Agesilaus (Agesilaus II)( king of the Spartans)
Comments for Agesilaus (Agesilaus II)
Biography Agesilaus (Agesilaus II)
(about 444-360 years., BC)
Archidamus, king of the Spartans, left two sons: Agis, and Agesilaus. Heir to the throne was the eldest son of Agis, who became king after his father's death. Agesilaus was born about 444 g. BC. e. and he got a stern Spartan vospitanie.Uzhe childhood Agesilaus showed great ability, zeal and ambition, he was noted for the amazing persistence of hunt carrying out the orders of senior and has never shied away from difficult assignments. Agesilaus was always cheerful and courteous to all, to their disadvantage - the natural claudication, . small stature and unprepossessing appearance - he was treated with good-natured young man shutlivostyu.Talantlivy attracted the attention of the famous military leader and the most powerful man in Sparta - Lisandra.,
. After the death of King Agis Lysander proposed to erect the throne of Agesilaus, eliminating the son of the late king, a direct heir
. Lysander thought that Agesilaus would be a toy in his hands and be king by name only. Respecting Agesilaus, many citizens who had known him since childhood, also supported him. Unexpectedly, however, opposed by a priest-diviner. He said that contrary to custom, the election of the kings of the lame cripples threatens Sparta great disasters, and brought such an ancient prophecy: Proud Sparta! While you and healthy feet, you're afraid! Kingdom lame nurture in their throne. How long will you then languish from unexpected illness, a long time you will be worn on the waves of deadly battle. However, despite this ominous prediction, Agesilaus with the support of Lysander was proclaimed tsarem.Tsari in Sparta were only executing the will Efor and Gerontopsychiatry. Eforie orders and gave orders to them as simple commanders. The relationship between the kings and Eforie often been vrazhdebnymi.Kogda Agesilaus became king, he, instead of quarreling with Eforie and Gerontopsychiatry, decided to buy their location.
The new king was trying to show both that and the other his compliments: get up, when they entered the room, when they were elected into office, he sent them a gift cape and the bull. With an ordinary citizen, he was polite and courteous: he was always ready to help not only friends but also enemies. Agesilaus soon attained such influence that Efor of his fears of the increased power of the king awarded even shtrafu.V first time the reign of Agesilaus all subordinate Lisandro. He succeeded with the help of Lysander's appointment of a commander in the war against Persia. From biographies Lisandra we know how smart Agesilaus in Asia Minor was able to escape from the tutelage of Lysander.
Agesilaus became the sole ruler and led eight thousandth troops began the war with the satrap of the Persian king Tissaphernes. In this war the first time discovered the brilliant abilities as a general Agesilaya.Tsar Spartans deceived the Persians: he pretended, . that he intends to invade the region Kariyu; waiting then, . while the Persians concentrate their forces there, . he suddenly attacked another area - Phrygia, . took several towns and seized a rich dobychu.Uznav, . that the Spartans with large reinforcements are going to Lydia, . Tissaphernes turned towards them,
. On the plain near the Lydian capital, Sardis, the battle. Agesilaus won a decisive victory.
Persian king as a punishment for failure Tissaferna.Zatem ordered the execution of the Persian king sent to Agesilaus one of those close to bribery to induce the Spartans to the world. Agesilaus answered, that peace depends on the decision of the people and government of Sparta. "For the Greeks, - he said - is considered an excellent take from the enemy are not gifts, and the prey." Agesilaus managed to conclude an alliance with Paphlagonian king and get him reinforcements in 3000 warriors. Now available Agesilaus were significant forces, with whom he enters into Phrygia, the region satrap Farnabaza.Farnabaz not dare to resist. He fled, taking huge treasure.
Some time later, the Greeks and Paphlagonians, led by Spartan chief, overtook Pharnabazus and captured his camp, and treasures (he ran Pharnabazus). Here among the Allies and had a quarrel over the division of production. Paphlagonians left the Spartans and returned to rodinu.Shel the second year of hostilities Agesilaus in Asia Minor. Spartans conquered the city began to fall away from them, but Agesilaus restored everywhere the power of the Spartans, without violence and kazney.Slava him as a commander and the fame of his modest way of life spread throughout the Persian dominions in Asia Minor. Agesilaus slept on hard camp bed, as a simple soldier, endured heat, cold, and all the inconveniences camp life. Asia Minor Greeks enjoyed watching, . as arrogant Persian satraps in their luxurious clothes bow to a man in a modest cloak simple voina.Agesilay longer thought to strike at the heart of the Persian empire, . Suddenly an order came to him Efor immediately return to their homeland.,
. The Persians did not expect to defeat the Spartans in an open battle
. The king and the princes have chosen another way to fight - decided to strike Agesilaus in Greece - and well-intentioned gave the Athenians and Thebans to rebellion against Sparty.Ogromnye sums, . received from the Persians, . went to restore the long walls of Athens and the Athenian and Theban equipment armiy.Nakonets, . War broke out Thebans and Athenians against Sparta,
. Persia was rescued. Agesilaus had to protect the homeland to put his troops on ships and sail to Gretsiyu.Pokidaya Asia Minor, Agesilaus said he was expelled from there 10000 archers of the Persian king. (In Persian gold coins were minted image of an arrow from a bow). These words Agesilaus wanted to say that the victory over Sparta won Persian gold.
. At the head of the Spartan army in Greece was Lysander, but he soon died in Boeotia, and the Allies began to win verh.Mezhdu Agesilaus hastily crossed the Hellespont and came to Thrace
. Native tribes in most cases, met with his friendly, just after a small tribe, Thrall asked him to pass through its ownership of 100 talents of silver. Agesilaus replied Thrall War and defeated ih.Pri pass through Macedonia Agesilaus sent to ask the Macedonian king, whether he will miss the Spartan army. King said he would think. "Let the same thought - said Agesilaus - as we go forward!" Since Thessaly were in alliance with the enemies of Sparta, Agesilaus began to ravage their country. Then he sent messengers to the proposal of friendship residents Thessalian city of Larissa.
However, the ambassadors threw him in jail. Angry Spartan warriors demanded that Agesilaus besieged Larissa, but he secured the release of messengers, and quickly moved dalshe.V way, she learned about the bloody battle near Corinth with the Spartans and Athenians Thebans. The Spartans won, but a lot of soldiers from both sides fell. Agesilaus deeply grieved over the fact that the Greeks have returned to a fratricidal war, instead joined forces to repel foreigners - Persians. Turning to his soldiers, . he bitterly exclaimed: "Woe to you, . Hellas! Own hands, you have ruined so many brave sons, . that, . if survived, . could, . united, . win all the barbarians, . combined! "By order of Efor Agesilaus joined his army of several units from the Corinth and joined Boeotia,
. Here he waited for the terrible news about the complete defeat of the Spartan fleet at Cnidus (394 g. BC. e.).
Talented strategist Athenian Conon escaped after the destruction of the Athenian fleet at Egospotamov and went first to the island of Cyprus, and then to the Persian possessions. The Persian money Konon has equipped a large fleet. When Knidos Konon revenge for the shameful loss of the fleet at Egospotamov.Agesilayu were soon to give a decisive battle Boeotians. To the soldiers did not lose heart, he hid from them the sad news of the defeat. Before the battle, he announced that the Spartan fleet won a brilliant victory. He went to the soldiers with a happy face, a wedding garment, crowned with a wreath, as a conqueror, and commanded to bring offerings to the gods. Such measures, he wanted to raise the morale of his voyska.Zatem he boldly attacked the combined forces of the Thebans and argostsev of Coronea.
The battle was hard and bloody, and both sides fought valiantly, but no one managed to achieve a decisive success. Force Spartans have been depleted, and therefore had to conclude with the Thebans peremirie.Sam Agesilaus fought as a simple soldier, and received several severe wounds. He moved on a stretcher to Delphi, where the sanctuary and oracle of Apollo. Agesilaus devoted to God a tenth of Persian extraction, and then returned to Spartu.Mnogie Spartan generals, visiting foreign lands, did not want to have to still modest life. They appropriated the spoils of war, refused harsh Spartan customs, living in idleness. But Agesilaus with respect for the age-old customs of their country: its food, as ever, was modest, clothing his wife and daughter, furniture and utensils in the house have not changed. Agesilaus took nothing for himself from the huge Persian dobychi.Nedolgo, however, Agesilaus had to stay at home. After recovering from his wounds, he again opened the campaign and captured Corinth.
At this time the Athenian general Ifikrat destroyed large Spartan Neg, poison. Many concerns have caused the Spartans of the Athenian fleet under the command of Conon the coast of Laconia. That's why Eforie, despite the opposition of Agesilaus, decide to make peace with Persia, to get rid of one vraga.Efor Antalcidas sent messengers to the Persian king and made a "royal", or Antalcidas, peace. Terms of peace were shameful: to save his dominion in Greece, the Spartans gave the Greeks of Asia Minor under the rule persov.Vse Greeks were indignant, considering the Spartans traitors. But Agesilaus Efor and managed to stop the Persian aid the Athenians and Thebans. Now they can continue to fight the enemies by other means, with the sympathizers Spartans aristocrats in Thebes and Athens.
Spartan commander Febid after the conclusion of peace with the detachment passed through Boeotia. Surprise attack, he took the citadel of Thebes Cadmium and the city of Thebes. Then he overthrew the democratic government and put the new, headed by aristocrats. Thus, one enemy was unichtozhen.Vest on the treacherous capture of Thebes, in violation of the peace treaty, has caused outrage in Greece. In Sparta itself, many denounced the actions of Agesilaus. But when Febida prosecuted for unauthorized actions, Agesilaus spoke out in his defense. "Anything that benefits Sparta allowed zealous, even without a special order," - said he. Spartan rulers justified the perfidious act Febida. Spartan garrison continued to hold Cadmium. Aristocrats in Thebes, came to power, began a massacre of demokratami.Teper Spartans decided to do away with the other enemy. There was a queue of Athens.
One of the Spartan rulers Boeotian city FESPAM (40 km from Athens), planned to seize Athens. He knew that if successful his actions would be approved. Athens was a great city with a large population, the city walls had just been rebuilt and carefully guarded. Attack on Athens in broad daylight it was quite impossible. Then the Spartans a small detachment of the night came from FESPAM to seize the Athenian harbor of Piraeus. They hoped to reach the city and under cover of darkness to seize them. However, the enemies are not calculated the time: they were on the plain in front of the harbor, when the sun is shining. The guards raised the alarm, the gates were closed harbor. Sudden attack failed and the Spartans had to shame otstupit.V Athens disturbed people ran from their homes, clutching his arms.
Indignation of the Athenians was no limit. Immediately summoned the national assembly. In Sparta they sent messengers to demand trial and punishment of those responsible in the treacherous violation mira.Uznav of failure, and Agesilaus Efor immediately betrayed the Spartan commander of the court, but they themselves had helped him escape. Eforie have Athenian ambassadors that the perpetrator acted without their knowledge, so the Spartan authorities are not responsible for his actions. At the insistence of Agesilaus court acquitted the offender mira.Vest this aroused strong indignation in Athens. The National Assembly declared war on Sparta. The Athenians had previously helped the Theban exiles to seize Cadmium and restore democracy in Thebes. Now the Athenians, in alliance with the Thebans began to struggle for the liberation of Greece from the Spartan vladychestva.Vo chapter Spartan troops stood second king, Kleombrot. Military action he was hesitant. Then Agesilaus, in spite of his advanced age (he was over 70 years), took command of one of the units and joined with him in Boeotia
. Soon after the battle, he received a serious wound and was forced to lie in a long time posteli.Za illness Agesilaus Spartans had to endure many setbacks on land and at sea for the first time the Spartans suffered a severe defeat on the Thebans in the battle of Tegyrios
. Among the Spartan allies were riots. Allies believed, . that Agesilaus started the war with the Thebans because of personal animosity, . and have, . besides, . that no longer want to go to death for the Spartan domination Gretsiey.Spartantsam had to agree to peace peregovory.Predstaviteli all the Greek states had come to Sparta,
. Theban delegate to the famous commander Epaminondas made at the congress on behalf of all Greeks from tyranny and violence Spartans. "Greece, - he said - exhausted fratricidal war. She yearns for a just world, should be pryaznano equality of all Greek states ". All delegates unanimously podderzhaali Epaminondas.
Then Agesilaus offered peace to all the Greeks except the Thebans. He believed that the Thebans alone, without allies, the Spartans easily smash. Most of the Greek State has concluded peace with Spartoy.Spartanskie Efor now again declared war on the Thebans. King Kleombrot, who was with the army in Phocis (in central Greece), received orders to immediately move in Boeotia. Allies reluctantly only out of fear of a menacing Agesilaus, slowly made to aid the Spartans. With a large army Kleombrot king went straight to Thebes, so that one blow to end fivantsami.V 10 km from Thebes at Leuctra occurred the famous battle
. Led Thebans stood Epaminondas - one of the most prominent commanders drevnosti.Epaminond used here for the first time the new system - an oblique wedge: it has focused the bulk of the troops on the left wing, . weakened the right wing and center, a powerful phalanx Thebans, . depth of 50 sheets, . armed with long spears, . struck the right wing of the Spartans,
. The Spartans were crushed, then Epaminondas broke through the center of enemies and embraced them with the right wing. Spartan army was almost completely destroyed. On the battlefield fell king Kleombrot, 1000 Spartans and many allied soldiers Sparta gosudarstv.Vest of the defeat of Leuctra came to Sparta during the holiday. The city was full of foreigners, who were listening in the theater competition Singers. Eforie ordered to continue the holiday, . as if nothing proizoshlo.Nautro, . we know the names of the fallen and survivors of soldiers, . Victims' family members agreed on the town square, . proudly greeting each other, . because their sons, . husbands and brothers died for their homeland,
Mothers of soldiers awaiting the return of the surviving sons, sad silence Expressing sympathy to the families pogibshih.Porazhenie of Leuctra was a signal to the falling away from the allies of Sparta. Spartans now had to fight alone against many enemies. Feared that Epaminondas invade Peloponnese. Agesilaus and Eforie not decided, as usual, denounce and deny civil rights of all soldiers, survivors of the destruction, there were too many, and feared the uprising Efor. Nevertheless, citizens were subjected to insults and harassment of returnees; girl felt shame for them to go marry. Agesilaus also took them again for military service and quickly removed from goroda.Mezhdu so Epaminondas led forty thousand troops entered into Laconia and devastated its.
During the six centuries the land Spartans have not seen enemies: no one dared to intrude here, although the capital - Sparta - did not have walls. Spartans have always boasted that their best protection - Valor grazhdan.Agesilay understood that an open struggle against the superior forces of the enemy can not. He strengthened the city walls and moats, roads arranged blockages, the most important heights occupied units hoplites. I had to bestow the freedom of helots, who voluntarily joined the army. More than 6000 helots were set free and were taken in voysko.Pri as many enemies encamped at Sparta on the other side Eurotas, the elderly and women, the fear hit. Many have blamed Agesilaus all misfortunes, they said that on coming to the throne of Sparta was located on top of power, and now homeland on the brink of death.
Reminisced proud words Agesilaus that never, no Spartan could not see the smoke from the fires of enemies. It was said that one Athenian, Spartan said: "We do not just drive you away from the coast Kefisa!" (river flowing through Attica). "But we - objected Spartan - never drive you away from the shores Eurotas" Epaminondas decided not to because of the spring flood Eurotas go to the other side and attack Sparta. He retreated for the winter and cleared the Laconia. Sparta was spasena.Sleduyuschey war has resumed in the spring. On the side of the Spartans out of fear of the power Thebans crossed afiiyane. Among the cities allied with Thebes Peloponnese began strife, and Epaminond had several times to make trips in the Peloponnese, by force of arms to keep the Allies from otpadeniya.V last time (362 g. BC. e). Epaminondas nearly conquered most of Sparta.
Living Arcadia city Mantinea appealed to the Spartans. Agesilaus spoke with troops in support mantineytsev.Uznav about it, Epaminondas night quietly retreated from the city Tegei in Arcadia, which he besieged, and quickly went straight to Sparta, Agesilaus overlooked. Some Cretan Agesilaus made aware of the motion Epaminondas, and the king quickly went to the capital. Epaminond yet managed to cross the river Evrot.Fivantsy rushed to the attack, but then hurried to Agesilaus with his army. Enemy succeeded, however, to break into the city, they came even before the city market and took on the right bank Eurotas hill dominating the city. But at other points of attack was repelled by angry Spartans, who fought with the courage of despair, the king Agesilaus, had a profound old man, had fought in the forefront as a lion
. Every street, . every house in Sparta have been transformed into a fortress, . women and children threw stones on the heads of enemies and tiles with krysh.Spartantsam managed to hold out until the arrival of reinforcements from allies, . Epaminond otstupit.V and had to battle for the salvation of his native city, many Spartans showed undaunted courage,
. For example, one young Spartan ran out of the house naked with a spear and a sword and rushed at the enemy. He fought his way through the crowd of fighting, cut down and knocked down all caught his enemies, until they fled. After the battle Efor rewarded him for his bravery with a wreath and at the same time fined for what he fought for several days without pantsirya.Cherez been the decisive battle of Mantinea (362 g. BC). Thebans won, but too high a price: a great leader Epaminondas was mortally wounded by a spear.
He was carried into the tent, and he continued to monitor the battlefield. When told of the victory of Thebans, Epaminondas said: "Dying, I leave two immortal daughters - Leuctra and Mantinea". With these words he tore out a piece of spear wounds and skonchalsya.Posle battle of Mantinea Thebans failed because of large losses to continue the war. Peace was concluded on heavy for Spartan conditions: it lost almost all possessions in the Peloponnese, but Laconia. Attempts to save Agesilaus region Messenia ended neudachey.Posle the peace Agesilaus, a member of so many battles, he could not sit still in the city, waiting for death. Eighty-year-old man, . but still full of energy, he went at the head of mercenaries to Egypt for help in rebellion against the ruler of the Persians Tahu.Cherez while Agesilaus left Taha and sided with the rebellious nephew of the ruler, . Nektanebida,
. He helped Nektanebidu and approved its ruler Egipta.Zatem Agesilaus began preparing to return to Sparta. On the way to Greece, he died in the harbor of Menelaus (in western Egypt), 85 years of age (361/60 g. BC). King, by Spartan custom should have been buried in Sparta. Satellites Agesilaus doused his body with wax and brought to Sparta for burial. His descendants still over one hundred years reigned at Sparta.