Elizabeth Khitrovo( Daughter Kutuzova)
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Biography Elizabeth Khitrovo
(September 19, 1783 - May 3, 1839)
She was the only woman to keep reshivsheysya Pushkin's letters. All the rest, when - it sucked a liking for him or loved him deeply and passionately, like Katherine Ushakova or gr. Vorontsova, all of them - except for Kern, perhaps - decided not to keep in perfumed boxes and pad sheets, written in elegant and clear handwriting, with characteristic calligraphic scrolls, on - in French.
. Elizaveta Khitrova, in the first marriage Countess Tiesenhausen, nee Princess Golenishcheva - Kutuzov, was born September 19, 1783
. Family Kutuzov was very cheerful and friendly, despite frequent separation and travel, and, perhaps, and - thanks to them. Often rastavavshiesya with the girl's father - there were five, . most senior-Liza and Dasha, . - Remained under the care of mother, . Princess Catherine Ilyinichna, . women of good, . but he had strict rules - not in vain, . later, . in light of its high calling it as soon as Madame la Marchale - clovosochetanie virtually untranslatable into Russian - "Wife Marshal" suitable, . but does not express all shades of deference and respect ecstatic, . which invested in this illustrious title of diplomats and dignitaries, . society ladies and girls, . the first time on balls and want to get acquainted with the illustrious Princess, . which is formidable and irascible Michael Larionovich, . Catherine is seduced for victory over Ismail, . called simply: "Katya" or "my soul".,
. The princess is well owned by the Russian language, and demanded the same from their children
. But this is not always that way, although the denial of teachers they did not know. In addition to the compulsory teaching of grammar, language and dance, the basics of home economics and etiquette, taught the girls, apparently, and the fundamentals of theatrical art and singing. Later, . Italy, . already being married to a Russian charge d'affaires at Florence Nicholas Khitrovo, . Elizaveta than once took part in a play at home, . sang in the choir at Russian domestic church Buturlina Florence, . and all those present noted her rare beauty and strength of voice - soprano, . and brightest talent dramatic actress.,
. Until the first marriage of Elizabeth Mikhailovna: June 6, 1802 she left for zamuh adjutant father, . Captain Corps of Engineers, . Count Ferdinand (in Russian favorite Kutuzova all respectfully called Fyodor Ivanovich) Tiesenhausen, . native of the ancient German noble family, . impoverished, . however, , . besides, . that she was appointed maid of honor Court, . Yes, and it is not known in what year,
. Neither Modzalevsky nor Chereysky this not say a word. Unpopular topic. Once married, . concluded by mutual passion and with the blessing of the priest, . Lizanka mercilessly spoiled and loving son -, . as prehrabrogo clever person ", . (Kutuzov wrote to his daughter as a frank, . knowing, . she reads these lines to her husband: "If it be my son, . do not wish to have another, . as Ferdinand: ") began a nomadic life of Elizabeth Mikhailovna, . military spouses, . Although Staff, . officer,
. She followed him everywhere, . and if they are briefly parted, . wrote passionate, . tender letters - she knew how to wield the pen, . Yes, and its nature has always been enthusiastic - thin, . almost on the brink of exaltation! During the brief marriage (three years), . despite the hardships of nomadic life Elizaveta adored wife gave birth to two lovely daughters - Dashenka, . Dolly and Katya,
. Education plays paternal grandmother, . nцLe Countess Stackelberg, . but Elizabeth Mikhailovna knew about the baby and everything always, . constantly rewriting by-law and investing in those long intimate letters - novels of all ardor of his nature, . had never known limits or in love, . nor adoration, . or even just respect!,
. In three years, Dolly, the youngest, trying to still shaky hand of a child, her beloved grandfather scratch the letter in three languages - German, French and Russian, just to ask about his health
. These pathetic scribblings have left untouched Field Marshal and he hastened to answer the granddaughter of the words, . filled with tenderness and instructions to take care of mama from unnecessary worries: Here's a few lines from that letter: "How hard my heart because, . I have not kissed you,
. As I will be sweet when you hug and you'll be in my heart, though once again, has not yet shut his eyes forever. I kiss you even in your thoughts. God bless thee! "
. The anxiety of a loving father and grandfather on the mother Dasha there is quite explicable: September 20, 1805, . in the battle of Austerlitz, . favorite Kutuzov, . Count Feodor Tiesenhausen, . Commander of the Order of St. Anne and the Austrian Order of Maria - Theresa, . , was seriously wounded and died three days later, . September 23,
. Elizaveta, subsequent to the troops and staff, and a little behind on the road, did not immediately told about the death of her husband. When told, her grief was indescribable. Doctors seriously feared for her sanity.
Here, let me digress and say that Count Ferdinand von Tiesenhausen - personality, of his legendary. He was a very brave man, respected not only in terms of staff officers, but also among ordinary soldiers. Strange, but on his death, we know more than the life. Any of us can reveal that the novel "War and Peace, Tolstoy and read the scene of injury to Prince Andrew in the field of Austerlitz ... Prince Andrew, this is - Count Theodore Tiesenhausen, more precisely its external prototype. And it is about him, Napoleon had said these words "This is a great death!" - As a recognition of valor and courage of the enemy. But alas, Elizaveta any praise and recognition, even the highest, to return her husband could no longer ...
. Preserved several letters to his daughter Kutuzov and even on a sample of what they see, . how hard it is experienced general grief of the young daughter (she was only 22 years!) and early orphaned grandson: "Liza, . friend of my heart, . you have small kids, . I'm your best friend and mother; care of yourself to them,
. It is a pity really, that I can not now with you to see. I'll go with the army on his way through Hungary, where you get to the present time can not be. Go quickly to the children and their mother ... "
Gore did not subside for a long time. May 27, 1807 Kutuzov wrote Elizaveta tender letter with a significant rebuke: "Liza, . finally decided, . you scold: You told me about a conversation with a little Katya, . where she announces a further journey, . which you intend to take and which we all take, . but dare not wish, . especially, . when we have the substance, . bind us to life ",
. Obviously, Elizaveta told his daughter about three years of stubborn unwillingness to live and a sense of longing
. Hardly baby could understand it, but for the sensitive nature of Elise, as it is sometimes called her family, and then - all of Petersburg, was important simply listeners ... Only six years after the death of her husband - in 1811, Elizaveta marries again - for the general - Myra Nikolai Fedorovich Khitrovo. She was by that time 28 years. As a dutiful daughter, she seeks the blessing of his father. Michael Illarionovich not completely satisfied with the choice of his daughter, but unable to resist her desire. And he wants to see it arranged. For Khitrovo as the party in all respects - good and enhances the brilliant position in society.
In secular circles, General Khitrovo known as a courteous man, intelligent, brilliant and kind, "who knows how to please everyone, even the Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich," knew how to appreciate the mind and secular civility "(P. Vyazemskij) and the Emperor Alexander the First, "the former always his friend" (gr. F. Golovin). True, . in the same secular circles, went to Nikolay F. glory, . how about someone - something like "Don - Giovanni" Sometimes his antics bordered on the concept of dishonor officer of the Russian army, . but by the eighteenth century - Catherine softly looking at the amorous affairs General,
. Not that it was the next century. At the time of his marriage General Countess Elizaveta Tiesenhausen he turned forty years. Age at the time - more than a mature, solid. We hoped the court that the general settle down.
Perceptible in a secular society wedding took place in the middle - the end (presumably) in August 1811. Young lived openly in a big way and received the whole of St. Petersburg, staged performances and sumptuous balls.
. In 1815, forty-four general Khitrovo got great diplomatic appointment: Russia's charge d'affaires at the court of the Duke of Tuscany
. Family Khitrovo moved to Florence and luxurious, refined life goes on. Romantically minded general's Khitrovo knows all of Tuscany, not excluding the Duke. Salon Khitrovo visited many European celebrities, even Madame de Stael. Elizaveta had exceptional tact, ability to get along with people. Learn much from her husband. Her great-educated girls are charming and always welcome guests at receptions at the palace ... They are like sisters in a small Tuscan princess - gertsoginey.nazyvaya it simply "Nani".
Count Golovkin wrote about the bright and noisy life of the Russian embassy and the minister: "Such a way of life devoid of common sense. On Tuesdays and Saturdays they have is the whole city, and the evening ends with a ball or a performance. With regard to each court event, he arranges a holiday, the last of which cost him a thousand gold pieces. "
With such high costs are unavoidable debts, creditors, bills and ... reckoning. What happened. From imminent debt pit, . deprivation of the status of a diplomat, . disgrace and a possible bullet in the forehead (the general was accused of embezzling public money) Nikolai Fedorovich saved rush sale of property, . among whom were many valuable and rare items: Engraving, . pictures, . Books, . jewelry, . Antiques,
. F. Golovkin, wrote: "General Khitrovo brings his unhappiness with courage.. He sells and pays off its creditors. His farm, he abolished, and hired a small apartment. "Ceased sumptuous receptions and balls, but the yard and the light has not changed his attitude to the general and his wife - after all debts have been paid. Young countess kept their brilliant singles, and strong and impetuous their mother decided to even go to St. Petersburg - "exquisite any - any means and prevent the total ruin" (gr.F. Golovkin). But the trip had to be postponed. For a long time.
Vatutin from all the troubles and experiences to over-severe disease - stroke. Elizaveta not dare to leave. For two years she devotedly nursed him. May 19, 1819 General - Major Khitrovo died. Elizaveta was widowed a second time. Two Countess - Catherine and Dolly, which made the dizzy heights of success in the world, stayed without her beloved stepfather. Some time after the funeral Elizaveta still living in Florence. Then, with the support of relatives from Russia, went on a tour of
. And two years later, . February 1, 1823 Earl Fikelmon wrote the Austrian Chancellor Metternich: "My prince! Madame Khitrovo twice already feels the need to go to Russia, . her case, . entrusted to the capable hands neslishkom suffered from her long absence.,
. Madame Fikelmon.. accompany his mother on a trip. In connection with its passing through Vienna, dare, my prince to recommend it to your favor ". In early June 1823 "generous trio" - mother and two lovely daughters - Khitrovo Fikelmon arrives in Russia. Resplendent situation Madame Khitrovo, . as the mother of the wife of the Austrian envoy, . she, . for the minority of the, . nurtured, . been enhanced sverhlyubeznym relation to the "trio" of Emperor Alexander the First, . which as you know was very indifferent to the charms of the Austrian "ambassador of the gods",
. But the story of platonic romance Dolly Fikelmon with Russia's Sovereign - a topic for another article. We will not dwell on it, the more so as evidence that there were only a few leaves of pale - blue paper with the imperial monogram and coat of arms. They are securely hidden in the archives. The fruits of passion for the daughter Elizaveta personally have vast fertile land in Bessarabia and generous state pension in memory of her father's achievements - Field Marshal.
. In the state archives of dust was hidden and the secret life of the eldest daughter of Madame Khitrovo, . Countess Catherine Feodorovna Tiesenhausen, . almost became Prussian queen! Said, . that it is from passion - a fiery affair with the ruler of Prussia, . and even more - from morganatic * (unequal - author) marriage, . which "does not fit the granddaughter of Field Marshal Kutuzov", . and took Elizabeth Catherine Mikhailovna of Russia,
. Young countess waited here joyless - a brilliant position of maid of honor of the Empress, separate apartments in the Winter Palace and the right to be called simply by the name of the Empress. Marry Ekaterina Feodorovna not come out ever, but she had a pupil, a boy, Felix, Count Elston, whom everyone in the light of "whisper" maid of honor was considered the son of the King of Prussia. As an adult, Count Elston, intermarried with the Princes Yusupov. It was in the Yusupov Palace and were found Pushkin's letters to Elizabeth Mikhailovna Khitrovo.
Alexander met with Elizabeth Mikhailovna of his arrival in St. Petersburg in the spring of 1827. Probably, . He was put in brilliantly - secular circle of acquaintances Khitrovo-Fikelmon Peter Viazemsky, . who recalled the "mornings" Khitrovo many years later: "All the burning life, . European and Russian, . political and literary, . public - had echoes of the faithful in this cabin.,
. Here you can stock up information on all matters of the day, ranging from political pamphlets and parliamentary speech of French or English speaker, and ending with a novel or dramatic creation of one of the darlings of the literary era. It was here and review current events, and was "full color" of St. Petersburg with their opinions, and sometimes convictions ... Prince Vyazemsky second column Vladimir Sollogub: "She (Elizabeth Mikhailovna - author). Has never been a beauty, but had sonmische fans, although rumor has never and no one could be called the elect, that in those days was a rarity. Elizaveta not even a notably mind, but had a highly secular, the most exquisite affability and the peculiar kindness of forgiving, which only occurs in these large lady ... "
. With all the passion and fervor sublime - exalted nature Elizaveta carried away by Pushkin
. According to the same Viazemsky she had for the poet "Pagan Love", convulsive tenderness granichuschuyu with worship. She was 16 years older than the poet and count on reciprocity, . course could, . although before marriage often wrote letters to him in a spirit of gentle guidance polumaterinskih, . note with the recognition, . he did not read, . threw fire, . often laughingly: (Memoirs Vyazemsky.) Talking about Pushkin and Khitrovo, . their complex relations, . very difficult to find the right note, . not overstep what - that invisible line, . that separates the clear from the incomprehensible, . are let on allowable,
. The same Vyazemskij assured that, although Alexander and complained at times boring Khitrova, even jokingly calling it "Pentefreihoy * (* Bible character, the wife of the courtier Pentefreya, in love with the boy Joseph, and pursues him everywhere. - Author), . unless, . he treated her always with boundless respect, . honoring her "for her most sincere friend" and none of his letters, . compiled by the supreme laws of secular ethics, . nothing, . nor odnoyu letter, . even point, . if so will be allowed to say, . not compromise the venerable Elizaveta!,
. Pushkin was truly a man of very thin vospitaniya.Inogda hard to imagine the degree of this delicacy! Carefully turn the few remaining leaves: Feel the breath of the era: "Madame, . such a dumb, sick, . I, . not deserve such a beloved nurse, . you,
. But I am very grateful to you for this fascinating and truly Christian charity. I am delighted that you pokrovitelstvuete my friend Onegin, your criticism is equally valid as thin as all that you say ... "(Pushkin - E. M. Khitrovo February 10, 1828) "My God, . madame, . throwing words in the wind, . I was far from thinking to invest in them what - something inappropriate hints:. I did not come to you because, . is very busy, . I can not leave home only late at night and I need to see a thousand people, . I still do not see ... ",
. Poet, busy literary work and very tsenivshy is morning and afternoon hours of solitude, shied away from an insistent invitation of Elizabeth Mikhailovna of her famous "matinee"
. But he did it very gracefully, asking for forgiveness and knowing that she was angry at him for a long time could not.
In the spring of 1830 the poet went to second Mkvu-make an offer Goncharova. He does not write to anyone, without exception, and for Madame Khitrovo. She's two weeks sent him four letters!
Here is one of them: "Not knowing who to contact, I am writing to you for the fourth time. Tomorrow will be two weeks since you went away - is incomprehensible why you have not written a single word. You are too well known to my restless, spasmodic affection. Priya your noble character you should not leave me without news of a. Prevent me tell you about myself, but do not deprive me of happiness be your attorney. I'll talk to you about the big world, . of foreign literature - about the possibility of change of the Ministry of France, . - Alas, . I was at the very source of all information, . I do not have only happiness: I will rejoice at the sight alone of your handwriting! "- with hopeless sadness concludes his letter to Elizabeth Mikhailovna.,
. She keeps her word - Pushkin sends advance copies of books and magazines, . received by the Austrian Embassy and banned or not yet published in Russia. (among them articles on the case Polignac, . novels "Notre Dame Victor Hugo, . "Red and Black" by Stendhal, . drama of Hugo's "Hernani, . "Comfort" of Sainte-Beuve: With faithful friend Eliza, . Pushkin, even Boldin quarantine remains aware of all the most important literary and political developments in Europe and Russia.,
. Of myself Elizaveta after news of the engagement and forthcoming marriage of the poet's renunciation wrote: "From now on my heart, . My innermost thoughts for you to become impenetrable mystery, . but my letters will be the, . what they should be-ocean lie between you and me - but sooner or later, you will always find in me for myself, . for your wife and your children's friend, . like rock, . on which all will be divided,
. Count on me for life, . and death, . The location I have all, without hesitation: Utopia in tears, my love for you, . I still stay the same passionate love, . gentle and harmless creature, . is ready for you to go through fire and water, . For so I love even those, . I love little! "How thin nature Elizaveta certainly expressed concerns, . that family life will interfere with the poetic genius of the Muse, . but nevertheless willingly tried to help the young wife of the poet rather win the attention of secular society.,
. Thanks to loyal friendship and support of Elizabeth Mikhailovna and her glamorous daughter - posolshi Dolly herself Natalia, and later her sister, occupy almost immediately in the high society rather prominently.
. Elizaveta always and unceasingly interceding helping Pushkin in all its affairs, using his considerable communication and a relative position of the Austrian Ambassador
. The device edition of Contemporary, translate noisy Lev Sergeyevich Pushkin, once again losing a lot of cards, the Caucasus, the army, and even! - Protection from molestation Pushkin Onegin criticism Northern Bee "- E. M. written there angrily - secular letter to the editor in chief reprimanded reserved for violent attacks against the seventh chapter of "Onegin" - this is far from exhaustive list of all the good daughter of interventions in the life of the Russian commander of Orpheus!
. Enemies of Pushkin certainly fine was calculated strike, which they attacked the poet, sent through Elizaveta Khitrovo anonymous letter that led to the fatal duel
. Received a package addressed to her name, but the call to the poet, Elizabeth Mikhailovna, as man of the world, it did not open and not reading it, sent it to a friend. That did not read later bitterly regretted!
But it was too late. Neither Zhukovsky, nor Vyazemskij receiving such letters, they, of course, Pushkin is not passed, and he opened the package it was sent from the mansion Saltykov, that on the Palace Embankment: What happened next we all know.
. February 8, 1837 held ill-fated duel Horse Guards and the Poet
. Elizaveta learned about it late at night, weeping from Dolly, which could disrupt the court etiquette and go to Pushkin first: She - the wife of Ambassador! Elizaveta forgetting rest and sleep, rushed to a dying friend.. The first day she was unable to see the poet, . and, . when she arrived the next day Vasily Andreyevich Zhukovsky not want to let her into the office, . where lay Pushkin - Poet was too exhausted terrible pain: just took away his gun, . he wanted to end their suffering,
. All were shocked. Nobody slept. Not visitors, . right! But he did not know fortitude daughter of Field Marshal! She silently, . without saying a word, . suppressing sobs, . knelt before the door of the cabinet and stood until, . until a well-worn state councilor Zhukovsky, . silence is not opened in front of her door,
. So, on my knees, Elizaveta and crawled to the head of another. What are the words she whispered, that said, squeezing his hand with the last meeting - no one knows! Yes and whether znatN
. At the funeral service at the church Konyushennaya from all of the diplomatic corps, attended only the Austrian ambassador Count Charles - Louis Fikelmon in dress uniform with all the distinguishing signs, holding hands under the two ladies in deep mourning
. One of them could hardly stand to deter rydaniy.Eto was Madame Khitrovo. She never was afraid of nothing, the more - the strength of feelings!
Elizaveta survived his favorite idol, and only two years. May 3, 1839, shortly before that after returning from a trip to Italy, but never recovered from her painful eaten weakness and despair, Elizaveta Tiesenhausen-Khitrova, nee Golenishcheva-Kutuzov, died.
. At the grave of Elizabeth Mikhailovna, in Alexander - Nevsky Lavra - installed with its bas-relief depicting
. From a bas-relief medallion looks at us old lady, . not responsible should respect the classical canons of beauty, . but still - one of the most beautiful women, . Pushkin encountered on his path of life and keep warm loving feelings into your sheets of letters, . survived to the present day ...,