction to alcohol.
In early childhood, Eleanor is not distinctively. She called herself "ugly duckling". Her mother, by contrast, was considered a beauty. Autobiography begins with the words: "My mother was one of the most beautiful women I've ever seen."
. Eleanor was shy and withdrawn girl with many complexes, so the mother often made fun of her in the presence of others and emphasizing its appearance and behavior, little daughter called "grandmother"
. The guests said: "My daughter" funny girl ". Eleanor later recalled: "My mother tried hard to instill good manners to me that should have to reimburse my appearance. But these efforts made me more aware of my shortcomings ". My father, unlike his mother, showed an excessive love for his daughter. He affectionately called her "Little Nell" and took to walk in the riding club. One year-old Nel was accompanied by his father at the club, and there he had completely forgotten about it, drinking with friends at a bar. A few hours later police found her and sent home in a taxi. Father Eleanor loved more than anyone in the world. Despite its flaws, she always spoke of him with affection and respect. Unfortunately, it is often not at home, but his daughter, he wrote letters, filled with love, and when he returned home, Eleanor was happy and revived, but not for long. He left again, and she withdraws into himself.
In December 1892, when Eleanor was eight years old, her mother died of diphtheria, and two years later, she lost her beloved father and. After the death of his mother Eleanor of two brothers moved to New York to grandmother. Valentine Hall was a rich widow and decided to give orphaned grandchildren a good education. Eleanor took riding lessons, dancing, singing and music, and then began studying literature.
Receptions, this is not a very pretty girl would not attract attention. She succeeded in dance, so do not always feel good in society peers. She was already a teenager when one of the family holidays invited her to dance a distant cousin, Franklin izHayd Park.
Her uncle, a future U.S. president Theodore Roosevelt, who encouraged her sport. Once when she was afraid to enter the water, he simply pushed her into the pool, and then learned to swim and jump from the tower.
In 1899, Valentine's grandmother sent a fifteen-granddaughter in London, in the highest girls' school "Ellensvud". It manifested her love for science, she learned the political and religious tolerance. Incredibly great influence on the views of student was the school director Maria Sauvestre. In a London school, she learned how to dress up and build-up, to produce, if possible, the best impression.
During these years, Eleanor toured many European countries. Self went to Paris, at that time was not quite familiar.
When she was 18 years old, my grandmother decided it was time to finish the granddaughter of education in England and return home to look after a suitable spouse. In New York, she had a social life: receptions, balls, evening over a cup of coffee. These activities were not to her liking, and not every young man dared to invite a girl to dance with such a high growth (over 180 cm).
. Eleanor, who now consider themselves "ugly duckling" was tall and graceful, but the protruding teeth spoiled person
. Sometimes at family gatherings she met a distant cousin, Franklin. This tall, slim, sociable young man, pleasant looking interested Eleanor. They both had serious intentions in life, both keenly interested in social and political problems. In intimate conversations of Eleanor came some attracting charm.
They began dating, and in November 1903, Franklin had proposed. Eleanor was surprised: "I can not keep him near me. He looks so good ". But when has settled her surprise, she emphatically said "yes."
Later she recalled that while they were both too young and inexperienced. When decided to get married, she was sure that in love with him. "But only now I know, many years later, what it means to truly be in love, and love."
Overbearing and does not tolerate objections Franklin's mother, Sara Roosevelt, was strongly against this marriage, believing that his marriage he was too young. In addition, she guarded him with morbid jealousy. With the firm intention to postpone the adored son of Eleanor, she invited him for a walk on the Caribbean Sea. But she was not lucky. Upon his return, Franklin rushed to Eleanor, and finally the mother had to agree. In autumn 1904 Eleanor and Franklin was appointed wedding day on March 17, 1905, when President Theodore Roosevelt had come to New York to take the traditional parade in St. Patrick's Day.
. By the altar Theodore Roosevelt was the niece instead of her late father
. He allowed himself a hint: "Well, that name remains in the family". As it turned out, the family is left not only the name, but also the presidency.
Wedding of Eleanor and Franklin became a great public event. Before the house at 76 th Street in Manhattan, a crowd gathered for the order following 75 police. At the wedding were invited 200 guests, and the couple received 340 gifts.
Since Franklin was still a law student at Columbia University, moved the young honeymoon vacation. They went to Europe, where they brought a lot of books and photographs from Italy, France, Germany, Switzerland and Scotland. Returning, settled in the house, which for them took off and furnish to your liking mother of Franklin. Svekrov all holding in their hands: Rising servants, address issues of leave to intervene in the upbringing of children.
At Eleanor and Franklin had six children, five sons and one daughter. Anne was the first child (born in 1906). After it came into the world: James (1907), Franklin (1909, died at the age of eight months), Elliot (1910), Franklin Delano (1914) and John Aspinuol (1916). All the children's first marriage broke. Then they got married a second time, some of them stood before the altar in the third and even fourth time.
While Franklin Delano Roosevelt gradually climbing the ladder, Eleanor became involved politics. "It is the duty of every woman to live her husband's interests," - she said. In 1910, when Franklin Roosevelt sought in the New York office of Senator, Eleanor thought employment policy for men, surprised that her husband stood for women's suffrage. Franklin convinced her that women should have equal rights with men. When he was elected a senator, they moved to Albany, the capital of New York. Eleanor was happy to get rid of a tyrannical mother-in -. "I wanted independence. Only now I realized that in my growing desire to develop its own personality. "
In Albany, she attended meetings Nц¦o York was interested in the activities of parliament and local political bodies. I met with many politicians and publicists, interviewed them. In 1912 she accompanied her husband to the Democratic Party convention, where presidential candidate chose Woodrow Wilson. In 1913, President Franklin Roosevelt appointed Assistant Minister of Marine, and they moved to Washington. Since then Eleanor has participated in many receptions she hosted the politicians in the house and led the political debate.
. During the First World War, Eleanor helped in the work of the Red Cross, sewing clothes for the soldiers, worked in the canteens, even before the end of life has remained a poor cook
. The only dish that she could have been fried, so it often offers its guests. In addition, it is totally rejected alcohol.
In 1918, a trip to Europe, Franklin returned with pneumonia. Eleanor took care of her sick husband and watch a correspondence. That's when she came upon a letter from which it follows that her husband maintained intimate relations with some Meser Lucy Paige, a young, beautiful woman, who since 1914 had been his secretary. This discovery was almost destroyed their marriage. Many years later, Eleanor confided has told friends: "For me, then collapsed the whole world". At first, she suggested to her husband a divorce, but then they came to the conclusion that, given the interests of the child and his political career, such a decision would be unwise. Franklin promised to break with Lucy and Eleanor forgave his adulterous behavior, but dismissed Lucy, who soon enlisted. In 1920 she married. Many years later, Roosevelt resumed relations with the already widowed Lucy. On the day of his death, April 12, 1945, she was with him in Worm Springs. Written Eleanor has never pronounced on it, but friends said: "I can forgive but not forget."
This novel has left a deep imprint in marriage Roosevelt, the old warmth of relations and trust has never returned. Eleanor continued to take care of her husband, but always maintained a certain distance in relation to him, and mother in law. She lived in their own interests and demonstrated independence. Biographers unanimously claim that this time they slept in separate bedrooms.
At the beginning of 1919, Eleanor accompanied her husband during a trip to England and France has seen the Versailles Peace Conference. Washington continued to support the wounded veterans of war, visited them in hospitals, bringing gifts, cheered.
She is actively involved in the problems of American women, especially working conditions at industrial enterprises. At the military service took more and more men, and the company increased the number of working women, so in October 1919 Eleanor took part in the International Congress workers.
. In 1920, Roosevelt was nominated for vice-president of the Democratic Party
. Eleanor participated in the campaign, helping to prepare a speech and publicly supported the League of Nations, against which the Republicans fought fiercely. Conducted a major campaign to attract American women to the election. Learned typing and shorthand.
Democrats lost the elections in 1920, Eleanor returned with her husband in New York.
In August 1921, 39-year-old Franklin D. Roosevelt contracted polio. His mother insisted that he withdrew from public life, but Eleanor vigorously objected. Encourages his wife, he began to fight the disease. Any achievement perceived as an important victory, although by the end of life could move only in a wheelchair. Many years later, Eleanor recalled that "her husband's illness finally forced me to stand on its own feet. His illness had left its mark on my attitude towards him, my life and the lives of our children ". That winter 1921-22 period is considered "the most difficult test in life."
Roosevelt decided to pursue a political career, Eleanor actively helped him in this. She invited the politicians to the residence of Roosevelt, had served with the papers, collected money for the campaign the Democrats, even got a driver's license, but never considered a good driver. One of her numerous published articles of this period was called "Why I became demokratomN". In it she spoke not only on his own behalf but on behalf of her husband: "The Democratic Party is more concerned about the welfare and interests of society than about the interests of big capitalists". At first she assured her husband that he would actively work as long as he does not regain strength, but soon declared that the political activity brings her moral satisfaction.
Eleanor considered herself a bad speaker. The art of public speaking had taught her at home, Louis Mc Henry Gow, editor of the New York Herald. After these lessons, she gained confidence.
In the Democratic party convention in 1924, Eleanor Roosevelt spoke about the issues of pre-election program, which demanded equal rights for women. For the Democratic candidate for president, Al. Smith, Franklin Roosevelt organized a campaign in the state of New York.
Eleanor worked and economic issues, which at that time was not quite normally. Together with her friends she had bought in New York City school for girls, there was a deputy director and taught history. In addition, opened a furniture factory, where the unemployed are taken from rural areas.
In 1928, Franklin Delano Roosevelt became governor of New York. For Eleanor, this meant additional responsibilities. As wife of the governor, she visited prisons, hospitals and other public institutions, and told her husband about their work. Views were not always coincide. The main differences caused dry law, which Eleanor wanted to keep. She did not share her husband's criticism of the League of Nations, but the vast majority of the issues, their views coincided. When in 1932 the Democratic Party put forward the candidacy of Franklin Roosevelt for the presidency, Eleanor initially restrained emotion, but during the election campaign helped her husband to collect the necessary material for his speeches. Appeared together with him at meetings, worked in the department of women from the Democratic Party. In honor of the victory of Franklin Delano Roosevelt over Hoover in the election night, even drank a little champagne.
. She was well aware that her husband became president in a very difficult time: The United States is in deep crisis, many people lost their jobs, did not have the basic necessities of life, became a mass phenomenon in the collapse of banks and enterprises.
. The prospect of living in the White House frightened Eleanor
. She was afraid to become a prisoner of protocol and lose their identity, but those fears proved unfounded. Duties of the First Lady Eleanor opened up new and wider opportunities of. Although she was an independent woman and had its own political convictions, but never sought a political career. Franklin believed that the wife is too impatient, and therefore can not be a good politician.
But since her husband became president, she did everything to help him carry out their duties. She often traveled with him across the country, met with voters. She was already familiar with the slums, orphanages and factories. In the satirical magazine "New Yorker cartoon appeared: working underground coal miners, one of them, throwing pick, raised the lamp higher and says another:" My God, to us comes Mrs. Roosevelt. "
. American aristocracy, the traditionalists, racists and conservatives of various kinds could not forgive Eleanor that she has so much "in common with this rabble."
. Once Eleanor visited a school for troubled children, partially funded, and when she saw what the rooms were dirty, took a broom and began to revenge sex.
. During the Second World War, Eleanor Roosevelt visited the prison in Baltimore
. To arrive there on time, she soon left the White House, not even telling her husband where he was going. After lunch, Roosevelt wanted to discuss with his wife some questions, call the Secretary and asked him where Eleanor. "In prison, Mr. President". - "Do not wonder - was heard in response. - But it natvorilaN "
In West Virginia, on the initiative of Eleanor and the support of the authorities opened a model colony Arturdeyl for local farmers, but in 1942 due to financial difficulties it had to close. When Secretary of State, Ministry of Interior, . Harold Ikis, . complained to the president at, . that Eleanor takes irresponsible financial decisions, . Roosevelt said: "Unlike most of her sex, . My wife does not know how to handle money. ",
. Eleanor Roosevelt took care of the National youth organization founded in 1935 to assist young people in search of work
. As the first lady, she visited the city's neighborhoods, where they lived negros, opposed the poll tax, supported laws that forbade Lynch, took blacks to work in the White House. Some members of Roosevelt's view that she had behaved too provocatively towards blacks. For political reasons, Franklin Roosevelt did not support the participation of his wife in the lives of these people, not wanting to lose votes from the Democrats of the southern states. Thanks to Eleanor negros away from the Republicans, who were supported earlier and joined the supporters of Democrats.
. The criticism of Eleanor Roosevelt usually reacted very calmly: his wife goes "wherever he wants, talk to whomever he wants and learns something at the same time"
. When Eleanor asked her husband if he does not experience difficulties because of her activism and speeches, he comforted her with the words: "Ladies, we have a free country. I've been using their own methods of communication with their compatriots, but if I do and have trouble, I always find the opportunity to protect themselves from them. "
. In 1939, Eleanor surpassed her husband in popularity, 67% of Americans rated their activity on the "good", while Franklin Roosevelt gave this assessment, only 58%
. According to the results of a sociological survey, Eleanor Roosevelt was considered a woman who is most admired, but also that the most criticized in U.S. history.
. If the activity and the popularity of the First Lady to measure the number of articles published in the authoritative newspaper of the New York Times, "that Eleanor Roosevelt far exceeds all U.S. First Lady
. In many ways, contributed to this, of course, those 13 years she spent in the White House. If as a basis for comparison, to take only the first year of presidential rule, only Jacqueline Kennedy ahead of. Between March 4, 1933 th and August 12, 1945, Eleanor Roosevelt, participated in almost 5900 events, read a large number of lectures and reports. By Mira Gatin estimated that she delivered messages about 1400 times.
Eleanor traveled constantly. Fortunately the owners of overhead lines, she loved to fly airplanes in the first year of life in the White House flew more than 50 000 km, the second - 68 000 km. Its called "Flying First Lady". In those days when flying was considered dangerous by air, it greatly helped to change that opinion.
Not everyone liked the frequent visits of the First Lady. Some felt that it should pay more attention to the family or keep order in the White House. But it was unfair. She was always with her children, . if they have any problems, . located next to his son James, . when in Minneapolis he had a serious operation, was at the Franklin, . when he got in a car accident in Virginia, arrived in Seattle to his daughter Anne, . when her first child was born, . and in California she was at Elliott, . when he was going to divorce your wife,
. Voters, . knew about her involvement in public, . economic and political life, . showered her letters, only in 1943, she received them more than 300 000, . that employees have read and laid on the topics, . Eleanor replied to many very, . others transferred to the president.,
. Talent as a publicist Eleanor could not be mistaken
. In 1934 she began writing for the magazine "Vumens Home Companion" regular commentary under the headline "Page Mrs. Roosevelt". In 1945 began writing for the magazine, "My Day". Since then, her articles were reprinted by many magazines. Regularly gave interviews on radio, not to mention the reports. His fees, and in the year they accounted for more than 75 000 dollars, all gave to charity. In 1942, regularly writing for a popular magazine Ledis Home Journal "various articles under the title" If you ask me, "and in 1949 she had a column in the weekly" Miss Call ". Some of her papers to her husband served as a test reaction test public opinion on the alleged political activities. Politicians carefully read her article and tried to draw a conclusion about the political intentions of the president.
In the mid-thirties at the urging of friends Eleanor began keeping a diary. After work, she showed her husband the memories that he has made adjustments. Diaries were published in 1937 under the title "This is my story and became a bestseller.
Eleanor Roosevelt was a liberal mindset. In 1936 she came out of the conservative organization "Daughters of the American Revolution, after she refused to give a concert hall in Washington for the famous black singer Marion Anderson.
. From her husband she demanded to take a clearer position thrashing of General Franco.
. In close co-worked with Joseph Leshem, Secretary of the Union of American students
. The FBI suspected Lesha in leftist and found him careful observation. On the day of the scheduled meeting with Eleanor Leshem at a hotel in Chicago used the device for eavesdropping. Franklin Roosevelt was outraged to learn about. When in 1939 friends of Eleanor of "Congress of American youth," were summoned to the Congressional committee witnesses in the case of Un-American Activities, she invited them to the White House and then accompanied to the hearing of the parties.
. After the Second World War, Eleanor denounced McCarthyism
. All these years in the FBI collected material on the activists of the Congress and the D. Eleanor J. Edgar Hoover called "the old crow croak.
Eleanor did not want to have a bodyguard, so the security services it offered to carry a weapon, but she rejected this proposal. After much persuasion, she agreed to learn to shoot at the range the FBI. Several times was there, but the D. Edgar Hoover, Roosevelt said: "If there is in America, anyone who wish to carry weapons, so it is your spouse. She can not even get through the gate of the barn ". Later, one of the guards Roosevelt, Earl Miller, taught her how to handle weapons, and since then she had a gun in the car, although not always loaded. Eleanor Miller valued society that at once reflected in the rumors. They said that they were close enough to know each other. Miller once said: "Do not sleep with the one who is called" Mrs. Roosevelt. "
Eleanor did not dress very elegantly. And it may be worth attributed to its benefits. During the crisis, fashionable clothes can only cause unnecessary disturbance. When she learned that she had made a list of ten of the most elegant women, asked incredulously: "PravdaN" Usually Eleanor arranged three hours per week. It was believed that she - eyes, ears and feet of the president, why was there where he had great difficulty to get. Very often guests and she took his place.
. Eleanor did not smoke and did not like women smokers, but overcame this dislike and even set a precedent by introducing the custom of offering a cigarette after dinner, and ladies.
. If Eleanor Roosevelt was in Washington, the duties of the First Lady served her daughter, Anne, Franklin is a very trusted and called his girlfriend.
. Eleanor shocked many, taking in June 1939 royal pair from Britain, George VI and Queen Elizabeth at a picnic in Hyde Park, which served the most ordinary American "hot dogs"
. But they say that they liked the royal couple.
Eleanor was the first wife of the President of the United States, which gave weekly press conference. Franklin Roosevelt was at first opposed, but then agreed, as they helped him. The first press conference held Eleanor, two days after his inauguration, and there have been 348. At first concerned only with women's issues and invited the journalist, but gradually Eleanor expand the realm of those wishing to show America that women can be an opinion not only about family and housework.
. Opponents of Roosevelt questioned not influenced by whether polio on his mind
. Once at an event in Akron, Ohio, one participant asked Eleanor about. She replied: "I am very glad you asked that question. My answer: yes. Everyone who managed to make such a terrible disease, develops a sense of compassion and understanding of the problems of mankind. The audience rewarded her with thunderous applause.
. Eleanor was of the opinion that, having spent two terms as president, her husband no longer has to stand for election, but the beginning of the Second World War led to the fact that in 1940, Roosevelt fought for the presidency again
. This was an unprecedented event in the history of the United States. At the party congress in Chicago present the candidacy of Eleanor Roosevelt. Despite some resistance, for the third time made the lists of candidates.
During the Second World War by Eleanor was the official position of vice director of civil protection service. This post is meant for her not only care about the air raid shelters, hospitals, private homes, orphanages, places of recreation, but also the moral support of society. Such an understanding of their responsibilities met with sharp criticism of the Conservatives. Eleanor gave way, and the office was closed after six months, but she continued to actively fight against discrimination in the army and the adoption of refugees in the United States.
A lot of time she spent in travel. Attended American soldiers at the front, always appearing suddenly, without warning. At the reference point Esperitu Santo in the New Hebrides, commander forbade soldiers to be naked in the rain, fearing the unexpected visit of Eleanor Roosevelt.
Somehow Gary Cooper spoke at one of the Pacific Islands. Suddenly, one soldier asked: "Where EleonoraN" With a straight face Cooper said: "On an island where we had recently, it should be seen in the sand, but what they do, it is difficult to determine". In 1942 she was among the American soldiers in the UK, . in 1943 made a similar trip to the South Pacific, . including Australia and New Zealand, . in 1944, visited U.S. military bases in the Caribbean and Central America,
. During a trip to the Pacific Ocean, she always wanted to visit the island of Guadalcanal, which belonged to Japan, but with heavy losses, was captured by the U.S. Army. The commander of the island, General objected, as the Japanese continued to carry out air raids on the island, but Eleanor insisted, and still visited his. When we go to the front, Eleanor talked with the soldiers, gave autographs, took the letters of soldiers, and returning to Washington, sent to their relatives. All the impressions of the visits and meetings ever shared with her husband, who listened attentively to and from its proposals benefited. Some of the opinion that Eleanor has too much influence on the president, and criticized her for it, so she sought in public statements, some belittle their role. "I never forced him to do something definite, regardless of how hard were my beliefs in a particular case". And once added: "I do not remember the case that he ever tried to influence me."
Franklin Roosevelt often joked about the power couple in the White House. He once told one of the interlocutors: "Do not start arguing with Eleanor, do not you manage to win". He always listened to his wife with great interest and respect.
Worldwide Gatin wrote: "Eleanor Roosevelt was the president's decision on a much greater influence than any other First Lady before her. She was part of the government of her husband, was often his conscience, especially that related to the "new cases".
Roosevelt appointed 28 women to high positions in government, many initiated by Eleanor. American writer Arthur Kroc wrote that in 1940 Eleanor she could fight for the presidency. Another writer, Raymond Klapper, in 1941 ranked Eleanor to ten most influential figures in Washington and claimed that it is actually a minister without portfolio in the cabinet of Roosevelt.
. At the Yalta Conference, Roosevelt had come with his daughter Anne
. Churchill also was accompanied by daughter. All negotiations Eleanor keep it informed of developments in Washington. From Yalta it had received from Roosevelt's beautiful, tender letter.
After his return Eleanor expressed doubts, whether her husband had entered, without insisting on the independence of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. At such reproaches Roosevelt answered another question: "How many Americans are ready to wage war for the liberation of Estonia, Latvia and LitvyN, and arguments prove that the conference achieved the most possible compromise.
. In April 1945, Eleanor was in one of the stores in Washington, when the phone demanded that she immediately returned to the White House
. The cause is not known, but it was clear what had happened "something terrible". Franklin Delano Roosevelt at this time resting in Worm Springs, where he had been bleeding in the brain, and without regaining consciousness, he died.
. When Eleanor told this sad news, she said: "I am more sorry for our country and around the world than myself.
. Vice-President Harry Truman was summoned from the Capitol to the White House
. Eleanor, put his hand on his shoulder, said: "Harry, the president is no longer". For a moment, Truman could not utter a word. Then he quietly asked Eleanor, that he could do for her. "Can we do anything for tebyaN - she answered the question. - You have to be great difficulties ". Four sons who are on different fronts, Eleanor sent the same telegram: "My dear. Today afternoon, my father passed away. He was to finish his duty, and you must do the same. "
When she arrived in Worm Springs to bring her husband to Washington, it was expecting a new blow. She learned that his former mistress, Lucy Meser Rutherford, now middle-aged woman, but still quite attractive, at the time of her husband's death was his.
In addition, she was told that in her absence, Lucy Ann invited to the White House. That she never forgave his daughter, their relationship became strained. Roosevelt died when posing for the artist Elizabeth Summer. As a gesture of generosity Eleanor sent the portrait of Lucy.
In his memoirs, "I remember," published in 1949, Eleanor wrote a rather indifferent about the death of her husband and his human weaknesses. In her opinion, the person with whom you live, you need to take for what it is. This was apparently the result of the infidelity of her husband.
. In 1974 Elliott Roosevelt published a book in which he argued that frigidity mother pushed her father into the arms of Lucy's first, and then - Margaret Le Hand, a beautiful secretary who worked at the White House, which was called "Missy"
. Another son of Roosevelt, James, in his book, published in 1976, while agreeing with his brother, but doubted that paralyzed father was capable of intimate relationships. In his view, the novels of Lucy and Missy were more platonic nature. Society of young, beautiful women could soothe him relax after the burden of public affairs. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, like Woodrow Wilson, the esteemed company of women.
. The biographers of Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt wrote much about their marital relationship, but all tend to believe that since it in 1918, learned of her husband's mistress, they never slept together
. In a conversation with people close to her Eleanor often repeated that she had no desire to have sex with her husband, and in general it for her anguish, severe marital debt.
. In 1978 he became aware of the letters of the late journalist Lorena Gikok, from which one can understand that she was a lesbian and intimate friend of Eleanor Roosevelt.
. Lorena Gikok was fairly dense woman manly appearance, in direct communication
. And the clothes so-called "emansipe was male. Eleanor met the geeks - as she affectionately called her, in 1932, the day of presidential elections. Since then bound them together great friendship. We geeks was even a room in the White House, but she often slept in the bedroom of Eleanor, located opposite. The staff confirmed that morning Lorena could catch sleeping on a sofa at a girlfriend.
They traveled a lot together, and always without protection. Geeks often received gifts from Eleanor, among whom was even a car. Franklin Roosevelt, apparently, something suspected as dislike geeks and once asked his wife to remove her from the White House. Eleanor refused, however, ceased to invite her to events, attended by the president, so as not to irritate him. In March 1933, the anniversary of the wedding, geeks gave Eleanor ring with a sapphire. Eleanor rarely wore jewelry, but the ring geeks almost rented. In one letter, geeks, she wrote: "My favorite. I want to hug you and squeeze tightly to his. Your ring brings me relief. When I look at him, then I think that you love me, otherwise I would not bore him. "
For thirty years, Eleanor wrote geeks dating more than 2300 letters, many of them are full of feeling, intimate. At the request of geeks after her death they were published and were included in her biography, written by Doris Faber, and published in 1980.
Eleanor advocates argue that these letters are merely an expression of her romantic nature and sentimentality. Others believe that Eleanor was too restrained and confined particular, to give vent to his emotions, so the feeling expressed in letters to the geeks, indicate that this woman is not only connected her friendship. In one of her letters are the words: "I can not kiss you, therefore, falling asleep and waking up, kissing your photos". And in another letter she had openly declared: "About us gossip. We must show people that we supposedly quite easy to be apart, far apart. I am more optimistic than you, because I do not care what they say about us. "
Here is an excerpt from a letter from Eleanor: "My dear. Today I tried to remember your face, so as not to forget what you look like. Best I remember your eyes when you smile, and yet, like the soft corner of your mouth touched my lips. Imagine what we will do what we tell each other when we meet. I'm proud of us. "
Lorena Gikok was a talented journalist, but from a career refused to have the opportunity to work with Eleanor Roosevelt. After the death of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, their relationship became worse. Together, they spent only one year in Hyde Park. Geeks died in 1968.
Eleanor Roosevelt survived her husband by more than 17 years.
These were her most active years. She wrote and asked a lot of the problems of youth and ethnic minorities. In December 1945, Truman turned it into the U.S. delegation to the UN. After becoming chairman of the Committee on Human Rights, she has made a significant contribution to the development of the UN Declaration on Human Rights. In addition, she has traveled many countries, was in India, Japan, China, Morocco and other countries.
In 1953, when Eisenhower became president, Eleanor Roosevelt stopped working in the U.S. delegation to the UN. For several years she worked at the American Society of Friends at the UN, promoting his ideas in the United States and other countries.
In 1961, John F. Kennedy reintroduced it in the United States delegation to the UN. Her speech at the UN General Assembly, which was attended by delegates from around the world, was greeted with applause. Kennedy appointed her a member of the Peace Corps and entrusted her with the presidency of the Commission on Women's Rights. After the defeat in the Bay Shvenebuht she became a member of the Commission on Prisoners of War. (In April 1961, failed attempt to invade the territory of Cuba, the CIA planned and supported by the U.S. government. It was attended by Cubans who have emigrated, prepared by the CIA. Their goal was to overthrow Castro.) In numerous speeches Eleanor could now more freely express their views, than during their stay in the White House. It met in the bodies of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (abbreviated as NAACP), which opposed the discrimination of black. She contributed to the creation of Americans for Democratic Action, which unites liberal democrats. Actively supported the candidacy of Democrat Adlai Stevenson in the presidential elections in 1952 and 1956. In 1957 he visited the Soviet Union, and at Yalta, on Khrushchev's dacha, they were arguing about the benefits of the capitalist and the socialist system.
. In September 1960 she was in Warsaw, where he participated in the discussion in the Polish Institute of International Relations, met on 9 September, the Polish Foreign Minister Adam Rapacki
. (From 1956 to 1968. He was Minister of Foreign Affairs of Poland. Known plans to create a safe zone in Central Europe. Its purpose was to prohibit the installation of American medium-range missiles in West Germany.) During the interview she understood the concerns of Poland re-militarize Germany, . but was convinced, . that until, . while Germany is a member of NATO, . world peace is not in danger,
. In this regard, it was opposed to the provision of the Federal Republic of atomic weapons. The racists and conservatives disliked and often criticized her. The Catholic hierarchy of the United States and, primarily, Cardinal Spellman had expressed dissatisfaction with Eleanor, which opposed the allocation of public funds to parochial schools, in which she saw a violation of law on the separation of church and state. One day she attended an event in the Bronx, New York area. Now is a taxi, take it to others participants in the meeting. Eleanor decided to save money and go home in the subway, in a crowded train, a woman came to her leg. Eleanor was loudly pronounce it. At this point, a man, reading a book and looked up, hearing Mrs. Roosevelt, gave her a place. And once it found out the other passengers. Later, recalling this incident, she said: "I'm glad that many people remember the Franklin.
Eleanor maintained warm relations with children, never forgetting birthdays sons, daughters and numerous grandchildren. Especially good she felt at family meetings, when under one roof and under the wing of the assembled three generations of Roosevelts.
Few knew that Eleanor was suffering from leukemia. She never complained about his illness. Fall of 1962, it became clear that there remained only a few months, maybe a week. She had severe pain. Sometimes it is so strong that she asked not to prolong her suffering and help to die peacefully. To all who inquired about her health, she said: "I'm not afraid of death". November 7, 1962 at the age of 78 years, Eleanor Roosevelt died. His last refuge she found in the Rosarium Hyde Park with her husband. In the New York Times, the news of her death appeared under the headline: "She was a symbol of the new role of women in the world."