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Octavian Augustus

( The first Roman emperor)

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Biography Octavian Augustus
photo Octavian Augustus

Childhood and adolescence.
Octavian Augustus, Roman emperor (63 g. BC-14 g. BC). August - the name of honor, awarded by the Senate in 27 g. BC. Gaius Octavius - the name given at birth. From 44 g. BC. known as Gaius Julius Caesar in accordance with the name of his adoptive father. For the period 44-27 years. BC. in the British historians called him Octavian, although he himself never used the name Octavian. The name of August (the Greek. Sevastos) actually wore all subsequent emperors of Rome, but historians have never used this name to distinguish them from someone special.
Octavius was born in Rome on 23 +-- 63 years before AD. and came from a wealthy and respected, but closed family from the city Velitry, region Latsy. His father, Gaius Octavius (mind. 58 g. BC), the first member of the genus, which became a senator, at 61 he was praetor and successfully managed Macedonia. His mother, Atia, was the daughter of Julia, sister of the great Julius Caesar. This relationship has defined his career Octavia. Young Octavius Caesar singled out from among their relatives, . pinning great hopes on him: he gave him the signs of differences in its military triumph of the African, . took it with him in the Spanish campaigns 45 +, . made a patrician and ensured his election as pontiff,
. Finally, because of the lack of a legitimate son, Caesar in his will declared Octavia his adopted son and heir to three-fourths of the property.

. Frequency of elevation.
. When the 44, there was a murder of Caesar, Octavius received education in Apollonia, Illyria
. He went to Italy and learned that he had become the son and heir of Caesar, he decided to seek dangerous legacy. His position was very weak. Caesar's heir was closed eighteen young men without experience and powerful connections. Antitsezarianskaya party treated him with a natural suspicion, a recognized leader tsezariantsev, Marc Anthony, seizing money and archives of Caesar, to reject. With its credit only the fact of adoption by Caesar, . Octavius immediately assumed the name of Caesar, . gave people relied, . according to the will of Caesar, . money, . being out of pocket, . and built his own expense ludi Victoriae Caesaris (the game in honor of the victories of Caesar),
Marc Anthony
At the same time, Octavian tried to ingratiate himself with Cicero, who considered that has the ability to use the boys as a tool in the fight against Antony, and then reset it from the accounts. When ripe the gap between Anthony and the Senate, Octavian illegally collected an army of three thousand veterans of the army of his adopted father, and managed to gain over two legions Anthony. By declaring war on Antony, the Senate at the suggestion of Cicero defined the legal status of Octavian, making him a senator and declaring imperium pro praetori; while the Senate also ordered him to assist in the conduct of the war the two consuls, elected in 43. Antony was defeated by Moutinho (Modena), but both the consul killed, and thus Octavian was victorious commander of all Army. He immediately demanded a consulate and, when the Senate began to object, moved march on Rome. He was elected consul 19 - 43, along with his uncle Quint Pediem and performed his first duty to the foster father that led law proscription against his killers. Now the heir of Caesar could negotiate on equal terms with Anthony, who joined forces with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who ruled Gaul. The three of them met at Bononia (Bologna) and adopted an agreement to divide among themselves the supreme authority. They were proclaimed triumvirs with higher powers for a period from 27 November 43 December 31, 38 years.
. In order to intimidate the opposition and support themselves, triumvirs subjected to proscription hundred senators and two thousand people from the class of riders
Marc Junius Brutus - one of the assassins of Julius Caesar
Then Antony and Octavian marched into Macedonia, to crush the mark of Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius (Caesar's assassins). After the victory at Philippi (42 g.) Anthony took over management of the eastern provinces and Octavian returned to Italy where, following the ruthless confiscation, provided the veteran landholdings. In 41, he was forced to wage war in Perouse (Perugia), suppressing the rebellion raised by the brother of Anthony Lucius Antonius, who was supported by Fulvia, the wife of Anthony. Anthony a painful steps Octavian, . but in 40 year Brundizii (Brindisi) between them was achieved reconciliation, . according to which Antony retreated all the eastern, . and Octavian - all the western provinces, . except Africa, . remainder of Lepidus,
. To reinforce the alliance Antony married Octavia, sister of Octavian (by that time Fulvia died). The following year in Mizene, in the Bay of Naples, was signed a pact with Pompey Sexton, in which triumvirs recognize his authority over Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica. Then Anthony returned to the East. Sextus Mizensky quickly denounced the pact, but between Octavian and Mark Antony again emerged friction. However, the diligence, which put Octavian, in 37 of Tarentum (Taranto) was again achieved reconciliation.
. Triumvirate, is a legal term of power has expired, was extended for another five years, and triumvirs accepted the agreement on joint action against Sextus Pompey
. In 36 + Octavian and Lepidus organized landing in Sicily, though he suffered a severe defeat Octavian and his faithful companion and best captain Mark Vipsanius Agrippa had saved the situation, and Sextus was defeated. Lepidus, quarreled with his allies after the victory, was abandoned by his troops and deposed. Octavian, . having from 38 + title "imperator", . originally denoting a judicial office, . in charge of the military command, . and called himself imperator Caesar divi filius (Emperor Caesar, . son of God), . returned to Rome, . to celebrate an ovation, . and among other honors received the sacred title of the plebeian tribune.,
. Octavian now had power over all the West, and Anthony - all over the East, and it became clear that the clash of two supreme rulers inevitably
. Caesar's heir has acquired credibility and popularity because of the victory over the Sexton, which will ensure security of supply routes of grain in Rome. In the course of the next few years, he and his associates, especially Agrippa, productively engaged in public affairs. In addition, Octavian, having collected his forces, made even greater glory in the conquest of Illyria (Dalmatia) in 35-33 years. Meanwhile, Anthony was losing its influence because of unsuccessful Parthian campaigns, and became a stranger to the Roman people come together with Cleopatra. Thus, Octavian was able to rise as the head of Italy and Rome, which opposes the eastern queen and her lover had descended.
. The crisis came at the end of the second five-year term triumvirate, when Octavian demanded from Anthony to lay down its authority
. Consuls and more than three hundred senators had left Italy and joined Antony, however, Octavian forced maidens Vestals annul the will of Anthony and publish it to the podium of the Senate. That was very inconsiderate document towering Cleopatra and all of its children born to Anthony and brought against the public opinion. Caesar's heir was able to make a personal oath of loyalty from all the people of Italy, calling on him to become a leader in the coming war. All the western provinces took his side.
Cleopatra - the last Egyptian queen of the tribe of the Ptolemies (ancient Egyptian bas-relief)
War was declared specifically to Cleopatra, and Octavian in 31 +, setting his public position taking consulate (for 32 g. he, in fact, remained a private civilian), received the military command. In the Battle of shares 2 +-- 31, he inflicted a decisive defeat of the combined armies of Antony and Cleopatra, who had fled to Egypt. 1 - 30, he came to Alexandria, Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide. It was annexed by Egypt and captured huge treasure. The following year, Gaius Octavius returned to Rome, where he celebrated a magnificent triumph of the triple: the conquest of Illyria, a victory in the Shares and the seizure of Egypt.

. Legislation Augustus.
. Thus, the power of the empire, Octavian became undeniable, but its legality remains in question
. From 31 years he was annually elected to the consulate, but it exceeded all lawful authority, requiring a supreme unlimited power in accordance with the traditional oath 32 +. Now, after the war, further strengthening of the monarchy could alienate him from the upper and middle strata Italic population, tuned in the republican spirit. In 28 + Octavian took up the abolition of unlawful acts of the triumvirate, and together with his friend, the consul Agrippa, conducted a census and a rigid cleaning of the Senate, which has grown too much and had a total number of undesirable persons. Then, on 13 January 27, he solemnly laid down his emergency powers and has reserved one of the two annual consulates. In gratitude, 16 +- 27, the Senate awarded him the honorary name of August. He called the heir of Caesar not to leave the republic, and Octavian agreed to take over the pacification of the provinces, not to steer. To this end, he was appointed ruler of ten years of very large regions, including Spain (except in the southern region, Baetic), Gaul, Syria and Egypt, and received authority to declare war and conclude treaties. With the exception of those powers that had precedents in the era of the late republic, when such emergency powers were to vote in the Senate given Pompey and Caesar, the state system of the republic was restored. Resumed free elections; magistrates under the leadership of the Senate perform their normal functions; proconsuls, gain power over the provinces for a period of one year, no longer subordinate to the Augusta. On the coins of Octavian was designated as libertatis populi Romani vindex (defender of freedom of the Roman people). However, he retained control over all the legions, with the exception of a few - those who commanded proconsuls Illyria, Macedonia and Africa.
Next three years (27-25 years. BC) held in August in its western provinces, where he finally managed to subdue the restless tribes of North-West of Spain, Asturias and Cantabria. Besides, every year Octavian to stand for the consulate, and, naturally elected to this post. Such a prolonged stay as a consul would not impose an 27 years and therefore become a matter of growing discontent. On the one hand, to know had their claims because of the fact that the chances of a consulate had fallen by half. On the other hand, realized that such a long stay per person in high public office contrary to the law and the spirit of the republic. Discontent culminated in 23, when Aulus Terentius Options Moray, the second consul, and before the faithful ally of Augustus, conspired to assassinate him. Octavian realized that if he wants to avoid the fate of Julius Caesar, he would have to go to the more serious concessions, and from 1 July until 23 BC. August declined from the consulate, then, except for two years (5 and 2 g. BC), never again to seek his. Gaius Octavius was left proconsul their provinces (his reign they did not cease until 17 g.), . however, . order to show, . that his power will last no longer than, . than it will be, . August refused provinces, . which has already been installed world, . - Narbonskoy Gaul (South of Gaul) and Cyprus,
. As compensation, Octavian received some privileges. It was found that, unlike other proconsuls, he does not lose its imperium, ie. command positions in the army, on his return to Rome and get majus imperium, or supreme authority in relation to other proconsul, ie. if necessary, has the right not to take their decisions. August also received the authority to convene the Senate and determine its activity. Finally, he received a lifetime power of the plebeian tribune. The value of this power is not clear. She gave Octaviano certain rights, introduce legislation and veto the orders of the Senate and officials, . but this right in August used in rare cases, . although it might be useful in any dangerous situations,
. It was more a propaganda trick by which Octavian won the support of ordinary people, who believed tribunes defenders and advocates of their rights.
. August in 22 departed for a lengthy trip to the eastern provinces and did not return to Rome until 19 +
. If the Republican opposition was satisfied with the new situation, the people he was not satisfied and offered to establish the dictatorship of Octavian, to an annual consulate with the indefinite extension, as well as several other unusual posts. At 22 and 20 years of people insisted on his election of a consul, but in August refused to accept this position. It seemed that the people were really scared at the possibility that Octavian finally retire to the province and cast them to the Senate. Worried about the threat of riots, . suppress the authorities were not able, . Senate demanded from August to intervene and to celebrate his return at the altar of Fortuna Redux (altar of the goddess of fortune, . condescension towards, . who return home),
. Now the Republicans were willing to make concessions. According to the historian Dio Cassius, the title of "imperium" was assigned to Augustus life. The reliability of this fact is questionable, but there is no doubt that since Octavian had the executive authority in the territory of Rome and the Italian consul at. Legitimacy of his position was now finally approved and no change no longer exposed. August was unanimously elected as pontifex maximus in 12, after the death of Lepidus, who had held this position previously. And in the 2 year BC. it hailed as pater patriae (father of the fatherland), but all these titles were the only manifestations of Honor. In his role as ruler of his province recovered at intervals of five and ten years until his death in 14 AD
. Many disputes arise over whether, . August really had the intention to restore the republican system, or wanted to create a system of dual power, . diarchy, . in which he would have shared the management of the empire between themselves and the Senate, . Gaius Octavius, or simply to maintain the appearance of the republic, . indulging sentiments-class,
. Some of his statements suggest that at first he might have hoped to bring order to the empire, and then retire, handing the reins of the Senate. However, such hopes, if he had once nurtured them and soon fade. August definitely has endeavored to revitalize the magistrates and the Senate in governance, and promoting reforms of the Republican administration. For example, some functions that previously neglected aedile, he transferred to the newly created board of persons authorized by the Senate, such as curators aquarium (responsible for water supply). For aediles responsible for the activities of fire brigades and supply Rome with grain, it was the last of the streamline their functions innovations, which involved personally in August. At the same time he tried to interfere as little as possible in the lawmaking. Octavian kept free elective system, reserving the right to recommend to the people the election of some candidates, which he favored. But at the end of his life this commendatio into a rigid right to nominate a limited number of candidates for election outside the contest. August has made great efforts to obtain from the Senate review of a rotating system of membership, and, although in two cases (18 and 11 years. BC), he had to act in a determined manner, in 4 BC. he finally managed to achieve its original purpose. However, the real power it firmly in the hands and under no circumstances will weaken personal control over the army.
. After 19 + August had legitimate prerogatives, which allowed him to dictate their will in cases of almost any contingency
. Outside of his province, he preferred to use their power to a minimum extent and influence through his personal moral authority (auctoritas). Thus, while Octavian and brought in some laws as a plebeian tribune, the primary law-making in the later period of his reign held consuls who were under his influence. Consuls also provides the Senate, although it is defined in a narrow circle of persons with Augustus at the head. Wearing the title majus imperium, he, however, are much greater than just guide the actions of consuls. Of all his official titles ignored Octavian imperium and preferred tribuncia potestas. He also preferred to be known as the princeps (Princeps), a senior civil servant of the republic.
. Perhaps the most important proof of the fact that Augustus never seriously contemplated the restoration of the republic, is the fact of his constant worries about a potential successor
. Octavian was criticized for wanting to find itself among the members of his family, but the reason for this choice except for personal feelings were serious political considerations. The legions were brought to the family of the Caesars, which was manifested in the early career of Augustus, and the stability of the regime depended on their loyalty. Fate did not give Octaviano sons. His marriage to Scribonius, in 40 BC, brought only daughter, Julia, born in the 39-m BC. On the day of her birth divorced from Scribonius, August 38, he married Drusilla on Libya, which fell passionately in love, and whose husband, Tiberius Claudius Nero, forced to divorce her. The marriage was happy and long (Libya went through in August), but childless, Octavian had only one close relative of the men - Marcus Claudius Marcellus, the son of his sister Octavia. Libya had his children from his first marriage, the future emperor Tiberius and Nero Claudius Drusus, who were settled in the house of Augustus.
The first choice fell on the Emperor Marcellus. He is married to Julia, and it gave him the appropriate promotion. This apparently led to friction with his faithful companion Agrippa, who, to appease, 23 + disappeared from the scene and became a colleague in August in a row proconsuls, getting into their sphere of control East. Marcellus died the following year, and Julia immediately married Agrippa. This marriage brought the two sons, Gaius Caesar (genus. 20 grams), who in August announced his adopted son, and Lucie Caesar (genus. 17 g.). In 18 proconsular powers Agrippa, along with those of the power in August has been extended for another five years, and at the same time, he shared his power with Augustus Tribune.
. Mark Vipsanius Agrippa - Roman general, loyal companion August
. The plan was that in the event of premature death, Octavian (his health was always weak) Agrippa will stay in office and on the right give it to his sons, who in blood and succession were descended from the Caesars
. In 13 Agrippa + powers were again renewed for five years, but the next year he died.
August handed the role of Agrippa, the eldest son of Libya Tiberius, where he married Julia, forced Tiberius to divorce his beloved wife. At 6, the BC. Tiberius received the credentials Tribune for five years, but almost immediately went to Rhodes and refused to take any part in the government. Quarrel became apparent the following year, . when the son of Agrippa, . Gaius Caesar, . fifteen years of age, . was elected consul with a five-year delay of entry into position and declared members of the class of riders princeps juventutis (head of the younger generation) in the 2 year BC,
. Lucius Caesar was awarded the same honors.
Tiberius, who was carrying a full service in Pannonia and Germany as legate of Augustus, was not going to play a secondary role in two yuntsah. Octavian was consistent in its policy of appointing leaders in 1 BC. Guy Caesar on proconsular position, confidence in solving problems of Parthia and Armenia. However, he again had to be disappointed in their hopes. Lucius died in the 2 BC, and Guy - in 4. Augustus had to revert to Tiberius, whom he told his adopted son and led to ten years in the joint management with the authority of the proconsul and a platform. These powers have been renewed and extended in 14 + BC. shortly before the death of Augustus.

Life Story (Part II)

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