(April 22, 1870 - January 21, 1924) Lenin
(Ulyanov) Vladimir Ilyich
(aliases: In. Ilin, K. Tulin, Karpov and others) was born in Simbirsk (now Ulyanovsk). Born in the family of the inspector of schools, elder brother Alexander - Narodovolets - was executed in 1887 for taking part in plotting the assassination of Tsar. In 1887 Lenin
graduated from high school and enrolled in the Law Faculty of Kazan University. For participation in the revolutionary movement of students in December 1887 he was arrested, expelled from the university and sent to the village Kokushkino Kazan province. In October 1888, Lenin
returned to Kazan, where he joined a Marxist circle. In 1889 he moved to Samara. In 1891, Lenin
delivers the external examinations at the Law Faculty at the St. Petersburg University and began working as an assistant lawyer in Samara. In August 1893 he moved to St. Petersburg.
In autumn 1895 Lenin
formed in St. Petersburg League of Struggle for the liberation of the working class. In early December 1895 he was arrested, and already in February 1897 was sent to 3 years in Shushenskoye Yenisei province. In 1900, Lenin
travels abroad, where, together with Mr.. N. Plekhanov began to publish the newspaper "Iskra". In 1903, at 2-m RSDLP Congress under the leadership of Lenin
, the Bolshevik Party was founded - the Marxist party of a new type. Its ideological and organizational principles of Lenin
formulated in the years 1902-1904 in his works "What delatN" and "Step forward and two steps back."
. During the 1905-07 revolution, Lenin
developed the idea of hegemony of the proletariat in the bourgeois-democratic revolution, and developed a theory of its development into a socialist revolution
. In early November 1905 he arrived in St. Petersburg to lead the revolutionary struggle. In December 1905 Lenin
leads a 1-st Conference of the Bolsheviks in Tammersforse. At the 4 th (1906) and 5-m (1907) Party Congress harshly criticized the opportunist tactics of the Mensheviks. In December 1907 while in exile continued to fight for the preservation and strengthening of the illegal party. In the book "Materialism and Empiric-Criticism" (1908), Lenin
criticized the philosophical revision of Marxism and developed the philosophical basis of Marxism.
In January 1912, Lenin
led the 6-th (Prague) All-Russia Conference RSDLP. In June 1912, Lenin
moved from Paris to Krakow and ran the newspaper "Pravda". During this period, developed a Marxist program on the national question.
In late July 1914, Lenin
was arrested by Austrian police, but soon released and went to Switzerland. During the First World War, Lenin
put forward the slogan of turning the imperialist war into civil war. In his treatise "Imperialism, the Highest Stage of Capitalism" (1916) and others. Lenin
developed the Marxist political economy and theory of socialist revolution, has developed the basic problems of Marxist Philosophy ( "Philosophical Notebooks"). At Zimmerwald (1915) and Kienthal (1916) international conferences internationalists Lenin
to unite the Left Social-Democrats.
After the February Revolution, 3 April 1917, Lenin
arrived in Petrograd. In his April Theses, Lenin
put forward the policy of socialist revolution, adopted on 7 th (April 1917) All-Russia Conference RSDLP (b). After the July days of 1917, Lenin
was forced to flee from persecution of the bourgeois Provisional Government. Lenin
led the underground 6-th Congress RSDLP (b). At that time, wrote a treatise "The State and Revolution," developed a plan for the conquest of power by the proletariat through armed insurrection at a time when the ruling classes resort to violence. In early October 1917 Lenin
secretly moved to Petrograd. 10 (23) October meeting RSDLP (b) was adopted Lenin
's resolution on the armed uprising.
Evening of October 24 (November 6), Lenin
arrived at the Smolny and managed the October uprising. At the 2 nd All-Russia Congress of Soviets was elected chairman of the Council of People's Commissars. On the proposal of Lenin
March 3, 1918 Brest Peace Treaty was signed with Germany. March 11, Lenin
, together with the Party Central Committee and the Soviet government moved to Moscow. Led by Lenin
, the Party Central Committee, CPC and the Council of Workers and Peasants' Defense direct the struggle of the working people of Soviet Russia against foreign intervention and internal counter-revolution, the process of socialist transformation. Lenin
directed the Soviet foreign policy, developed the principles of peaceful coexistence between countries with different social systems.
August 30, 1918, Lenin
was seriously wounded socialist revolutionary, a terrorist. Lenin
was the initiator of the Communist International (1919). In March 1918, 8 Congress of the RCP (b) adopted a new Party Program, developed by the commission, headed by Lenin
. In the spring of 1920, he wrote a "Left-Wing 'Left-Wing' Communism," which outlined the issues of strategy and tactics of the communist movement. During this period, developed a plan for the construction of socialism (the country's industrialization, . co peasantry, . Cultural Revolution), . initiated a plan of electrification of the whole country (GOERLO), . advanced the principles of the New Economic Policy (NEP), . adopted by the 10 th Congress of the RCP (b) (1921),
In 1922, Lenin
became seriously ill. His last speech was a speech on Nov. 20, 1922 at the plenum of the Moscow City Council, in which he expressed confidence that NEP Russia will become socialist Russia. In December 1922 - March 1923, he dictated a series of critical articles ( "Pages from a diary", . "On Cooperation", . "Our Revolution", . "As we reorganize the Workers'", . "Letter to Congress") present themselves a kind of testament to the party, . Soviet people,
. January 21, 1924 in 6 hours and 50 minutes in the evening, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin
. The struggle for the revolutionary biography
. Lenin and the birth of the Bolshevik charisma
. Mausoleum Lenin: History in Photographs
. Biography (Part 1)
. Biography (Part 2)