Nebuchadrezzar (Nebuchadnezzar II)( Babylon king)
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Biography Nebuchadrezzar (Nebuchadnezzar II)
"I - Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, the pious prince, the ruling by the will and good pleasure of Marduk, the supreme governor of the city, beloved by Heaven, cunning and tireless ... always baking for the welfare of Babylon, the first-born son Nabopolasara wise, the Babylonian king ...".
Nebuchadrezzar (Nebuchadnezzar II) - the eldest son and heir Nabopolasara, founder of the Chaldeans (or Babylonians) Empire. The most famous representative of this dynasty. In the story came as a military leader, organizer of the capital and as a man who played a prominent role in Jewish history. His name is known from inscriptions on clay tablets, from Jewish sources and from classical authors. The correct form of the name of Nebuchadnezzar - Nabu-kudurri-usur, which means: "God Nabu, protect my boundary". This is the name stamped on the millions of bricks that are now on the ruins of the Tower of Babel, described by Herodotus. Archaeologists also unearthed the famous "expensive process". This road is paved with huge square stone slabs, and on the lower side of each of them bears the inscription: "I - Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, the son of Nabopalasara, king of Babylon.
Marduk - the main deity of Babylon
I paved with stone slabs from Shadu this road processions to the temple of the great god Marduk. Marduk, my lord, grant us eternal life. "
While his father stressed his humble origin, Nebuchadnezzar declared himself a descendant of the legendary king Naram-Sin, who ruled in III thousand. BC. Birth year of Nebuchadnezzar is unknown but is likely to happen to 630 g. BC, since, according to tradition, Nebuchadnezzar, began his military career in the very young age, to 610 g. BC. a significant position in the army. He was the first who mentioned his father Nabopolasar as a simple worker, who took part in the restoration of the temple of Marduk, chief god of the city and country.
In 607-606 years. BC. Nebuchadnezzar, as the Crown Prince with his father commanded the army in the mountains north of Assyria (Harran). Nebuchadnezzar became famous as a great military leader during the life of father. After the Egyptians in 606-605 years. BC. inflicted some serious defeats the Babylonians in 605 g. BC. Nabopolasar instructed him to war against the Egyptian Pharaoh Necho, seized the whole of Syria, Palestine and Phenicia. Stronghold of the Egyptians in Syria was strongly fortified city Karhemysh. Suddenly forced the Euphrates, Nebuchadnezzar attacked the Egyptian camp near the city walls. In the fierce battle Babylonians crushed the soldiers of Pharaoh, and on their shoulders broke into Karhemysh. After being defeated in the streets, the remains of the Egyptian army fled in panic to Hamat. Here Nabopolasar overtook the enemy with his cavalry and massacred most of them. This defeat made a strong impression on the rulers of Syria, who immediately recognized the authority resignedly Babylonian king.
Nebuchadnezzar (painting by William Blake)
In the midst of these developments, the old man died Nabopolasar. After his father's death, followed on August 16 605 g. BC, Nebuchadnezzar hastened back to Babylon, and within three weeks, finished the coronation celebrations. On the 23rd day after the death of his father Nebuchadnezzar took the imperial throne. Such rapidity of lightning, and the subsequent return to the army showed that the empire fell into strong hands.
During the campaign in Syria and Palestine (June-December 604 g. BC) he conquered several small kingdoms and principalities, including Judea, seized the city of Ashkelon (Ashkelon), plundered and destroyed. The final pacification of Palestine took about three years. In 603 g. BC. Nebuchadnezzar, the king had surrendered Jews. In the army of Nebuchadnezzar served as the Greek mercenaries.
In 601-600 years. BC. He again came up with the Egyptians and the beginning of the campaign has suffered several serious injuries, resulting from defection of a number of conquered states, including Judah. As a result, Nebuchadnezzar was embroiled in a protracted war in Palestine. In 600-599 years. BC. he had to return to Babylon, where the young king organized the repair of defective war chariots ... Opposition movement Babylonians continued to be very strong. Stronghold remained dissatisfied Judea. The new strategic plan, developed in December 599 g. March 598 g. BC, was aimed at winning Arab tribes in the north-western Arabia, its core is the idea of compulsory occupation of Judea. A year later, Nebuchadnezzar came to within the kingdom of Judah and 16 March 597 g. BC. accepted the surrender of Jerusalem. The king had decided not to resist and opened the gates of the Babylonians.
Nebuchadnezzar ordered the execution of it and put on the throne first Jehoiachin and three months - Tzidkiyahu. At some time in the country to make peace. After a short campaign in Syria in 597-596 years. BC. Nebuchadnezzar was forced to return to the capital and troops to repel the invasion elamitskih (modern south-western Iran).
The situation worsened when, in 595-594 years. BC. in Babylon, a rebellion broke out, which was attended by some army units. Nebuchadnezzar was able to quickly control the situation and soon had two successful military campaigns in Syria (594 g. BC). On further hikes Nebuchadnezzar was not known surviving chronicles and other sources, partly from the Bible, which describes the re-siege of Jerusalem and 13-year siege of Tyrus. Remained as vague information about the campaign in Egypt (Josephus). From these sources that in 590 g. BC. war with Egypt was resumed, and in 589 g. BC. Jews revolted. In 588 g. BC. Nebuchadnezzar went up to Jerusalem. Egyptian Pharaoh Apries tried to help the besieged, but was defeated in the Battle. At sea, however, proved stronger than the Babylonians, Egyptians and defeated them and captured the Phoenicians. However, assistance to the Jews had not arrived. The Babylonians built a par with the urban siege fortified walls and towers, led to the walls and gates of the rams. The besieged defended themselves with exceptional resistance to the enemy and inflicted huge losses on. In July alone, 586 g. BC. Babylonians managed to breach the wall and break into the fortifications. The city was looted and then razed to the ground. All the educated people of Jerusalem were deported (another deportation was carried out in 582 g. BC). Then Nebuchadnezzar had to re-conquer Phenicia.
The Tower of Babel (the classical interpretation)
He quickly took Sidon, but powerful and well-prepared for a siege Tire defended by the Babylonians for 13 years. Only 575 g. BC. tiriytsy agreed to accept the primacy of Babylon - gave hostages and took the Babylonian viceroy.
Being under the influence of the Assyrian imperial tradition, Nebuchadnezzar is a deliberate policy of expansion. It was announced that Marduk gave him at the beginning of the whole earth, so that "from horizon to horizon, he had no rivals ...
States with larger military talent Nebuchadnezzar to the same proved to be an outstanding diplomat. He was invited as an arbitrator in the dispute between the Medes and the Lydians.
Little is known about his family life. He married the Median princess Amitis (Semiramis) and to quench her anguish breed mountains, built the famous "hanging gardens" ...
Board of Nebuchadnezzar was a time of economic prosperity and cultural renaissance of Babylonia. Babylon has become the largest city in the ancient East with a population of about 200.000 people. At one end of town is a huge royal palace, and on the other - the main sanctuary of the Babylonians - Esagila. It was a square building, each side of which was length of 400 meters. Single unit with Esagila was located to the south seven-story ziggurat (stepped pyramid), height 91 meters, which was called Etemenanki (temple cornerstone of heaven and earth).
Computer model of the Tower of Babel
Named in the Bible "Tower of Babel" he was considered in antiquity one of the wonders of the world. At the top of the tower, which led outdoor staircase, located sanctuary supreme god Marduk. When Nebuchadrezzar king of Babylon Babylon became a powerful fortress. He was surrounded by a double wall, which reach heights of 14 meters. The city was surrounded by a deep and wide moat.
The dusty and noisy Babylon, located on the bare sandy plain, not delight the Queen, who grew up in the mountainous and green mussels. To comfort her, in 600 g. BC. Nebuchadnezzar ordered to build a "Hanging Gardens". In architectural terms "hanging gardens" were a pyramid consisting of four tiers - platforms supported them columns up to 25 m. The lower tier had the shape of an irregular quadrangle, the greatest side of which was 42m, the lowest - 34 m. To prevent the seepage of irrigation water, the surface of each platform is first covered with a layer of reeds mixed with asphalt, then two layers of brick, reinforced with plaster mortar, stacked on top of lead plates. They lay a thick carpet of fertile land, which were planted the seeds of various herbs, flowers, shrubs, trees. Pyramid reminded blossoming green hill.
The success of gardeners, must have depended on a good irrigation system, for which used water from the Euphrates. In the cavity of one of the columns were placed tubes on them water from the Euphrates, the pumps day and night were applied to the upper tier of the gardens, where it's flowing streams and small waterfalls, watered the plants of the lower tiers, so that the land was always wet.
The Hanging Gardens were built, probably near the river and watched the city walls of Babylon.
Hanging Gardens in presenting the ancient Greeks
They were arranged in the form of terraces, the uppermost of which may have towered 40 meters above the ground. Nebuchadnezzar ordered the plant in the garden every conceivable species of trees and flowers. They were being taken from the whole empire on carts pulled by oxen, and river boats.
In 331 g. BC. e. armies of Alexander of Macedon conquered Babylon. Famed commander made the city the capital of his vast empire. It is here in the shadow "hanging gardens", he died in 323 g. BC. e. After Alexander's death Babylon gradually declining. Gardens were in disrepair. Floods destroyed a brick foundation pillars, platform collapsed to the ground. Thus died one of the wonders of the world.
. Ishtar Gate in Babylon, rebuilt in the Nebuchadnezzar - a huge semi-circular arch, bounded on either side of the gigantic walls and entering the track for quite a long procession, along which the left and right and stretched wall
. Built it out of brick, covered with bright blue, yellow, white and black glaze. To heighten the grandeur of the wall gate and paths are covered with bas-reliefs of great beauty, depicting animals in poses that are very close to the natural. The walls are decorated with rows of track gradually marching lions. The walls are covered with the gate top to bottom rows of alternating images of two other animals. One of them - a powerful bull, fierce-looking, the second ... "Just then begins zoological puzzle.
Usually this is the second animal is called the Babylonian dragon, and it is the same animal, which appeared under the same name in the Bible.
Ishtar Gate after restoration
In the cuneiform inscriptions preserved his Babylonian name - Sirrush. We never leave, although there are some doubts about its correct pronunciation.
Construction is impressive, and it is not surprising that the king Nebuchadnezzar, who reconstructed Ishtar Gate, was very proud of. When it ended, he was the inscription, which was made in cuneiform and exhibited on public display. With the era inherent lack of modesty inscription reported in its first lines:
. "I - Nebuchadnezzar, . king of Babylon, . godly prince, . ruling by the will and good pleasure of Marduk (the supreme god of the Babylonians), . supreme ruler Cities, . Loved the Sky (son of Marduk, . supreme god of the nearby town Vorsippa), . cunning and tireless ..,
. always baking for the welfare of Babylon, the wise first-born son Nabopolasara king of Babylon ... "
. Then in the inscription says that because of the continuous improvement of the embankment to the road to Babylon, the height of the gate all the time decreased, and eventually Nebuchadnezzar ordered the complete redesign of their
. Sirrush - Babylonian dragon
. All this is confirmed by archaeological finds, and we have no reason to doubt the truth or authenticity of the inscription, which incidentally was not quite finished.
. Despite the fatal role that Nebuchadnezzar had played in Jewish history, its image in the religious tradition of illuminated friendly, respectful light
. It is reported that he put a guard to the prophet Jeremiah, who declared him an instrument of God, whose hand had been punished recalcitrant and forgotten the covenant. Prophet Iezikiil expressed the same attitude to Nebuchadrezzar ...
Nothing is not confirmed the story of Daniel about the 7-year madness that had gripped the king. Rather, it refers to events associated with the successor of Nebuchadnezzar, Nabonidus, who showed eccentricity, leaving Babylon, and settled in the oasis Teima that Arabistane.
. In modern times the name of Nebuchadnezzar became synonymous with ruthless conqueror
. With him compared Napoleon ...