Zakrevskii Arseniy Andreyevich( Moscow Military Governor-General)
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Biography Zakrevskii Arseniy Andreyevich
6.05.1848 - 16.04.1859 gg
Arseniy Andreyevich Zakrevskii was born in 1783. in a poor, nobleman polurazorivshegosya Tver province. Like most offspring of such nobility, it was designated a parent in one of many in that era cadet corps, from which came out in 1802. infantry officer. Then began luck. Arkhangelsk commander of the regiment, which was defined Zakrevsky was as young NM. Kamensky, son of the famous Catherine Field-Marshal. The young men became friends, and Kamensky, committing him to a predefined origin brilliant military career, he pulled to a friend. As adjutant Kamensky Zakrevskii participated in several wars, regularly receiving promotions. When in 1812. Kamensky suddenly and quite mysteriously died (supposedly from the disease), . Zakrewsky, . arrived with his papers to the Tsar Alexander I, . able to make a favorable impression on the latter and was determined aide to the then Minister of War, Barclay de Tolly,
. Throughout the war 1812. Zakrevskii was the commander in chief, and during overseas trips of the Russian Army (1813-1814) was inseparable under Alexander I, became one of the closest to his adjutants general.
. After the war began Zakrevskogo clashes with the famous Arakcheyev, very jealous of all those who gave the king his favor
. Obviously, under his influence Zakrevskii was removed from St. Petersburg. He received the title of count and was appointed governor-general of Finland (1823 - 1828). Managed a corner that he, more recently, in 1809, joining Russia, firmly, in his characteristic "fruntovom" style, which he deserved the sympathy of the new Tsar Nicholas I.
In 1828, Mr.. Arseniy Andreyevich has been appointed Minister of Internal Affairs and almost immediately a mess of things. In 1830, Mr.. in Russia began a terrible epidemic of cholera. Zakrewsky struggled with it for a traditional rigid methods: infected areas were separated from the rest of Russia by strict quarantine system, and their population is essentially devoid of any ties with the outside world, doomed to extinction. Such draconian measures have made a bad impression, even on Nicholas, the more so overcome cholera in this way was not possible at the same time, the system quarantines apparently provoked the people to the unrest, riots and other disturbances. In 1831, Mr.. Zakrevskii was retired and stayed for a long time out of work. On his heroic Minister Nikolai remembered only after the start of an ambitious European revolution, which his very scared. Urgently needed people "firm" hand ", and in 1848. Zakrevskii was appointed Governor-General in Moscow.
In those years the city of Moscow was chaotic, dirty, lazy and happy. Nicholas I, whose ideals embodied by the fair words of Herzen, in the barracks and office, this laxity saw a manifestation of dangerous independence and, perhaps, was not so wrong ... "Moscow must pull up" - one of the first movements of the soul the king in this troubled time. Meanwhile, in Moscow for several decades were the governors-general people under her to be: soft and lazy, broad, good-natured (kn. DV. Golitsyn, Prince. A.G. Shcherbatov) - lords rather than bureaucrats. It was then that the emperor and remember our hero, who was out of work for almost two decades ... The credibility of Nicholas I to Zakrevsky explained, obviously, a good knowledge of the nature of the new governor-general, was boundless. Widely known king's words, spoken immediately after the appointment: "For him I am like a stone wall."
Credentials of the new governor-general were given the widest. The people persistently rumored - and himself Zakrevskii confirmed this after his retirement - that the king gave him some forms with his signature. It was enough to write on this form any name to this poor without trial went to Siberia for an indefinite period. But note, . that Zakrevskii never sucked political affairs of the finger on the contrary, . making sure, . that in Moscow "quietly", . it under its responsibility always said about this king, . entering sometimes in conflict with the Ministry of Internal Affairs, . which took a different view.,
. After the death of Nicholas I in 1855, when shaken the entire totalitarian system, lovingly created by them, in Zakrevskogo began to drain the ground from under the feet
. "New developments", he did not take - just do not believe in them ... Preparation of the peasant reform was already in full swing, and Arseniy Andreyevich still not allowed to speak out in Moscow, arguing that "in St. Petersburg to think again, and everything goes on as before". But not thought better of it. In 1859, Mr.. the eve of the abolition of serfdom Zakrevskii received resignation. At this his career and ended.
The appearance and manners Zakrevskogo were just as characteristic as his nature. The figure - complete and at the same time, portly (under Nicholas I, dignitaries usually were a good bearing). The usual attitude when receiving visitors - the left hand resting on the hip, right hand - palm forward floating in the air, as if blessing or pushing companion. Person, as supposed in those hard times, clean-shaven; characteristic profile of the Roman type, with a protruding lower lip in disgust, and who requested "a pencil". And, finally, a striking hairstyle: Zakrevskii had "man, as the skull bare, but at the very back of his head, he miraculously preserved single strand of hair. This long strand of daily curled a hairdresser, and the end of her convoluted ringlet, somehow stronger on the top.
The moral and political OBLI
For Moscow Zakrevskii immediately began bogey, otherwise it is not perceived ... One of the secular wit that time kn. Menshikov responded to this event as: "Holy Moscow with the appointment of the Governor-General Zakrevskogo was in the Great."
Main quality Zakrevskogo as a statesman - a complete disregard for the law. This quality is generally very popular among the administration, he was brought to the limit. The focus of his activities, he always put only his own opinion - the rights of this man in the street or guilty, punish him or pardon. Not without reason in light of the Moscow Zakrevskogo once nicknamed - Arsenik Pasha. Put things in order in his understanding did not mean "reestablish the rule of law" and "do as I consider it necessary". One of the most terrible events that have happened in the lives of Moscow's man in the street - is at the door at home Cossack demanding an immediate report to the Governor-General. Reason has never declared. Arriving in the governor-general's residence, I reckon two or three hours, and often more, languished in the waiting room (it deliberately "kept"). Then led to the bright eyes, and Zakrevsky, as a rule, the grossest form suited terrible dressing. And on the spot he has pronounced the sentence, which immediately leads to the execution.
It should be emphasized that Zakrevskii was a completely unselfish and, in principle a good. The first of its quality recognized, even those who suffered during clashes with Governor-General. Moscow farmer VA. Kokorev, for example, tells quite remarkable for the fact (and remains) the times of history. Zakrevskii Kokorevo offered to buy his house in St. Petersburg for 70 thousand. After seeing the object of sale, farmer estimated 100 thousand house. Zakrewsky, obviously, seeing in this proposal disguised bribe, said that this price is inflated, that he was given a maximum of 70 thousand, and in installments for the price he will sell Kokoreva, and only as requested - to pay all the money immediately. Kokorev bought a house and has not lost, soon selling it for 140 thousand.
Sam is not taking bribes, Zakrevskii strongly fought with bribe-takers in their General Government. How successful is hard to say, but it was so noticeable feature, that it was inspired by an anonymous poet in verse, more precisely, on the song, popular in his time in Moscow. It is sung to the tune of the famous ballad "At the midnight sky angel flew ...":
. When the count Zakrevskii came to Moscow, he was a formidable singing a song,
. And Luzhin, and Behring, and all private swarm listened that song with melancholy.
. He sang about the extortions of merchants and burghers, with the restaurants ..
Then, unfortunately, there was a kind of impropriety, which in those days, the paper does not withstand. (Luzhin - Moscow's chief police chief, Bering - Chief of Police, "a swarm of private" - private police officer, the lower police ranks.)
. Like most servicemen nobility dignitaries, Zakrevskii openly despised, firstly, the merchants, and secondly, the writing and sapient brethren, forerunner of today's intellectuals
. First he considered only as a source of funds, the second - both as a permanent source of various disturbances. But highly favored officers who spent their holidays in Moscow. Not only that they said goodbye any sprees, the Governor has not provided the two rake in the gay city vospomozhenie from personal funds.
Subordinates liked him. When undoubted severity in official matters, he was very attractive in personal relationships - love to chat with the official on duty, make fun of them and he did not take offense at jokes. Who served under him VA. Figner remembered, . as, . finding him (Figner) automatically deducing characteristic profile sheet on the Governor-General, . Zakrevskii did not take offense, and after, . seeing him with pen in hand, . always jokingly grumbled: "Again, . go, . cartoons paint ... "Similarly, Arseniy Andreyevich enjoyed watching, . depicting it as official book,
. Abamalek, master type Irakli Andromkov. General, the management style governor-general was the most patriarchal. For most officials Zakrevskii addressed to "you", the aforementioned Abamaleka in the eye called "armyashkoy", another official, Shvetsov, bald as a billiard ball - "pleshandosom" ... A famous Pantry in governor-general's house, where there were regular "private meeting" of all the free services chinovnikovN Jokes, fun, laughter ... The noise was such that the Governor-General, in passing, struck his foot in the door - to pacify.
With regard to family relations, they have Arseniy Andreyevich were fairly uncommon. Fond Zakrevskogo Alexander I married him a rich and extravagant beauty Agrafena Tolstoy, known for its scandalous ties. Although she loved another, for Zakrevskogo on royal matchmaker, went. At first the marriage wore a fictitious character, but then had a daughter, Lydia, which Zakrevskii loved without memory. With his wife he had always been smooth, quiet, quite civilized relations
. Agrafena Zakrevskaya Feodorovna (1800-1879) was a woman of brilliant, temperamental, known eccentric behavior and toilets, open disdain secular conventions
. "She gave much food backbiting, and all Moscow went gossip about her" - wrote a contemporary. It was love Baratynskij. Among its admirers was Vyazemskij and Peter, who called her "copper Venus". With her was a friend of Pushkin. By Zakrevskii turned his poem "Portrait" and "confidant". Agrafena Fyodorovna learn in "brilliant Nina Vronsky," flashed in the eighth chapter of Eugene Onegin.
. The arbitrariness of evil
. We Zakrevskogo was his own, personal sense of justice, a complete disregard for the law and the enormous power (yes another plus to this powerful energy and performance - he was a tireless worker)
. Such qualities, appearing in practice, stained Zakrevskogo work in the colors are diametrically opposite: it acts as a rule, lawlessness, brought results, and obviously good, and just as clearly perverse.
1. Continuous, transparent and blatant extortion of money from the merchant class - never for himself, always on public spending (to "expose recruits the public", to treat the regiment received a new banner ...). The representative of the old Moscow merchants Vishnyakov remembered how eagerly, as a hero, feted his uncle, when he was in a meeting with the Governor-General could knock off a few levies. More frequently, all such attempts with reference to the "hard times" or "stagnation" ended in mocking phrase: "If you're so poor, refer to the Governor-General with a request to Welfare. Write to the petition - I think he will go down in your plight. "
2. Arbitrary and usually overly heavy punishment of violators of public order. For petty and silly prank could go, as the Saltykov-Shchedrin, "to catch seals". There was a case where a merchant's son, was banished to a distant Cola for having sprinkled the floor at the German club at the time the ball hellebore (pungent herb, which the hammer was added in the form of tobacco). All obchihalis ...
Especially embarrassing came out in those cases where the bright eyes Zakrevskogo led not guilty, and namesakes. Once this happened to Peter Ivanovich Bartenev, a great lover and connoisseur of Russian history, then the publisher of "Russian Archive". As always, without explanation, he was brought to the governor-general's office. Zakrevskii in his usual manner, not allowing the defendant to insert a word, made a terrible and humiliating dressing down. It was about some kind of carousing with many excesses in the Nobles'. Spacing lasted about half an hour. Bartenev, finally managed to draw the attention of the Governor-General on the lack of names - and their despicable ruffian.
Arseniy Andreyevich subsided. Then Bartenev, smiling, remarked that, unfortunately, he is not physically capable of those feats, which he attributed, and pointed to his leg (he was heavily chrome). Zakrevskii smiled in response.
. Then Bartenev, . ingeniously found a way out of a very awkward situation, . said, . is extremely interested in the history of the Napoleonic wars and happy, . that the case put him in office the Governor-General: he hopes to clarify some details of the battle of Austerlitz, . party which was Zakrewsky,
. Governor-General immediately seated Bartenev and detailed manner, enthusiastically answered all his questions.
Apologies Peter Ivanovich did not wait.
3. Finally, the famous and one of its kind exemplary "case of the beard". Under Nicholas I the notion of "perfect order" to extend to all spheres of life and way of life, including in the hair, mustache, beard. Thus, the nobles, especially those who were in the public service had to be clean-shaven. Mustaches were allowed to wear only the officers, troopers. Dignitaries, underlining its exceptional position, allowed themselves to easy sometimes hint at the tanks. (Pushkin's whiskers are known to have led the king in anger.) Meanwhile, Moscow Slavophiles of principle have launched a beard - for them it was one of the first and unimportant step towards the revival of old Russian life. For a time they got away with it. But it Zakrevskii in 1849, Mr.. through quarterly guard demanded that the famous writer swt. Aksakov and his son Constantine sign that they immediately sbreyut Beard. Slavophiles people were law-abiding and unquestioningly obeyed. As one of the members of the circle: "ordered to shave. What zhN and shave become, since in common use.
The arbitrariness of the benefit
In those days Zakrevskii for many desperate was the last resort. As Governor-General was a man of honest and fair in its own way, it is often quickly and effectively deal with cases which the court would be hopelessly stuck or certainly would have received an unfair decision. But the law while always suffered.
Here are two typical cases.
1. A certain nobleman laid a moneylender their family jewels, which are valued. Came the term redemption, but he could not catch the moneylender home. When finally caught, I heard: "The term return pledge expired yesterday, today, I sold your bling, and for a pittance, at a loss". Enraged gentleman rushed to the Governor-General. Zakrevskii immediately called the usurer, and not listening to his excuses, ordered: "Here, this policeman you go home and bring me a box, in which lie the jewels of the lord". Pawnbroker went and brought. "Well, - said Arseniy Andreyevich, referring to the nobleman - and because he (the shark) publicly stated that they sold jewelry, money he was in no case do not return."
2. A similar case, but this time the defendant acted as a representative of the noble class. Because style Zakrevskogo few changes.
One gentleman drove from his home by a governess, berated and without any payment. The young lady complained to the Governor-General. Zakrevskii caused boor, and asked whether it was because it. He confessed in fear that his salary withheld, because the "temporary difficulties in the affairs". "Very well, - said Arseniy Andreyevich - so I thought. And so to the noble estate did not fall of a shadow, I paid for you. Hopefully, when circumstances change for the better, you owe me this I will return ". Have the lender of the Governor-General was fraught with serious trouble. The landowner paid the Zakrevskii the same day
Arseniy Andreyevich Zakrevskii - the figure is undoubtedly an extremely National. The whole style of his work as the best way to explain why we in Russia are accustomed to respect the law and not abstract power, but quite specific to the representatives. It is partly understandable and why foreigners are often on our great power, marvel, respectfully calling it a "wonderland".