Pushkin Pavlishchev Olga( The sister of Alexander Pushkin)
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Biography Pushkin Pavlishchev Olga
(20.12.1797 - 2.05.1868)
She died in complete blindness. Almost unable to walk. Light candles for it was only a blur. Her lips often moved soundlessly, as if she were repeating something to himself, learning by heart. These were poems. But sometimes the lines of the letters ... Most often she kept saying this: "Good and dear friend, I do not want your letters to make sure your friendship, they are necessary to me only as something coming from you ... I embrace you and love. Cry out and get married "(the letter A. Pushkin's sister from 4.07.1822 g. quoted in the book of VV. Kunin "Friends of Pushkin" v.1. M.1986 city, as all other documents cited in the article.)
Olga Pushkin was only two years older brother Alexander, so the nurse they had one room: the famous Arina. The same stories, the same lullabies at night.
. Initially Oily mother, . Hope Osipovna, . greater attention, . but then a succession of deaths younger brothers and sisters (at the Pushkin died five children, . survived only three!), . the birth of her brother Leo, . became a favorite, . somehow alienated from her daughter,
. More older children engaged grandmother, Maria Hannibal, intelligent woman with strong character. But to say that they did not feel the influence of the mother and her attention, too, can. Under the supervision of Hope Osipovna selected tutors and governesses, the regime of occupation, place of walking, clothes, entertainment.
. Olga his character - a sharp, sudden changing, with flashes of anger and joy, inherited, presumably, from mother
. And a child is suffering from this, as to restrain vagaries of his nature could not yet. Dressed one day at a children's ball dancing master Yogelya not, as befitted her age would, she did not obey the orders of the mother to change her hair and outfit naderzila her, and was punished for willfulness: felt the burden of maternal hands, gave a slap. Girl for a long time in tears, sitting in the dark, on an old chest, but to ask forgiveness from the mother flatly refused ... We do not know what would have ended this whole story, not persuade her grandmother Maria, and brother, Alexander still go to her mother and confess. In a perfect owned the Hope Levinton, holding resentment, and in "educational purposes", could not talk to the children for weeks and months!
. Home Education Olga was very good: her, besides dancing and languages compulsory for all, yet taught history, geography and the beginnings of algebra and science
. It is well to read and write in Russian, . it was not worth while to compose a complex charade, . write impromptu burime (humorous poems on given rhymes) or an acrostic (a complicated form of the poem: from the initial letters of each line of the poem took shape a person's name, . which it was written, could just write an acrostic.),
. She knew she and the English language, which was then quite surprising for a young lady, but a simple explanation: it was a good governess, and books from his father's library: Shakespeare in the original. Most of all she loved Macbeth. Reading it was varied: a "moral contract" Rousseau was mixed with preachy novels Madame Genlis.
. Olga is also very good at drawing, her teacher, a professional artist, Xavier de Maistre called her abilities a student with a firm hand.
. She loved animals, especially dogs and horses
. Perfectly ridden. But were not alien to her and walking. Summer in her youth she used to spend with his parents in St Michael's or in Tsarskoe Selo, often with her friend Anna Woolf and traveled around the outskirts of St. Petersburg. Pushkin asked her in one of the surviving letters: "Have you returned from his trip. Do you Visited again dungeons, castles, Narva vodopadyN diverted it tebyaN Do you love is still single progulkiN What are you razvlekaeshsyaN What chitaeshN "(Pushkin - sister. 27.07.1821g) From these questions we can conclude that Alexander Pushkin tenderly loved his sister and her mood, his interests have been understood and
. Junior correspondence between brother and sister have not yet been found, although there is a perception that for many years it was kept in the poet's widow, Natalya Nikolaevna, and then trace it was lost.
. The few that survived, only confirms what A.P
. Kern, later said: "Pushkin few people truly loved, besides nurse and his sister". Her letters to him in High School for three years of separation, . probably, . breathed thoughts about the books they read, . Walks, . visits to the theater, . Family gatherings, . When Olga played music and sang, . trying to take on an old piano rasctroennom right note of Mozart,
. Atmospheres of these letters, memories of my sister permeated Pushkin's poem, written in 1814, and sent to Olga in St. Petersburg. Junior Lyceum student, in his "quiet monastery" dreams of the day when:
I leave a dark cell,
Fields, gardens, their
Under the table with a hood chains --
And fly defrocked
In the arms of your.
(A. Pushkin to his sister "1814.)
This dream was realized only in the summer of 1817, when Pushkin was released from the Lyceum. He immediately went to Mikhailovskoye, where his sister lived with her parents. This summer - very happy, serene in the poet's life. Walking with her sister, a joint reading, funny tea with neighbors in Trigorskoye ... The library has preserved a copy of Pushkin's fables by La Fontaine, given to him by his sister, with humorous caption.
Pushkin in the bustle of St. Petersburg is often recalled walking with her sister, heart to heart talk. Dreamed of their repetition.
They were very close emotionally. Many of Pushkin scholars do not believe in vain, . that most of its features the famous Pushkin's Tatyana inherited it from a thin, . high, . black-eyed lady, . roaming with sad dumoyu in sight, . with a French book in the hands of "the hills of St Michael.,
. This young lady named Olga
. She was good-looking and intelligent, but its existence was grim. In Pushkin scholars, research and memoir, there is only deaf mention of the fact that in life, Olga was a kind heart is a mystery, drama, bad romance. Pushkin knew about it. I tried to comfort her sister, how could. With this, perhaps, and abundance of associated sympathetic question in which we quote the letter.
. A little later the poet writes, . already from St. Michael's links (which my sister was going with him to share and did not do so only because of his persuasion): "Dear Olya, . thank you for your letter, . you are very sweet and I love you very much, . though this and you do not believe .. "(December 4, 1824, . Mikhailovskoye) She believed,
. They believed this and friends of the poet, in particular, Pyotr Andreyevich Vyazemskij. Knowing, . a profound spiritual influence Olga has a brother in, . he considered, . that she and only she can reconcile him to quarrel with his father and to prevent, . to hearing about the conflict reached the capital, or - even worse - to the Emperor! Sergei accuses his son of irreverence, . "protivupravitelstvennyh views", . God knows what, . even, . he preaches "atheism (atheism) sister, . Heavenly Creatures "(a line from Pushkin's letters VF,
. Vyazemskaya, October 1824).
That is why Prince Vyazemsky and decided to write a letter to the poet's sister, very subtle and clever. In it we read: "May I ask you ... to beg him to make a peaceful steps towards your father, forcing him to understand that this world is necessary for your peace of mind. In addition, I fear for him the impression that may be made in light and in the mind of the emperor of his quarrel with the parents. We live in a time when everything is known. Does your brother have enemies, . they will not fail to depict him in the eyes of the emperor man, . who rebelled against all the laws of God and man, . which does not make the slightest restriction, . of whom received a bad citizen, . because it is a bad son,
. (P.A. Vyazemsky - O.S. Pushkina December 1824) This is a very important and intelligent letter could be written, again, only to those who knew and understood all the "undercurrents" in the fate of Pushkin. Unable to fully trust the mail, Vyazemskij hinted Olga, that the trouble with friends of the poet's return from exile, nothing can be completed because of the rumors about his behavior that are being spread with Sergei. The author hints at the only tool that can make Pushkin to apologize to his father: he will go to this, if it sees that its quarrel with the parents is harmful to his sister.
. We do not know for certain, that Pushkin made peace with his father: chores, and letters of friends, tears of a mother, kept repeating: "What will happen to me if you suddenly put in krepostN", or persuasions of her sister ..
. Perhaps all together.
In January 1828 the friendly relations of brother and sister took a new turn. January 27, 1828, in St. Petersburg, Olga morning quietly left the parental home and sat in the sledge, where she was waiting for her future husband - classmate Olga's brother, Leo, to boarding school at Tsarskoe Selo Lyceum. Perhaps, Olga and met with him, visiting his brother, or later, one of the evenings or dinners. Nikolai Pavlishchev was an educated man, an interpreter, the author of scientific works, the publisher, an official of the Department of Education.
. Subsequently, seconded to Warsaw, he became manager of the office of quartermaster-general of the Kingdom of Poland, a senator and privy councilor (L
. Chereysky. Pushkin and his entourage. Biographical Directory. M. "Science" 1988). Posts considerable and even more surprising to read constant complaints of Mr. Pavlishchev to lack of money in his letters to Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin and Sergei Lvovich. It was his pettiness and stinginess brought a lot of trouble to the poet and poisoned the already difficult life of Olga
. But then the beginning of a romantic marriage - a secret wedding - no indication of future misfortunes and misunderstandings.
. Dear brother acted as his father planted, Anna Petrovna Kern - in the role of the matron, Baron Anton Delvig dinner party given for her apartment
. There, Alexander and blessed sister icon Iverskaya on behalf of parents. It is difficult to say why they are so strongly opposed to marriage with the daughter Pavlishchev, especially Sergei ...
I do not think that they stopped poverty groom or his age ... (He was five years younger than Olga, by the time she was thirty. ") Rather, they are wise people experience social life, felt almost immediately, and critical of those traits in her husband, which we have already mentioned. Add here more and jealousy, and callousness. They will be visible in the letters Paavlischeva further. But so far ... Hope Levinton, reluctantly agrees to act with his daughter, father stubborn two hours, but after the persuasion of Alexander surrenders. Olga becomes Pavlishchev preserving family ties.
The new family is difficult to have to get along with his son. Nikolai initially demanded dowry, and then, in the years 1835-36. When there was no Hope Osipovna, property division, allocation of part of the inheritance for Olga and sale of Michael. After the aged and worn out by disease Sergei passed all the reins of government property to his son, the poet, Mr. Pavlishchev tormented past confused and dull letters, filled with calculations and calculations. Alexander wrote about this to his wife, Natalya Nikolaevna, in a frank letter dated 11 June 1834: "And do nothing. If you do not take up the estate, then it will disappear as a gift. Olga and Lev Sergeyevich (brother of the poet, who served in the Caucasus) will remain on the grass, but will have to take them to me at the same hands, it was then and naplachus and naplachus (Pushkin bitter pun!), And their grief and little. I also will Gypsies. Oh, family, family! "
Grief, however, was much. Olga, immensely fond of his brother and a subtle understanding of everything that was going on in his soul, miss a father, a lonely and old, tossed between two fires. She then lived in Warsaw, then parted with her husband. Contents to her in this case, irregular, and sometimes does not pay. She had to live in St. Petersburg - the city is very expensive - the money his brother or father. Usually brother. Repeatedly Natalia and Alexander invited Olga to live in his house, but she refused. It was inconvenient, unethical, as she believed, though his daughter is not something that I loved - adored, as well as a brother to protect against the excessive pretensions of high society! So she and her baby-son had to take shelter. And once again helped his brother-poet ... She tried to temper the material ambitions of her husband, but all in vain. In addition, the health Olga after severe birth was unimportant disease burden.
Began to bother my eyes. Several times the doctors found her condition is very dangerous. Convened цLц-ц-ц¦ц¬цLц¬цЁц-ц¦, . doctors insisted on a strict regime without heart disturbances and nervous breakdowns, . but Olga just sighed: Is it possible! And autumn floods (1836 grams) with his minor son was driving from Michael in Warsaw, . and then rushed to his brother Alexander letter asking: "to lay the pin and clasp or sell at your discretion" - money to live on not enough,
. Or husband pretended not enough ... She seemed to say to him bitterly: "My poor brother is ready to defile his poetic genius and defile him solely in order to meet the immediate material needs!" (O.S. Pavlishchev - her husband April 28, 1832, Mr.. Petersburg) She again was almost the only person who understood the gravity of the cargo, which lies on the shoulders of the poet ... But there was only a woman, a loving sister, "Heavenly Creatures" and could not defend and protect.
Tragedy of February 1837 found Olga in her home in Warsaw, the honey-street. She waited for the birth of her second child (in mae1837 her daughter, Hope.) Even years later, she could not without tears, remembering those days!.. Lots of familiar and unfamiliar people came to the honey, to express condolences to the sister of the great poet, to share her grief with her.
. With swollen from crying and sleep eyes, she took all the trouble-free, . despite being, . then, . left alone, . long fingered leaves letters, . poems, . are carefully stored in boxes, . unable to believe in everything that happened! She blamed the beautiful daughter of levity and carelessness, . recollecting, . cursed myself, . crying, . and again blamed and forgiven! And so it was every 10 th of February ...,
. The years
. Grew Lyovushka her son, a student in St. Petersburg and subtle appearance of a beloved brother. He was lost all day long in the family of the bride Natalia Nikolaevna Pushkina-Lanskoy, where he was loved and pampered. She asked her son the care of her daughter, knowing that the generous and warm heart, "Madonna's" Alexander will not leave without the boy's maternal care and attention. So it was. Quarrel with her husband all went. He drew sick Olga even in disputes with the biography of the deceased brother - Annenkov and Bartenev - the accuracy of memories. He accused them of distorting the facts, falsification of memories ... Traces of these divisions remained in correspondence with the Bartenev and Annenkov executor Pushkin Sergei Sobolev.
Fortunately, P. Bartenev in the hands of a notebook with his own recorded memories of Olga. She gave this book Bartenev in 1851 and together with the Sobolev - a sincere friend and admirer of Pushkin, a man of very respectable - they were able to respond to unfair accusations and insults "stickler" relative.
. All of these disputes and misunderstandings reflects badly on the poor health Olga
. In 1862, she actually lost sight. Constantly in need of outside help. But find the strength to dictate to his son Leo excerpts from memoirs, family stories, legends. She is unable to verify, . he wrote, . and did not know, . that adored son intentionally distort not only many facts from the biography of his uncle's genius, . (which, . by the way, . loved and remembered very well), . but even excerpts from the family correspondence, . and some letters and did - come up, . yes so it seems, . that can not be distinguished from true! Talent to compose inherited,
. Well, that the originals of the letters survived and ended up in a museum, otherwise never know the truth to us about the poet! Why Tolstoy Pavlishchev went on a deliberate falsification - is unknown and incomprehensible. But it is - another topic.
Olga Pushkina-Pavlishchev died on May 2, 1868, after a long illness. Her husband almost immediately married a woman with whom he was linked by many years. The children lived with their lives.
And she remained Glory "valued friend", "dear sister", "Heavenly Creatures" ...
Glory which we seek and find in the early stanzas of poetry of the Russian genius, in the lines of his first and almost the most recent message. She always remained close to him. Greater she could not have wished for. Such a memory and a love nothing can overshadow. Even a short-time ...