Nestor Makhno( Ataman)
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Biography Nestor Makhno
Legend has it that the priest, who baptized Nestor Makhno, the flame of a candle caught fire vestments. According to popular belief this means that the robber was born, whose light is not seen. Nestor Makhno was born on October 26, 1888. His father, Ivan Makhno, the driver of one gulyaypolskogo rich, the recorded date of birth to a son a year later - so sometimes did so as not to give just too young sons to the army (fate: a year later attributed to save the life of Nestor). Ivan Rodionovich died early. "Five of us, brothers, orphans, smaller than, remained in the hands of the unfortunate mother, who had no stake, no court. I vaguely remember my early childhood, . deprived of normal for the child games and fun, . darkened strong need and deprivation, . What remained in our family, . not yet risen to his feet and the old boys did not give themselves to earn ", . - Recalled Makhno's memoirs (written, . by the way, . in Russian - Ukrainian п+п+п¦я¬ dad knew it does not matter).,
. Eight Nestor was given to school
. The boy did well, but at some point become addicted to skates. He regularly collected books in the morning, but the school did not appear. Teachers not seen him for weeks. Once at the carnival Nestor fell through the ice and nearly drowned. Learning about the incident, the mother a long time "regaled" the son of a piece of twisted rope. After the executions Nestor few days could not sit, but instead became a diligent student. "... In the winter I studied, and in summer the farmers hired to rich pasture sheep or calves. During threshing chased from landowners in oxen carts, receiving 25 cents (in today's money - 60-70 rub.) Daily.
. In 16 years Makhno entered laborer at gulyaypolsky iron foundry, where he joined the theatrical circle (the amazing detail that does not fit into our ideas about the working life of the early twentieth century).
. Autumn of 1906, Makhno became a member of Anarchists
. Some time later he was arrested for illegal possession of a gun (to a cause: Makhno tried to shoot a rival of his jealous boyfriend), but the young boy was released.
Last year the group made four robberies. August 27, 1907 Makhno entered into a gunfight with the guards and wounded a peasant. After some time he was detained and identified, but some anarchists, I intimidated, or bribed witnesses, and they refused to initial indications. The young anarchist, was released. The Group has committed several murders. Nestor the killings did not take part, but then did not specifically deal. Military Field "Stolypin" the court before which the accomplices, gave the gallows, and not for such. Makhno was saved by a postscript on the year and worries his mother: the death penalty was commuted to hard labor.
For six years he sat in Butyrskaya (for bad behavior - in chains). There he learned to write poetry, . acquainted with the anarchist-terrorist Peter Arshinov (Marina) and received a thorough theoretical training, . not only on the part of anarchism: in custody, . According to Makhno, . he read all the Russian writers, . from Sumarokova and ending Lion Shestov ",
. March 2, 1917 Makhno and Arshinova liberated revolution.
Nestor returned home and married a peasant girl Nastya Vasetsky, which corresponded while in prison. They had a son who died soon. Marriage dissolved. Makhno was no longer to family life: he quickly moved into gulyaypolskoe leadership.
Autumn of 1917 Makhno elected to public office for five. It is compatible with the anarchy of the elected leadership and where is the line beyond which ends in self-organization of the masses and begin "monster Oblomov, mischievous ... stozevno - gosudarstvoN For an answer Makhno went to Yekaterinoslav anarchists and immediately realized that he had hit the wrong address. "... I asked myself: Why they deprived the bourgeoisie is a luxury for the environment and a great zdanieN For what it is they, . when there, . among this crowd screaming, . there is no order, even in the cries, . they allow a number of important problems of the revolution, . when the hall is not swept, . in many places, chairs overturned, . a large table, . covered with a luxurious velvet, . littered with pieces of bread, . heads herrings, . picked kostiN ",
. Landed estates were confiscated in favor of the working peasantry "
. Near Gulyaypole began to emerge commune (Makhno himself twice a week, worked in one of them), companies increasingly purchased by government agencies working. In December 1917 Makhno went Yekaterinoslav as a delegate to the Provincial Congress of the Soviets: the people's elected representatives "blaming each other and fought among themselves, sucking in workers of a fight.
. Meanwhile, Ukraine under the terms "obscene" Brest-Litovsk was occupied by German and Austro-Hungarian troops
. March 1, 1918 they went to Kiev in late April took Gulyaypole. Makhno and several of his fellow anarchists went to Taganrog. From there, future dad went to the Volga region, and then - in Moscow.
The fact that the anarchist Makhno saw in the "red" counties, he was concerned about. Bolsheviks announced dictatorship of the proletariat he interpreted as an attempt to split the workers. Impressions from the "new Moscow" in the summer of 1918 further strengthened his thoughts in this. Did not help any conversation with Sverdlov and Lenin in June 1918 in the Kremlin, or even a visit to the aged Prince Peter Kropotkin. "No parties - three years later lamented dad, - ... and there are a handful of quacks, who for the sake of personal benefits and thrills ... destroy the working people. "
By false documents Makhno returned to Gulyaypole - a rebellion of workers under the black flag of anarchy. He was expected bad news: the Austrians were shot one of his brother, tortured another, my house burned.
In September 1918, Makhno gave the invaders first battle. He raided the rich German farms and estates, killing the Germans and the army officers of the nominal ruler of Ukrainian Hetman Skoropadsky. Amateur daring enterprise, he once dressed in Hetman officer's uniform, appeared at the birthday party to the landowner and in the midst of celebration, where guests drank to the capture of "bandit Makhno", threw a grenade on the table. Surviving "guests" finished off with bayonets. Villas sleeping.
Shot, hanged, planted on a stake, with the severed heads, raped thousands of lay down in the land of Ukraine. And the blame was all: "civilized" Germans and "noble" white guards, and red, and the rebels, whom except Makhno was then a great many. Taking Gulyaypole, white eight hundred Jewish women were raped and many of them killed by the most brutal manner - vsporov stomachs. Reds shot monks Savior Monastery Mgar. All ... At the station Orekhovo Makhno ordered to burn alive a priest - in the locomotive firebox.
Makhno was not anti-Semite. Anarchist in general can not be anti-Semite, because anarchism by its nature is international. When Makhno separate rebels raided the Jews, but the mass pogroms - such as when the white and red - the earth Mahnovii not know. Once at the station Upper Tokmak dad saw a poster: "Death to Jews, save the revolution, long live the Makhno". Makhno ordered the execution of the author.
. Anarchists enjoyed popular support because of Makhno, in contrast to the white and red, the locals did not loot (Makhnovshchina idea of how rampant uncontrolled banditry - the later ideological cliches)
. Authority Makhno recognized atamans plied near Gulyaypole for punitive, he was elusive. The core unit was a small mobile unit, and on major operations dad convened volunteers, who willingly went to him. Having made the case, the men traveled through the huts, and Makhno with two or three dozen members of disappeared - until next time.
In autumn 1918 the government collapsed Skoropadsky. In place of the Hetman came nationalist Directory headed Petlyura. Troops entered the Directory Yekaterinoslav and dispersed local Council.
When the end of December 1918 rebel bands Makhno and treaties of alliance with the Bolsheviks took LOTS, the first thing the Bolsheviks took up the sharing of power. Began looting. "I called all the partisan regiments - Makhno appealed to residents of the city - I declare that all the looting, robbery and violence in any case will not be admitted at this time my responsibilities to the revolution and I will be nipped in the bud". In exile, Nestor Ivanovich recalled: "In fact, I for looting, as well as for violence in general, and shot all. Of course, among the shot ... were, to the shame of the Bolsheviks, almost all individuals from the newly and hastily hammered together Kaydatskogo Bolsheviks Bolshevik detachment, which they themselves Bolsheviks were arrested and crossed them Makhnovists.
. Under the new, 1919 Petlyura of the Bolsheviks defeated and captured the city, but the district Gulyaypole, which went Makhno could not take
. Social order Mahnovii built in strict accordance with the resolution of one of Makhno Congresses, . called on "friends of the peasants and workers", . that they "themselves on the ground without violent decrees and orders, . against carriers of oppressors and the world to build a new society without freedom of the oppressors Pans, . without the slaves, . without rich, . without the poor.,
. It is a biased witness, a Bolshevik Antonov-reported "top": "Relationships established children's communes, schools, Gulyaypole - one of the cultural centers of New Russia - there are three secondary schools and t
. d. Through the efforts of Makhno open ten hospitals for the wounded, organized a workshop, Chinyayev guns and curry locks for the guns. "
Makhnovists lived in freedom. Cultprosvet rebel army gave performances regularly grandiose drinking with very Batko.
Bolsheviks, this "enclave of freedom" did not like. In the "center" were reports: "... the district is a special state within a state. Around this famous headquarters concentrated all the forces of the Left SRs, anarchists, notorious gangsters and recidivists ". The Reds wanted to subdue the Makhno troops and use them in the fight against Petlurites and Whites. And red, and Makhno had hoped for the case to destroy each other. The resolution of the second congress of free advice Gulyaypole said: "Under the guise of the slogan" dictatorship of the proletariat, the Bolsheviks declared the Communists a monopoly on the revolution for his party, considering all dissidents counterrevolutionaries.
. Nevertheless Makhnovists entered the operational control of the Red Army as the Third Brigade, and launched a guerrilla fighting against Denikin
. However, the Bolsheviks deliberately kept Makhnovist army on short rations, often denying the essentials. Not only that - in April at the initiative of Trotsky against Makhno began raising campaign.
. May 25 Board of Workers 'and Peasants' Defense of Ukraine decided to eliminate Makhno.
. Sent an angry telegram to Lenin, Trotsky, Kamenev and Voroshilov, in mid-June dad with a small detachment disappeared in the woods gulyaypolskih
. The Reds fired chief of staff Makhnovists Ozerov and several prominent anarchists. In response, Moscow anarchists blew up the building of the Party Committee in Leontief Lane (Lenin, who had arrived, miraculously escaped death). A new phase of relations between Batko and red - of open hostility.
. August 5 Makhno issued an order: "Every revolutionary insurgent must be remembered that both his personal as well as national enemies are those wealthy bourgeois class, irrespective of whether they are Russian Jews, Ukrainians, and t
. d. Enemies of the working people are also those who protect the unjust bourgeois order, t. e. Soviet commissars, members of punitive expeditions, emergency committees, toured the towns and villages and tortured working people, not willing to submit to their arbitrary dictatorship. Representatives of such punitive expeditions, emergency committees and other bodies of national subjugation and oppression of every insurgent is obliged to detain and to transmit to army headquarters, where resistance - shot on the spot. "
. Red Army troops were sent to catch dad, en masse over to his side
. Plucking forces, Makhno began active combat operations against the white and red at the same time. He even signed an agreement with Petlyura, also fought with the Volunteer Army. Makhnovites, entering under the guise of merchants in Ekaterinoslav for a whole week (and then again - for a month) captured the city, which, according to witnesses, the rest from the constant fear and ... robberies. Particularly popular among urban dwellers earned dad, when the person shot at the market a few looters.
Makhno was trying to establish a peaceful life. In the liberated territories, organized by the commune, trade unions, the system will help the poor, and organized the production and exchange of goods. Incidentally, before, and then continued to publish newspapers, allowed (the unthinkable seemed to be the case) criticism Makhnovist power. Old Man stood firmly for freedom of speech.
Denikin had to withdraw from the front, a large force against the rebels (Corps General Slasheva - the same one that became the prototype Khludov in Bulgakov's "Boege"), giving a red invigorating respite. In December 1919 Slasheva managed to knock out Makhnovists Ekaterinoslav.
Makhno again began negotiations with the Bolsheviks. But the bandit was declared worthy of arrest and punishment. Baron Wrangel several times sent to the Old Man of delegates, but someone caught red but someone executed Makhno.
. Repression that has befallen the inhabitants of the province of the advancing part of Wrangel, Makhno was forced at first to end the war with the Bolsheviks, and then unite with them
. In early October 1920 representatives of the rebels signed an agreement with the Bolshevik commanders. The rebel army took the operational control of Commander of the Southern Front Timur Frunze.
In Gulyaypole again pulled the anarchists, whose red released from its prisons. After the withdrawal of Wrangel in the Crimea for Mahnovii it is time to pause. But she was short-lived and ended with the defeat of the Whites. In the decisive roll through Syvashe not insignificant role played chetyrehtysyachny rebel detachment under the command of Makhnovite Karetnikau.
November 26, 1920 Karetnikau was summoned to a meeting to Frunze, captured and shot, but it is often surrounded by. However Makhnovists managed to knock down barriers and red out of the Crimea. Of the men, retired a month ago for Perekop, back to the Old Man returned no more than half. A scuffle ensued a life and death. Against the remnants of Makhno's army were thrown into the Red Army. They are now easier: the enemy was left alone, and the balance of power was astronomical.
Makhno rushed to Ukraine. His days were numbered. Almost every day fighting off were arrayed punitive, Makhno with a handful of surviving soldiers and loyal wife Galina Kuzmenko broke through to the Dniester and August 28, 1921 went to Bessarabia.
. Balance life Nestor Makhno spent in exile - first in Romania, then in Poland (where spent in jail on suspicion of anti-Polish activity) and in France
. In Paris, Makhno actively engaged in advocating anarchism - speaking, writing articles, published several brochures. At the same time, if allowed health, physical work - working at the studio, a shoemaker.
The body of Nestor Ivanovich has been weakened by numerous injuries and long-standing, even with the royal prison, TB. It was he who brought dad into the grave: Nestor Ivanovich died in a Paris hospital, July 6, 1934. Whether the evil genius, or the liberator of the Ukrainian peasantry, Commander of the Order of the Red Banner, the anarchist Makhno at rest in the cemetery of Pere-Lachaise. During the Second World batka, a widow and his daughter came first in a concentration camp, and then in the cellars of the GPU. After Stalin's death, they both settled in Jambul. Co-workers daughter Makhno slightly afraid - you never know ...
|Yuri Slavutich for Nestor Makhno
|Thank you for truthful information, and that such rubbish written about Makhno that read disgusting. Even if his memory was revered.
|Elena for Nestor Makhno
|п¦п©п+я¦пTп¦п+ by reviewing many articles about my view not less important person in our history, stopped at this in your section. The material is very ponravilsya.Sposibo. Definitely need to visit the grave of the famous anarchist, a worthy man of his age Makhno. Yours Elena Makhno.
|Larissa Pyndyk for Nestor Makhno
|Thanks, interesting article, and above all - truthful. Nestor Makhno was a wonderful man, . One of the most honest and fearless heroes of the Civil War, . which is very fond of Ukrainian peasants, . not for nothing that gave him the highest title of "dad", . which he valued above all the awards ... I read the book "Memoirs", . written by Nestor Makhno personally,
. Remarkable book. I would like to see it printed on your website, and then friends "read out" ... or show you where to find it can. This is the best memory of the Old Man is - promoting his book. And after reabelitatsiey besmirched his historians, writers, etc. ...
|Pavel Dimitrov for Nestor Makhno
|"The man who can name all the things by their names, would hardly be quietly go about the streets - it would eliminate a common enemy." (Lord Halifax) I think this says it all. Makhno was a real person.
|nila for Nestor Makhno
|Would force our members to read about Nestor Ivanovich, as schools opened (in those days!), As has sacrificed himself for the sake of a just society, how to organize the life of justice and the law. And did our MPs can not understand that the existence of a lawless society, which they created, and their children are dying! I wake up, I realize that it is not in your pocket right? Will they understand the true son of Ukraine, Nestor Ivanovich?