Demosthenes (Demosthenes)( Athenian statesman and a great orator of antiquity)
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Biography Demosthenes (Demosthenes)
(approximately 384-322., BC)
Athenian statesman and a great orator Demosthenes antiquity dedicated his life to home and died in the fight for her freedom. He was born in Athens in 384 g. BC. e. His father (whose name was also Demosfenom) was a wealthy man, had the armory workshop. When the boy was seven years old his father died, leaving behind a legacy of the future speaker, and his sister, five major sostoyayaie.Vospitanie child was asked to mothers and caretakers, guardians (his uncle on his mother), however, proved to be dishonest people. They are not paid salaries to teachers, did not care about their children's education and upbringing. The boy grew weak, physically nedorazvitym.Kogda Demosthenes came of age, the trustees gave him a house with servants, but most of the money and assets appropriated by. The young man first tried to persuade the guardians to voluntarily return the inheritance, but they refused. Then he decided to court to seek return of stolen money. To successfully plead a cause, . had a thorough acquaintance with the laws of the Athenian, . and most importantly - the skill well and convincingly govorit.V time when democratic system in Athens, almost every citizen had to appear in court and in the assembly,
. Prominent speakers have enjoyed widespread respect: they chose to honorary positions in the state and sent ambassadors to foreign countries. In Athens, there are many people who taught eloquence: how to win in disputes, how to make a weak argument silnym.Samymi outstanding teachers of rhetoric were then Isocrates and Isey. Isocrates contained in the home school of eloquence, but Demosthenes could not attend classes because school fees were too high. Then he turned to Iseyu, while the better lawyer nasledstvah.Chetyre, the young man studied hard at Iseya and paid him for teaching a large amount of money. During this time he was well acquainted with the works of eminent writers, in particular, he carefully studied the works of the famous historian and philosopher, Plato, Thucydides. "History" Thucydides the future, he knew almost by heart, as rewritten by its own eight raz.Okonchiv teaching, Demosthenes began to plead with trustees. Court lasted for five years. Trustees made every effort to avoid responsibility, so, they destroyed even the father's will Demosthenes and other important documents. In the end, trustees have been convicted, . but the young man did not fully recover its nasledstva.Tyazhelaya long struggle with the guardians tempered nature of the future speaker, . developed in him perseverance and nastoychivost.Vystupat the people Demosthenes dreamed as a boy,
. Once in early youth Demosthenes persuaded his teacher to take him to the sitting of the court to hear the famous speaker speech. The boy saw a crowd of people accompanied the speaker with applause, and amazed at the power of eloquence, which won all. Since then, he dropped all other activities and games with their peers and began to vigorously exercise in eloquence. He was determined to become oratorom.No before you speak to the people, Demosfenu had, like his teacher, to write speeches for other judicial. This lesson paid for in Athens is fairly well, . and the young man managed not only to feed his mother and sister, . but also to make some sberezheniya.Odnako compilation of speeches could not satisfy Demosthenes: he was an ardent patriot, and wanted to devote themselves to public deyatelnosti.Pervoe performance of the young orator before the people ended sadly: noise, . laughter and hisses of the crowd would not let him finish the speech,
. This failure was quite natural, . as Demosthenes had a very weak voice, . gibber, . stuttered slightly, . Parisian (do not pronounce the sound "p"), . He had a bad habit of jerking his shoulder, . and, . besides, . He absolutely could not stand before publikoy.Vtoraya his attempt to make a speech before the national assembly also failed,
. Falling in spirit, covering his face, he hurried home, and at first did not even notice that behind him was one of the friends, the famous Athenian actor. They went. Demosthenes began to complain bitterly to a friend of his failures and said that people do not appreciate or understand the deep content of his speeches. "All this is so, - replied the actor - but I will try to help your grief. Read me some fragment of Sophocles or Euripides'. Demosthenes read. When he finished, the actor repeated the same thing, but with such expressiveness that Demosfenu seemed as if he could hear very different poems. He realized now how much beauty makes expressive speech, which he lacked, and with redoubled zeal began to rabotu.Itak, Demosthenes decided, no matter what was correct all the deficiencies of his speech. To one he did not interfere, he retired, then shaved off a half a block, so as not to leave the house until the hair does not grow back. The day for several hours he was engaged in exercises to correct the pronunciation confusion. He gathered stones in his mouth and tried to speak loudly and clearly, to learn how to pronounce the sound "p", he took the puppy, listened to him growl and repeat sounds. He taught himself to utter aloud poems, when raised on the mountain or walking along the beach, and tried to drown her voice sound waves. Sometimes the young man did not leave for two or three months, until, finally, it is not mastered voice and zhestami.Posle long and persistent efforts of Demosthenes reached its goal and became an outstanding orator. However, he never spoke without preparation, but always learns by heart the advance written speech; at night by lamplight, he diligently prepared for the speech, carefully pondering each word. All this gave rise later opponents of the great orator reproached him for his lack of inspiration and natural abilities. Once one of the enemies even threw him a reproach: "Your speech, smell of oil", ie "You're sitting on them all night by the light of oil lamps." But even his enemies finally had to admit the force of his eloquence and skill. In his speeches, the extraordinary simplicity of expression was combined with the greatest strength of feeling and thought, clarity and persuasiveness. Demosthenes always strictly adhered object of his speech, , . Acting on intelligence listeners, . then conquer them by force feelings, . transferring them to his ardent belief in the rightness of the protected dela.Kogda Demosfenu turned 30 years, . He began to take part in public affairs and the full force of his oratory talents drew against the most dangerous enemy of all Greeks - the Macedonian King Philip,
. The selfless love of country inspired by the great orator in the fight against the Macedonians and their accomplices in Athens and throughout Macedonia Gretsii.Esche recently been weak and backward state with which the Greeks were regarded as little. King Philip (359-336 gg. BC) unified the country and organized a large army of well armed. In the hands of such gifted commander, . as Philip, . she became a formidable siloy.Mezhdunarodnoe situation in Greece at that time was very favorable for the intervention of Macedonia: Greeks waged a constant war, . Athenians were at war with allies, . Thebans - with fokeytsami, . and the Spartans - with the States Peloponnesa.Tsar Philip cleverly used the internal dissensions among the Greeks: he is everywhere had its supporters and agents in the ranks of the opponents,
. If necessary, the king was not averse and bribery. "The donkey laden with gold, take any castle," - said Philip, ever striving for its goal - to conquer all of Greece.
First, Philip conquered Thessaly and stronger in Northern Greece. But this was only the beginning. After some time the Macedonians were able to capture all the Athenian possessions in Thrace, and they were preparing for the invasion of Central Greece. Such rapid advances Philip facilitated by the fact that the whole of Greece was divided into two camps, the bitter struggle between the rich and poor. Poor people everywhere openly demanded the partition of land and property rich. Wealthy slaveholders looked at Philip and the Macedonians as their saviors from the poor performances. They preferred to better comply with Macedonia, than to give their wealth to the people. When Macedonian domination can be, they thought, safely manage his property and slaves, and not fear of popular uprisings. Only the common people and poor people were willing to defend their homeland and freedom from Macedonian zahvatchikov.Demosfen immediately realized, . dangers for Athens and Greece is Macedonia and its king, . and headed the party of patriots, . opponents Filippa.V Athens at this time power was in the hands of supporters of Macedonia,
. At the head of the Macedonian party stood Evbul Eshin.Evbul and he was known for peace "in that whatever the cost, at any cost" and had deliberately turned a blind eye to the danger that threatened from the Macedonian king. He wanted to appease the masses by giving the people of the state treasury income (so-called "entertainment money"). Demosthenes began to fight against such an order and called on people to sacrifice personal interests for the day of happiness and salvation,
. "Rich, - he said - throw a sop to the people at state expense, while they themselves shying away from national service obligations. She managed to convince people to pay "entertainment money" to fight with Macedonia. This was a major success of Demosthenes and his supporters-patriotov.Demosfen constantly now was in the assembly with fiery speeches, trying to arouse patriotic feelings Athenians. His famous speech against the King Philip called "the Philippines" (and even now we are called hot, . passionate speech "diatribe"). After the capture of Thrace, Philip began to threaten Olinfu, . the largest city in Halkidike.V Athens profit after olinfyan for help,
. Demosthenes fiercely supported olinfyan: he spoke in their favor, three speeches in the assembly. However, the assistance of the Athenians late. King Philip took the city and residents were sold in rabstvo.Zatem Philip offered the Athenians peace. Athenian ambassadors - Filokrat and Aeschines - during the peace talks had been bribed by the king: despite the opposition of Demosthenes, they made peace on terms unfavorable to Athens. Shortly thereafter, paying no attention to the prisoner the world, defeated Philip fokeytsev - Allied afinyan.Togda, finally, the Athenians began to prepare for a decisive rebuff to Philip. Demosthenes was chosen the first strategy, and became the head of state. Former Ambassador Filokrata accused of bribery and treason. Filokrat was sentenced in absentia to death kazn.Zatem Demosthenes spoke against another ambassador - Aeschines, accusing him of treason and bribery. Aeschines defended himself skillfully and was acquitted by a small majority golosov.Eto was time greatest success and fame of the great orator. He managed to strengthen the fleet - the main force afinyan.Odnako Athenians alone could not cope with a formidable enemy, and therefore Demosthenes began to work on obschegrecheskom alliance against Macedonia. At the head of the embassy, he visited a number of Greek states, everywhere uttering impassioned speeches and encouraging the Greeks to unite. "The power of the Macedonians, - he said - in the weakness and fragmentation of the Greeks, if all the Greeks will be united, that Philip would not dare to attack us". The population of the Greek cities enthusiastically took great speaker, and soon Corinth, Megara and other cities in the Peloponnese, allied with afinyanami.Filipp meanwhile watched the actions of the Athenians. While these negotiations were to merge, came ominous news: the army of Philip is in central Greece, the king had already taken at the border of Boeotia fortress Elat - an important point of intersection of road to Thebes and Attica. The decisive moment in the struggle. Much now depended on whether, at whose side will Thebes - one of the strongest countries in Central Gretsii.Togda Demosthenes led the Athenian embassy arrived in Thebes proposed an alliance against Philip. But there were already Macedonian ambassadors (the king beat him), who does not stint on the promises in every way discouraged the Thebans from the alliance with the Athenians. But Demosthenes has made a brilliant success. His inspirational speech in which he called for courage and reminded of the glory and honor of Greece, decided the case: Thebans entered into an alliance with the Athenians against the common enemy. Both sides began preparing for the last shvatke.Letom 338 g. BC. there was the fateful battle of Heronee.Armiya Philip consisted of 30 thousand infantry and 2 thousand horsemen. The number of allied troops - the Athenians and Thebans - was somewhat menshey.Na dawn both armies drew up in battle array. Right-wing of the Macedonian troops he commanded Philip, left - his eighteen-year-son, Alexander, the future great captain, stood in the center of an experienced military commander Antipatr.Nachalos fierce battle. For a long time, fortunes of war are not inclined one way or the other side. The first decisive success achieved Alexander: his soldiers dealt a devastating blow "Sacred Band" fivantsev.Naoborot on the right wing of the Athenians broke through the ranks of the Macedonians and pushed them. "Follow me!" - Cried the Athenian strategy - our victory! "Intoxicated with success, advancing Athenians, however, thwarted their ranks. "The enemy can not win!" - Said Philip, who watched from a height over the course of battle. He quickly rebuilt its phalanx and struck on the Athenians. Athenians flinch, . and all the Greek army was otstupat.Makedonyane won a decisive victory, . despite the desperate resistance of the Athenian hoplites and undaunted courage Theban phalanx ( "Sacred Band" of 300, . all of which died). In this battle, the Athenians had lost 1,000 men killed and 2000 fell into plen.Demosfen ordinary hoplites fought and retreated from the battlefield with the troops,
. For this later, he Aeschines accused him of cowardice. The people of Athens, however, did not believe the great slander of enemies speaker and asked him to deliver a eulogy in memory of soldiers who died at Chaeronea, which was considered high chestyu.Izvestie the defeat of Chaeronea made a tremendous impression on the Athenians. Immediately summoned the national assembly, the people ordered to prepare for the siege and carried women and children from villages beyond the walls of the city, in addition, someone offered to free slaves and give citizenship to foreigners the right to call them in the army. Hang out with such an extreme measure, even in such a dangerous moment for a country the Athenian popular assembly is not reshilos.Demosfen together with his supporters organized the defense of the city, across-the arming of citizens, repairing walls and t. d.Groznaya risk, . fortunately, . soon passed, could make peace on a relatively acceptable conditions: the Athenians were on the fleet and the principal ownership, but the Delian League - the basis of their power - was dissolved, . and Athens were to join the newly organized obschegrechesky alliance headed by Filippom.Heroneyskaya battle decided the fate of Greece: Greek states lost their freedom and independence, . everywhere power passed into the hands of the rich, . sympathizers Makedonii.V Athens raised their collaborators, . overt and covert supporters of Philip,
. They have become almost a daily basis to bring charges against Demosthenes and other representatives of the people's partii.Odnako found patriots who have worked tirelessly to restore the power of the state. At their head was Demosthenes, Lycurgus, and drugie.Likurg within four years by the austerity again raised government revenues to 1200 talents a year. Demosthenes was in charge of "spectacular treasury, which was now the sole support of the Athenian poor. Athenians were, . gradually recover from the terrible porazheniya.Tsar Philip meanwhile gathered obschegrechesky congress at Corinth, . which solemnly proclaimed the establishment obschegrecheskogo Union under the leadership of the Macedonian tsarya.V midst of preparations for the march Philip was assassinated at the wedding of his daughter in the city Egah in Macedonia, . two years after the battle Heroneyskoy (336 g,
. BC). Demosthenes received a message about the death of Philip, when the national assembly is not aware of this. He came to the board and happily announced that he had a dream predicting the Athenians great happiness. Soon came the news of the death of Philip. The National Assembly decided to bring offerings to the gods, and the murderer king reward wreath. Great, he came that day in the national assembly in festive clothes with a wreath on his head, although his own family suffered a great grief: just a few days ago, died of his daughter. But the people's joy Demosthenes put above personal grief. The people rejoiced, hoping to throw off the Macedonian igo.Snova to power was intended to Demosthenes. In all the cities of Greece rose movement against the Macedonians, and awakened hopes for freedom. The Athenians sent an embassy to Thebes and other Greek states proposed alliance against Macedonia. Athens entered snoscheniya as the Persians, urging them to immediately start a war with Alexander. Demosthenes believed that with the heir of Philip, a boy and a fool, he called Alexander, will be easy to handle. Demosthenes vosstaniya.Tem hoped for success, however, contrary to expectations, Alexander quickly put an end to their opponents in Macedonia and Thessaly, and led the Greeks at Corinth, to plead leader obschegrecheskogo troops to march on Persia. However, he had to take a hike to the north against triballov who threatened Limits Makedonii.Polzuyas absence of Alexander, first rose Thebans, and after them, and other Greek states. Besieged Thebans stood their Macedonian garrison, and many soldiers perebili.Aleksandr, breaking triballov suddenly appeared with an army under the walls of Thebes. The city was captured and razed to the ground. Spared only the house belonging to the famous poet Pindar. The surviving inhabitants, numbering about 30 thousand people, were sold in rabstvo.V Athens reigned terrible confusion: It is expected that Alexander will start the siege. However, the price of complete submission has to beg for mercy to the winner. Alexander demanded the extradition only Demosthenes and other opponents Makedonii.Demosfen came in the national assembly and told the people the fable of the sheep, giving out their dogs to wolves. Himself and his comrades he likened to dogs, was fighting for the people, and Alexander called the wolf. Fortunately, the attention was diverted by Alexander preparations for the Persian campaign, and he did not insist on its demand. Demosthenes and his friends remained in Afinah.Vystupiv a campaign against Persia in chapter 30 thousand infantry and 5000 cavalry. Alexander defeated the Persians at the battles of Granicus and Issus (334-333 gg.), Then he is utterly defeated the Persian army at Gaugamela (on the bank of the Tigris River) and took over Babylon and the vast treasures of the Persian kings.
Meanwhile, in Athens, came to power again, the Macedonian Party. Now opponents of the great orator for taking the time suitable to deal with. The fact that a few years ago one of the supporters of the People's Party proposed to crown Demosthenes a golden wreath of high patriotic services. The National Assembly agreed to this and decided to reward the great citizen of Athens wreath. Of course, supporters of Macedonia, objected, and Aeschines brought a complaint against the ruling of a trial by jury, he argued the wrong decision of the national assembly and said that Demosthenes did not deserve such a high award. Demosthenes was forced to defend. The Court turned into a duel of two of the most famous speakers of Athens. Enemies of the great orator did not consider, however, the mood of the people who did not want to accept the loss of nezavisimosti.Sud began with a huge crowd of people. Aeschines said the indictment, full of unjust attacks on Demosthenes. In the famous defense speech "On a wreath, she gave a great overview of all its activities for the benefit of the country and clearly outlined the treacherous course of action Aeschines. Despite pressure from opponents, a judge rendered a just verdict. Aeschines had been fined and had to go into exile. The success of the speech "The wreath was not only a victory for the great orator, but also the triumph of the patriotic forces in Athens and throughout Gretsii.V result of the victory in court Demosthenes influence on state affairs increased. He saw the force of enemies and the lack of unity among the Greeks, and therefore tried to keep citizens from the violent demonstrations against the Macedonians, rash. For example, the Athenians on his advice did not support the uprising Spartans. The uprising was quickly suppressed makedonyanami.Aleksandr yet been fully engaged in Asian affairs, giving full powers to dispose of in Greece, his commander Antipater. However, he sent to Greece two orders: first, he commands us to honor a god, and, secondly, ordered all the Greek States to return its exiles. Over the first command of the Greeks laughed, and the latter aroused strong indignation. Fact, . that the exiles were usually traitors, . hated narodu.V this time there was a new event, . which fatally affected the fate of Demosfena.Kaznachey Alexander, . Harpalus, . using the long absence of the king of Babylon (the king then began a campaign in India), . stole a huge treasury of the Persian kings,
. With that money, he scored 6 thousand mercenaries, and with 30 ships, arrived unexpectedly in the Athenian harbor of Piraeus. Treasurer sought the money to attract the Athenian statesman, . promising them the opportunity to achieve independence for Gretsii.Nekotorye speakers suggested to take the money Harpalus and immediately begin a general uprising against the Macedonians in Greece,
. But Demosthenes, and other prominent figures expressed protiv.Garpala not allowed in Athens, and he went to the Peloponnese to the Cape ThцLnard. There he left his army and most of the treasures, while he himself, taking with them 750 talents, he returned to Athens. Now he had only asked for him to ubezhischa.Mezhdu Antipater and Alexander's mother demanded that the Athenians Olympics issuing kidnapper Treasury. On the proposal of Demosthenes Harpalus was arrested, and brought them the money put on the conservation of the Acropolis, to return them later Alexander. Garpalu managed to escape to Crete, where he was soon fired ubit.Kogda counting the money seized from Harpalus, it turned out that he had brought the amount left only 350 talents, all of the money had disappeared. Demosthenes proposed to make rigorous investigation of the case, and vouched his life that he is not guilty of embezzlement of money. Mass searches were made, but no money nashli.Demosfen and some other persons were involved representatives of the Macedonian party to trial on charges of embezzlement of money, bribery and escape device Harpalus. Under pressure from opponents of Demosthenes court found guilty and sentenced him to pay 50 talents. Since he could not pay such a huge sum, it has been imprisoned. Friends, . however, . soon helped him to escape, . and he found refuge not far from Athens on the island of Aegina, . overlooking the native zemlyu.Potryasenny daunting struggle with opponents, . great agony he suffered his exile, his health was quite shaken,
. Demosthenes bitterly complained to friends of the injustice verdict: he, . man impeccably honest and having a great service to the state, . convicted, . and the accused together with a notorious villain opravdan.Odnako expulsion of the great orator was short-lived: a sudden came the news of the death of Alexander in Babylon (June 323 g,
. BC). The death of Alexander was the signal for the beginning of the liberation movements from all over Greece. Revolt broke out among the Greeks of Asia Minor. The rise took even the rich, supporters of the Macedonians. People speakers uttered in Athens, patriotic speeches, urging citizens to reset the Macedonian yoke. From Athens sent an embassy to the Peloponnese, to induce the Peloponnesian states to join the fight for svobodu.Afinskoe People's Assembly decided to return from exile of the great orator. Behind him was sent to the island of Aegina ship of state. When Demosthenes came to his native land, he had set up in the Athenian harbor of Piraeus nationwide solemn ceremony as the national geroyu.Demosfen immediately led the resistance against the Macedonians. The war, which initially went well for the Athenians. The Athenian commander Leosfen, formerly head of the Greek mercenaries from the Persians and tempered Alexander led 8000 soldiers marched into Thessaly against the commander of Alexander, Antipater, on the way to the Athenians joined etoliytsy and Thessaly. The allies won a decisive victory over Antipater, who, with remains of troops locked in the fortress of Lamia (in Thessaly). During the siege of Lamia Athenians, however, suffered a serious accident: he fell Leosfen.Posle his death, the war dragged on and took an unfavorable turn for the Athenians. The Union army consisted of citizens of different states and the Greek mercenaries. First, differences among the allies began, . and then began to disperse mercenaries, . which irregularly paid zhalovane.Na help besieged Antipater came with an army commander Leonnat, . The Athenians were navstrechuLeonnatu bravely and inflicted defeat,
. However, from Macedonia with the new reinforcements arrived commander Crater. The preponderance of power was now on the side of the Macedonians. In addition, the Athenian fleet was defeated twice, and the sea power of Athens was slomleno.Makedonyanam managed to persuade some allies of the Athenians to make peace. The Athenians were left almost alone. But they decided to give the final battle took place in the city makedonyanam.Bitva Krannone (August, 322 g. BC. e.). The Athenians were defeated, although not as heavy as of Chaeronea. Had to make peace, . terms of which were very painful: Democracy in Athens was destroyed; full political rights were granted only for the rich (number 9000) and the remaining citizens to leave their homeland and settle in Thrace, the Macedonian garrison took the Athenian gavan.Demosfen and other patriots were sentenced in absentia to death,
. Demosfenu managed to escape to the temple of Poseidon on the island Kalavrii.Nashlis and traitors, who voluntarily undertook search for fugitives. Among these traitors most baseness differed someone Arhy, . Former first actor, . who even earned the nickname "the hunter of the fugitives." Hearing, . that Demosthenes is on the island Kalavrii in the temple of Poseidon as "begging for protection", . Arhy arrived with Thracian mercenaries and hypocritically offered Demosfenu go with him to Antipater, . assuring, . that that he did not, . do no harm,
. In response Demosthenes said: "Arhy, as I had never touched your acting, so now do not touch your promises. Wait a bit, . I'll write something mother ... "With these words, Demosthenes went inside the temple, . took a piece of papyrus and reed pen, . as if preparing to write, then put his pen to his mouth and bit his, . as he usually did, . when thinking about something, . preparing to write,
. In re reed was laid much acting poison, which Demosthenes and proglotil.Perestupiv threshold of the temple, he staggered and fell dead. It happened Oct. 12 322 years before the death of Demosthenes n.e.Tak, not wishing to experience the enslavement of the homeland, for freedom and independence which he fought until the last vzdoha.Vskore Demosfenu Athenians erected a copper statue in the town square. Demosthenes was presented to her with a sorrowful expression on his face and clenched his hands in despair. The inscription under the statue reads: If the power, Demosthenes, you had such as intelligence, power would be in Hellas could not take the Macedonian Arey.
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