OKADA Yoshiki( Actor)
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Biography OKADA Yoshiki
In 1938, the famous actress Yoshiki Okada ran from Japan to the Soviet Union with her husband Riokichi Sugimoto, theater director, translator of Russian literature, a Communist. He persuaded Okada, that learning this theatrical art is possible only in Russia, the great Meyerhold.
History Sugimoto and Okada began as a Christmas fairy tale. A young theater director, translator of Russian literature, consisting of the Communist Party of Japan, firmly believed in the ideas of the great Stalin. For these views in Japan, he was arrested twice. In 1938, he persuaded the most beautiful woman in Japan, star of silent movies Yoshiki Okada to run together in the Soviet Union. There, in a faraway Moscow, worked great theater director, Meyerhold, and only he was worth studying further.
Immediately after the New Year, January 3, the two of them with the permission of Japanese authorities arrived on Sakhalin, the Soviet-Japanese border. Sugimoto and Okada brought gifts to children of border guards, promised to arrange a presentation. Japanese guards could not believe his luck - star of movies to complain to him herself, and even wants to look at the border. Guests are allocated sleigh with warm bedding, and they set off on the untouched snow. After driving away from the checkpoint, Sugimoto and Okada suddenly jumped into a snowbank and fled toward the USSR.
... On the far frontier Zandas (about. Sakhalin) section commander Grigory Sizenko first reported on violators of the State Border of the USSR: "From the January 1938. The two men crossed the state border. Received orders to lieutenant take reinforcements and apprehend violators. Approaching the tower, I heard a whistle and when he reached the sight of the second pillar, to discern the voice of violators, who were talking among themselves and served whistles. I shouted: "Halt, hands up!" Violators obeyed. Japanese held in the hands of his boots, while he stood in the snow in socks. In a hail boots threw: "We have political. We go to you "- he explained.
After the search, the guard brought the offenders to the frontier. Sizenko hardly ever hear about the customs of faraway Japan - when to cross the threshold of a new homeland, should definitely take your shoes off.
. At the border crossing Okada and Sugimoto isolated room with the stove, put on rations and waited for instructions from Aleksandrovsk
. Two days later, they escorted into the city and there is already placed in different cells. Begun questioning.
The first was summoned for questioning Sugimoto. He immediately confessed that he dreams about meeting with Meyerhold. And the NKVD at the time just fabricated "case" at inconvenient director Meyerhold. But not enough concrete facts, which can be produced in court. And here is welcome proof! NKVD zealously took up the case. After a few days of Sugimoto "knock out" testimony that he was "a spy, sent to the USSR by the Japanese General Staff. The purpose of transfer - contact with a spy Meyerhold, has long recruited by the Japanese, to jointly conduct a "sabotage operations".
. Six weeks later Okada and Sugimoto, broken, broken glasses in from Khabarovsk special escort was sent to Moscow
. They never learned that going to the next carriage train T N97 and no longer see each other.
Secret message from Khabarovsk on Japanese deserters were sent to the Deputy Commissar of Internal Affairs Frinovsky. Investigators interrogated for long hours Okada, beat Sugimoto. And after a couple of months, with the advent of Lavrenty Beria, themselves and Frinovsky shot as enemies of the people.
The first interrogation Okada did not understand what they want of her, telling the truth. She thought that a Korean translator misinterpreted many of the words. And the persistent question of the investigator: "For what purpose you went granitsuN" - it again and again repeated: "My husband - a Communist, translating Russian literature. Now, with the arrival in Japan to power of reactionary forces, the husband was afraid of reprisals and decided to go over to the USSR. Together with him and I passed.
. The answer did not suit the investigator, and he again asked: "What made you flee from the Soviet Sugimoto SoyuzN" - "On the one hand, love to Riokichi, on the other - changes in the theatrical arts in Japan, which I did not like
. According to the husband I knew that the Soviet Union theater appreciate, it reflects the reality. I really wanted to play on the stage of the USSR.
Investigators could not grasp: why such a well-known, prosperous actress, did not understand a word in Russian, to flee to another stranuN
Soon, the tone of questioning changed. Interpreters have already been eliminated, and Okada had no doubt of their competence. Suddenly, in the Okada appears "frank" confession: it turns out, they, along with her husband were sent Japanese intelligence to perform spetszadaniya.
. And in the 537 бL (case of Meyerhold), which is fabricated more than a year, and which lacked only the evidence of the involvement of director's espionage activities, appeared decisive page - proof of collaboration with the Japanese.
. Just before the shooting Meyerhold sent a complaint to Molotov: "... I was beaten here, . patient of sixty-old man: they laid on the floor face down, . rubber bands and beaten on the soles of his feet back, . when sitting on a chair, . the same rubber beaten on his legs (from top, . with great force), . the places from the knees to the upper leg, . In the following days, . when these same places the feet were covered with abundant internal bleeding, . some of these red-blue-yellow bruises again hit a twist, . and the pain was so, . what, . seemed, . sore spots on the feet of steep poured boiling water (I was shouting and crying in pain),
. They beat me on the back with rubber, hands slapped, swinging from the heights ... "
At the same time, Yoshiki wrote the investigator: "... I now have very bad health. I have five days of not eating anything. I beg you, order that the doctor prescribed me the white bread ... I am a burden to your requests, I am ashamed ...
Give me a book and a dictionary. "
About the dictionary, by the way, the actress asked in the first days of stay in the Lubyanka: "I really want to get Russian-Japanese dictionary. If so, send me something from the books of Russian writers, translated into Japanese, - Tolstoy, Gorky. If you do not have extra copies of the dictionary, then give me a day off any can of the room translators. I really want to learn Russian language, at least an hour a week ... I am afraid that my head otupeet. Do not let me turn into a pig.
I beg you - tell me, how is Riokichi. Forgive me several times asking about the same. "
Many notes Okada asked to translate it and the money that she had while crossing the border. 5 May 1939 she had already prayed: "I have very bad health ... Bring me some money. Since I'm unhealthy, please send me them as soon as possible ". On this note was placed resolution superiors: "Today, to call her and send her money."
But apparently, things were a spate of investigators, and on the request forgotten. 20 May the same year, Okada again pleads: "During pyatnadtsatimesyachnoy life in prison, I feel total exhaustion, my health was in very bad condition. I want white bread. Will I receive etoN If possible, I would ask about the payment of money (the Japanese) that I had. Can not they obmenyatN If you can not share the Japanese banknotes can you give me money instead of hours, which I had ... I would like to learn, but as I said, the dictionary can not be given. Can you two or three times a month to call me and give an hour slovarN I heartily wish as soon as possible to become a citizen of the beautiful Soviet Union. Believe me, that another desire I have not. "
August 20, 1939 held a preparatory meeting of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR. The case was heard in closed court session without the parties prosecution and defense, without calling witnesses. Chaired court armvoenyurist Ulrich. The one who passed the death sentence Sugimoto, and later, Meyerhold. Even among their Ullrich reputed executioner. His appearance corresponded exactly with his actions: thin lips, whitish eyes, short hair, like Hitler's mustache. Almost all cases is getting to him, ended with the shooting. After the war, Ulrich was given the rank of Colonel-General of Justice, he died of old age and was buried with honors at the Novodevichy cemetery.
. In late September, Yoshiki Okada sentence "... subject of imprisonment in labor camps for a period of ten years without confiscation of property for the lack thereof.
. In the same room a few hours earlier sentenced to death Riokichi Sugimoto
. Okada never learned that on the day they were very close.
... Peter Buintseva jailed for arguing with the head - a reliable and trusted Party member. Peter Nikitovich not silent, as he has once again insulted him, and twenty-three years was the Lubyanka. As an enemy of the people.
In the first camp - Kotlas - he got to the criminals, they beat him. Case helped. Brigadier criminals once asked Buintseva: "Listen, lad. Novels squeezed umeeshN "
Since then, Peter, well-read, with an excellent memory, at any moment was to tell fascinating stories. Retold Conan Doyle, Mayne Reid, Jules Verne, Walter Scott, and even Voltaire, "Philosophical Letters". Yes, yes, and Schiller, and Goethe, but ... special language. Everything had to explain the language of thieves. Otherwise they would not understand. A very much wanted to survive, therefore, became a foul-mouthed. In the zone without it can not be. Another life, another language. In the 39-m Buintseva transferred to Vyatlag. There he met with Yoshiki.
This meeting Buintsev still remembers in great detail:
- Arrived stage with women. All, of course, rushed to the fence. I climbed the first and saw a Japanese girl. They took her to the storeroom, dressed in a jacket, which kept blood stains dead soldier, bullet holes, given the ugly hat. I looked at her and told the lads: "Look, the jewel in the dung hit!" She glowed as if the whole. Even the camp clothes could not hide her beauty.
They determined it to my team - to chop wood and twigs to burn. With felling it, of course, nothing. I did it for her. In Russian it is a little understood, but could not speak. She knew the truth, one word "shtidno", meaning "ashamed."
Yes, I myself was ashamed of everything that happens. After this nightmare in my country. Why was ashamed IosikoN! At the Lubyanka it, of course, many people realized, and hardening it felt strong.
In this rotten, muddy hell Peter Buintsev first felt happy. He fell in love.
- Okada rarely thought of Japan. He explained Okada, that late at night waiting for her at the entrance to the infirmary. But we must be very careful, he warned. Everything went remarkably smoothly: they have not noticed, and they made their way into the attic. About an hour sitting in total darkness, with bated breath, and behold a pale dawn highlighted the tops of spruce trees. Okada could not tear my eyes. At this point, they forgot about the camp, the numerous gunners in the towers.
- There was another happy day in camp life Yoshiki. Apparently, something human left in the camp authorities, and it suddenly returned to her kimono that is selected when entering the camp.
Sometimes on a homemade stage, converted from the dining room, she performed a dance. Onstage Yoshiki transformed. Probably forget where and who is around her.
Just before the New Year, when we returned from work, Okada ran up to me and put a package, saying one word: "Present". The first thing I thought: "Probably, food". When unfolded gray cloth, I saw a miniature dwarf tree. I immediately remembered the story Yoshiki: how much labor, patience must attach to it to do, or rather grow. Wires carefully wrapped with twigs, small sticks perpetuate barrel.
I never saw her. At night the party of prisoners were sent to another camp. I was the same a few years later was transferred to Karlag, where there were many prisoners of the Japanese. When I greeted them in Japanese and called the name of the Yoshiki Okada, hoping to learn something about her incredible happened. All Japanese people rushed towards me, surrounded by endlessly repeating: "Tell me about Yoshiki Okada! Star Yoshiki!"
. If only I could know that she survived, she moved to Moscow!
. After the liberation of the camp Yoshiki sent to Moscow, Radio Committee
. While the Japanese version is practically no good professionals. Before the war, many who knew the language, were "Japanese spies": Professor Nevsky died in the dungeons of the Lubyanka, and the State Prize was awarded to him posthumously, academician Conrad also stayed in jail for many years.
. Okada made friends with the head broadcasts in Japan Lippmann Levin
. And only told him about interrogations at Lubyanka. Levin says:
- Her first Korean interpreter was badly knowing Russian language. Okada once remembered: "Apparently, something in my response or an incorrect translation did not like the investigator, he ran up to me and swung and hit in the face". I asked her: "You zaplakaliN" - "No, zachemN may have misunderstood me."
After this incident her a few days without sleep, interrogated every three hours. Barely alive from hunger and fatigue, she signed all the papers. She said: "The Torture of conscience were then the most terrible thing in the world. Two years in a camp in Siberia, I dreamed of one thing - to die. Immediately after the trial I was told that Sugimoto contracted pneumonia and died. But I do not believe it. "
Two years later, unable to restrain himself in this torment, January 27, 1940 she sent a letter to Stalin in Japanese. His puffy hem in the case. Stalin after all in Japanese did not read.
Okada worked as an announcer. Figurative language actress surprised students, they constantly wrote to her.
In 1950, from Khabarovsk in the Radio Committee was transferred to two former POWs of the Japanese - Akira Sate (he was the best friend Okada) and Shinto Ryu Tokiguchi. For him Yoshiki soon married.
It would seem, finally settled in life. But the dream of the theater, despite the camp, humiliation, never ceased to be a dream.
And Okada entered GITIS on the director's office - in the fifty-three years.
Okada theatrical career began in Theater. Mayakovsky. Tamara Lukin, a former literary assistant Nicholas Okhlopkova, recalls: "For the first time Okhlopkov brought her to the theater in the late 50's. Very beautiful, low. He then said: "Show it to the theater, to care for her, she directed our future". Okada never said that ten years spent in the camps, and we could not even imagine such. Never lost his temper, was never gloomy. She was very fond. She set the play "Stolen Life" on the play by Japanese playwright Kaori Morimoto. Staging has become a sensation. "
In 1972, Yoshiki flew home. The ticket is sent by her Governor of Tokyo, Mr. Minobe. The next morning, all Japanese newspapers came out with sensational reports of the return of the great movie star Yoshiki Okada. Since then she has made several visits to Japan, put there for several productions, starred in episodic roles, but still did not stay at home. PochemuN
Her friend Akira Sate replied:
- Back out the last time, she admitted: "As long as you're full of energy and can work very well in Japan. When you can not do more work or get sick, there will be very cold. I can not afford to live in someone's expense. "
Actress they. Mayakovsky Nina Ter-Hosipyan many years a friend of Okada:
- At the age of eighty-nine nein Okada, along with a journalist flew to Sochi. A week before departure, she called me and said happily: "I will fly to Sochi. I called the museum's director Nikolai Ostrovsky and said that some Japanese gave them the book "How the Steel Was Tempered" in Japanese. Translation of the book did Sugimoto! They want to know who he is, what happened to him. I must fly! "
I tried to dissuade her - felt Okada a matter. But a long way it is not scared. She returned three days later - inspired and rejuvenated: "You know, like me vstrechaliN were very grateful for my story. Have you tried to dissuade me! "
Throughout his life after the camps Okada wrote to all authorities in the hope to learn something about Riokichi Sugimoto. In the 59-m in the executive committee of the district where she lived, received a certificate from the Supreme Court of the USSR on October 21, 1959 for бL 2575/59. It said: "The case for alleged Riokichi Sugimoto, who was arrested Jan. 3, 1939, reviewed by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR on Oct. 15, 1959. The verdict of the Military Collegium of the September 27, 1939 in respect Riokichi Sugimoto on newly discovered circumstances canceled, and the case dismissed for lack of evidence. Riokichi Sugimoto posthumously rehabilitated.
Member of the Supreme Court of the USSR - B. Tsyrlyansky.
Then we could never told Okada. Only after twenty years in a modest Moscow apartment came an assistant prosecutor in Moscow, Valentin Ryabov. He personally sought Okada and told her about the tragic death of Sugimoto.
. But she had long anticipated such ...
. ... At the end of the 90 well-known Japanese playwright Sate Ren wrote a play, monologue, "The Blue Bird" tells the story of an actress Yoshiki Okada
. Role Okada had to perform Beauty Mayumi Ogawa. Sow and Ogawa specially flew to Moscow to show the script Okada and get her approval. She then was in the hospital.
- I came to her the next morning after the visit of Japanese colleagues did not recognize her - says Akira Sate. - Face haggard, his eyes tired, puffy. Nearby lay a scenario, all the signs in red pencil. Okada long lay in silence, and then uttered a single phrase: "I never considered his life as a series of amorous adventures". More about this we are not talking. Unfortunately, I have heard that the performance in Japan, set without regard to the comments Okada. I think she found out about it.
After the death Okada friends found her diaries. On one page is written: "The period of the Lubyanka". Only the title, and a single line. Period in Siberia, too, no. Maybe, Okada deliberately left "blind spot" in his biografiiN