Comments for Charlemagne
Childhood and youth of Charlemagne.
Charlemagne (Latin. Carolus Magnus, fr. Charlemagne, it. Charles the Great) was born, according to the researchers, 2 April 742, the son of Pepin the Short and Bertrady or Bertha, daughter of Count Lansky Kaliberta. Information about the place where he was born, contradictory: Locks specified Ingelheim near Mainz and Karlhaym near Munich and Aachen and Salzburg. Carl was the eldest son of Pepin the Short and the grandson of Charles Martel, winner of the Arabs at Poitiers in 732. Marriage between the parents was legalized only in the 749 year.
The largest of the Germanic kingdoms that arose in Western Europe after the collapse of the Roman Empire, was the Frankish. Led francs for nearly 300 years were the kings of the Merovingian dynasty. By 7 century Merovingian degenerated into inactive and petty rulers.
Charles Martel - the founder of the Carolingian
Because of the chronic weakness of the monarchs real political power in the Kingdom has the closest associate of the King, referred to as mayor of the palace. In 751, Pepin the Short, scion of an ancient clan Carolingian, Merovingian has consistently supplied the mayor of the palace, he decided to end the illusory power of their masters. With the support of the Pope, he dismissed the last of the Merovingian and put the crown on himself. First Carolingian king, he expanded and strengthened the Frankish power in close alliance with the pope. When anointing Pepin to the throne, which made Pope Stephen II in the Abbey of Saint-Denis near Paris in the year 754, was anointed as his sons Charles and Carloman.
Differing from the earliest years of good health, fearlessness and gentle disposition, as well as hunting for teaching and an outstanding intellect, Carl was a child his father was declared heir to the throne. Charles, at the announcement of his successor and anointing with the Pope, was only 12 years old, but he accompanied his father in the campaigns and acquainted himself with the affairs of governance. Unusual natural ability gave the young heir to the opportunity not only to learn that he had been taught, but also to show a certain independence. Due to this, he was still a young man became a direct assistant to Pepin the Short.
When Sept. 24 768 by Pepin died, the kingdom, according to his will, got two sons, Karl and Karlomanu. Franchi, solemnly gathered general assembly, approved the kings of both brothers, and set the condition that Karl ran the northern and western regions of the kingdom, and Carloman - central and south-east to the border with Italy and Bayern. The terms were accepted, and each of the Kings got their share. Although theoretically the kingdom remain undivided, but in fact each of his sons became the independent ruler of its.
Pepin the Short - King of the Franks, father of Charlemagne
The agreement between them was maintained with great difficulty, because many of Carloman entourage tried to embroil the brothers and even bring the case before the war. However, fraught with the threat of disintegration of the Kingdom of the situation culminated when Carloman died suddenly in December of the year 771. Carloman's widow and his two sons fled to Italy to seek protection from Desiderius, King of the Lombards. Carl swiftly moved into the region and succeeded his brother Carloman on the subjects of the oath of allegiance, after which he was hailed by universal consent one king of the Franks.
. According to biographer Charles Eyngarda, the King was very simple and moderate in his habits
. In ordinary days, his outfit did not differ from the clothing of commoners. Wine he drank little (dinner drink no more than three cups) and hated drunkenness. Lunch on weekdays, it consisted of only four dishes, not counting the roast, which themselves hunters served directly on a spit, and that Charles preferred to any other food. During the meal, he listened to music or reading. He took the exploits of the ancients, as well as the composition of St. Augustine's "City of God". After lunch in the summer, Karl ate some apples and drank another cup, then he stripped naked, resting two or three hours. At night he slept restlessly: 4-5 times woke up and even got up from bed. During the morning dressing Karl took friends, and, if there was an urgent matter, which found it difficult to solve without it, listening to the disputing parties and punish. At the same time he gave orders to his servants and ministers throughout the day. He was eloquent, and so easily express their thoughts, he could pass for a conductor. Without limiting the native Frankish speech, Carl worked on a lot of foreign languages and mastered the Latin so that he could express himself in it as in their native language in Greek more understood than spoken. Persistently engaged in the various sciences, he thought highly of scientists, showing them great respect. Charles himself studied grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, and especially astronomy, so that he could skillfully evaluate church holidays and watch the movement of stars. He tried to write and to this end is constantly kept under his pillow boards for writing, so in their spare time to teach hand drawing the letters, but his work, begun too late, had little success. Church in all the years he was deeply respected and strictly observed all the rituals.
With the death of his brother Karl overnight became the most powerful ruler in Western Europe. His tenure covered a large part of modern France, Belgium, a large part of the Netherlands and West Germany, and nominally and Bavaria, which then included most of modern Austria. Charles immediately took up the strengthening of its new holdings and expanded their borders to the east, north and south.
During the life of his brother Carloman Charles began his first independent war in Aquitaine in 769, the revolt against Gunolda. Carl untied her, hoping to help his brother. But even though my brother has not had promised him assistance, Karl continued strongly conceived campaign and finished it earlier than their persistence and determination has everything you wanted. He Gunolda forced to flee to Gascony. Do not leave him there alone, Charles crossed the river Garonne and persuaded the Duke Gascon issuing rebel. At the beginning of his reign Charles for a short period suppressed the rebellion in Aquitaine. Later, Charlemagne, the final incorporation of the most Romanized region to the crown, replacing many of the local rulers of the Franks and turning it into a vassal kingdom, headed by his son Louis set.
. Shortly after the death of his brother Charles rebelled against the Saxons inhabited the north, . Gentiles, . Germanic lived along the banks of the rivers Elbe and Weser, . who continued to resist attempts by the Anglo-Saxon and Frankish missionaries to convert them to Christianity and attacked the Frankish area in the lower reaches of the Rhine,
. The first campaign against the Saxons took place in year 772. At first, the conquest of the Saxons and the baptism took place with deceptive ease, but soon began rioting and waivers of the new faith. It was the most protracted and bitter war in his reign. With breaks, stopping and resuming again, it lasted 33 years and cost Franks biggest losses since the Saxons, like all the nations of Germany, were sufficiently united and committed to their pagan cults. Border with them almost everywhere held to a bare plain, and therefore was uncertain. Every day here there were murders, robberies fires. Annoyed that the Franks in the end found it necessary to start a war against neighbors. Invading the year 772 in Saxony, Charles Eresburg destroyed the fortress and overthrew the pagan sanctuary - the idol of the Saxons Irminsц¦l. "My victory would not be complete if I failed to destroy the idol!" - Said Charlemagne during the destruction of pagan shrines. At the time of Saxons came to obedience and Charles took up the Italian affairs.
Friendship historically linked francs Lombards, conquered northern Italy. However, in the middle of the 8-century father of Charles Pepin violated this tradition. He has twice invaded the region of the Lombards, to reflect their onslaught on the Pope's tenure, which ruled as monarch, the Pope. In 772 the Lombards recaptured the city, which claimed Pope, and threatened to have himself to Rome. Pope, not being able to own forces to achieve the desired resolution of the dispute, and not wanting to give Desiderio, King of the Lombards, appealed for help to Charles - his adherents of state -
. Charles was not slow to respond to the call of the Holy Father and led to re-organized and armed his troops marched into the country of the Lombards, . previously divorced with a daughter of Desiderius Dezideratoy (arranged marriage, this mother of Charles Bertrada, . dreamed of an alliance with the Lombards),
. Strong Frankish army went to the Alps. Lombards was closed and consolidated passes. Charlemagne decided to workaround. By dropping the fearless Frankish detachment made his way to the enemy from the rear. Fearing encirclement, Desiderius passes left and retreated to his capital, Pavia, hoping to escape unscathed thanks to its thick walls. Franks fought to pursue the enemy, along the way capturing numerous towns of Lombardy, and besieged Pavia. This is how the siege of Pavia by a monk, a contemporary of the Franco-Lombard War: "As soon as the army of Charles becoming more and more approaching, the brilliance lit up the weapons for people trapped in the city, day, darker than any night. Finally, . Carl seemed to myself, . This man of iron, . head, . coated iron helmet, . with iron gloves on his hands, . with an iron chest with an iron armor on their shoulders marble, . holding high in his left hand an iron spear, . and in his right invincible sword,
. Even the hip, from which take off belts to make it easier to sit on horseback, Carl were covered with iron strips. Shield it was made of iron, his horse had the strength and color of iron. All those who went before the monarch, beside him and behind him, the whole main part of the troops had the same weapons and wore iron boots. Iron covered the fields and great roads. Iron tip glistening in the sun. It is a solid iron bore people with yet more hard-heart. Glitter and the roar of weapons of terrified people in the besieged city.
. - How much iron, alas! How much iron! - Shouted the citizens of Pavia. "
. This description of the monk-chronicler, of course, suffers from an exaggeration, but enough, if it had at least some truth.
. Desiderius, however, did not give up and hard to reflect attacks francs
. The siege dragged on, and Charles, leaving it to his military commanders and giving them the most accurate orders, went, accompanied by a numerous and brilliant retinue, to Rome, where he was urged to invite Pope.
On the way to Rome, Charles seized Verona. In April 774, on the eve of Easter, Carl Franks approached the ancient city.
Meeting with Charlemagne by Pope Adrian I near the gates of Rome
Not far from Rome's king of the Franks Charles met the highest authorities of the city, expelled the Pope welcome the distinguished guest. They are having with a city flag, bowed before him, Carl. Then he was welcomed by representatives of the Roman people and students of all urban schools, with palm branches in their hands and singing hymns. At the very gates of the city was waiting for his priesthood with an ancient cross, the most revered in Rome and never before carried out of the church. Charlemagne dismounted, came on foot in Rome. Charles reacted to the Pope Hadrian I with the greatest respect: before you go to Adrian's hand, he with a prayer on his lips kiss every rung of the ladder the old chapel of St. Peter. Carl Pope blessed and wished him a quick subdue the Lombards and attach them to the country to the Frankish kingdom.
"No, Father, - said Charlemagne, - I want to win, but did not conquer. I will be called 'King of the Franks and Lombards', so as not to offend the pride of the people, who hope to win. "
Winner of the Lombards resumed so-called "gift Pepin, giving rise to the Papal States. After spending some time in Rome, where he had commended the unprecedented honor, and where Charles, in turn, showed the most obvious proof of his piety, nobility, and high intelligence, the Frankish king returned to his army, besieging Pavia.
. In early June, 774 years, unable to endure the hardships of the siege, Desiderius came from Pavia and submitted to the winners
. Karl took over the capital of the Lombards and the Royal Palace.
The coronation of Charlemagne in 774 to the kingdom of the Lombards
Defeated enemies he made to take the vows, and sent him to the monastery that he did not sow discord in the country and has not initiated the Lombards to rebellion against the domination francs. Then Carl went to the capital of his kingdom - Aachen.
But not for a long time king of the Franks had to rest. Already in the year 775, led a large army in Saxony Karl plunged down to the river Okkera to suppress the rebellion and left strong garrisons in Eresburge and Sigiburge. But next spring Saxons took Eresburg back. Then the king of the Franks tried to create on the border with Saxony fortified line. In 776 he founded a fortress Karlsburg and baptized many of the Saxons. In the 777 year from all over the country of the Saxons to him were the masses of local residents and expressed his resignation.
Then Charles decided to take the southern borders of his kingdom. In 778, he took advantage of an appeal for help from the Spanish Muslims of Zaragoza, who fought for independence from the Emir of Cordoba from the Umayyad dynasty, and his large army, recruited from subordinates and allied nations, has passed through the Pyrenees. This campaign that seldom happened to Carl, was a failure, his army failed to take Zaragoza.
. Monu francs in Ronselvanskom Gorge
. On the way back, when the army moved by the extended system, as to forced the mountain gorges, Basques ambushed in Ronselvanskom gorge on the tops of rocks and fell on top of the unit, was covering the convoy, after killing every last person
. Among the dead was the nephew of Charles Margrave Bretanskoy brand Roland. This is relatively unimportant episode was a historical reason for the emergence of the great French medieval epic The Song of Roland, from which subsequently rise to a series of stories about Charlemagne. Despite the failure of the Spanish expedition 778 years, important fact of the transition Franks Pyrenees. Soon, the Franks took several military expeditions in the Pyrenees. The result of their conquests was the region lying between the Pyrenees and the river Ebro. In the conquered territory was established Border Region - Spanish brand, later renamed the Barcelona County.
. On his return Charles waited and other troubles: Saxons-Westphalia, who rallied Widukind have forgotten their oath and ostentatious baptism and again went to war
. Cross the border at the Rhine, they went up on the right bank of the river to Kobletsa, burning and pillaging everything in their path, and then, laden with rich booty, returned home. In 779, Charles the Great invaded Saxony and took almost the entire country, anywhere without encountering resistance. Again, as before, in his camp was a lot of the Saxons, who gave the hostages and swear allegiance. However, the king of the Franks is no longer believed in their love of peace. In the year 780 Charlemagne came again and went to Saxony to the Elbe.
Somehow sinking Saxony, King of the Franks at the end of 780 years arrived in Italy. In the spring of 781, in Rome at the request of Charles Pope baptized his four sons, giving him the name of Pepin, and put the crown on the head of the child, after which his father loudly announced his willingness to trust the new King for Italian. Then Pepin became officially known as the "king of the Lombards.
Without interrupting fierce and held with varying degrees of success of the war against the Saxons, Charles annexed to the kingdom until then semi-autonomous Bavaria. In 781, he forced his cousin Tassilo III, . Duke of Bavaria from the dynasty Agilolfingov, . an oath of allegiance, . Tassilo in 787 was forced to renew the act, . in 788, the king of the Franks brought charges against him in the conspiracy, . deprived of the Duchy and entered the monastery,
. Six years Tassilo again gave out of nothingness, and he said to abandon all claim to the ducal throne of Bavaria for himself and his heirs.
782 newly Charlemagne devoted Saxon Cases. All Karl Saxony is divided into administrative districts, each headed by set of graphs. Learning that the border lands invaded Slavs-Serbs, he sent his army against them. But just at this time from Denmark returned Widukind.
The handle of the sword of Charlemagne
The whole country immediately rose. Many francs were slain, the Christian churches destroyed. Troops sent against the Serbs, was ambushed in the mountain Zuntal and was almost completely destroyed by rebels. Charlemagne assembled a new army, was in Verdun, summoned the elders of the Saxon and forced them to give hostages 4500. They are all in one day were beheaded. At the same time was promulgated the so-called "first chapter house of Saxony, which threatened dire punishments for any transgression against the Church and the Frankish administration. Next three years, Karl almost never left Saxony. During the war, he beat a stubborn Saxons in open battles and retaliatory raids, took hundreds of hostages, which was taken from the country, destroying villages and farms recalcitrant. In the summer of 785, the Franks crossed the Weser. Bloodless many defeats Widukind tied with Carl talks and asked for mercy. In the autumn he went to the king in Attini, was baptized and received from his hands the rich gifts. It was a turning point in the Saxon war. After that, the resistance of the vanquished was gradually weakened.
At the end of 786 years, Karl spoke out against the Duke of Benevento Arihiza, who wanted to restore its authority under the Kingdom of the Lombards. At the beginning of 787 years, Charles was already in Rome and then went to Capua. Arihiz retreated to Salerno and from there sent to his son Charles for talks. He promised absolute obedience to the king not only ravaged its territory. Carl agreed. Then the Duke himself and his people brought the king of the Franks oath of allegiance. All of Italy to the south of the acknowledged power of Charles.
In 789, Charles made an expedition against the Slavic tribe lyutichey (Wiltz). The Franks have put in two bridges over the Elbe River, crossed the river and with the support of allies (the Saxons, Frisians, obodritov and Lusatian Serbs) struck a terrible blow lyuticham. Although, according to the chronicles, they fought hard, but resist the enormous forces of the Allies could not. Charles drove to the river Wiltz Pena, destroying everything in its path. Their capital surrendered, and the prince Drahovo surrendered and gave hostages.
. One of the most outstanding achievements of Charles in the eyes of the conquest of the Avars were probably close to the people of the Huns, who conquered previously part of the Roman Empire province of Pannonia, that is, land to the east and south of Bavaria
. For two and a half centuries, Avars amassed considerable wealth - through their invasions and cash payments, which they exacted from the Byzantine Empire. These treasures have been collected in the forts accident - huge ring-shaped fortress was called the ring. It was alleged that the chief of the rings was protected by nine sequential walls.
In the summer of 791, the army of Charlemagne in three different ways, invaded the country and the Avars reached the Vienna Woods, where were their main building. Leaving their camp, Avars fled into the interior of the country, the Franks pursued them to the confluence of the Danube River Rab. Further prosecution has been terminated because of the extensive losses of horses. The army returned to Regensburg, loaded with big booty. All year, Karl spent in Regensburg.
But the new campaign against the Avars he diverted the revolt of the Saxons. Swing it surpassed even the events of 785 years. By the Frisians and Saxons joined the Slavs. Everywhere were destroyed temples and killed Frankish garrisons. In the summer of 794 Charlemagne and his son Charles Young led the two armies invaded Saxony. Seeing themselves surrounded, Saxons masses rushed to Eresburgu, taking an oath of loyalty, gave hostages, and returned to Christianity. In autumn 795, the king of the Franks with a strong army again ravaged Saxony and came to the lower Elbe. Learning that Saxons killed his ally, Prince obodritov, he subjected the country to secondary devastation, took the hostages to 7000 and returned to Aachen. As soon as he left, Saxons rebelled in Nordalbingii, a country north of the Elbe. Karl had to turn against them.
Meanwhile Prince horutansky Voynomir resumed the war against the Avars, took them to the fortified ring and seized a rich booty. In the summer of 796, the son of Charlemagne Pepin again attacked the Avars, devastated the whole of their country and destroyed to the ground ring. The war with the Avars lasted for many years, and when it ended, Pannonia was devastated, and the power of the Avars was broken. Eric of Friuli, the commander of Charles, and his son Pepin managed to seize the treasury Avars. According Eyngarda, the war with the accident was the most significant and bitter after the Saxon and demanded that Franks is very costly. After this campaign, according to the biographer of Charlemagne, in Pannonia remained alive not one of its inhabitants, and the place where was the residence of Hagan, has not preserved and traces of human activity. Horrible people of accidents, over the centuries, bringing terror to the whole of Eastern Europe ceased to exist.
Meanwhile, Charles and his sons, Charles and Louis, had fought in Saxony. The army combed the entire country until Nordalbangii, and then returned to Aachen with the hostages and the huge production. In the late summer - early autumn Charles organized an ambitious expedition to Saxony by land and by water, devastating everything in its path, he went to Nordalbingii. On all sides of the country to him ran Saxons and Friesians, giving a large number of hostages. During the expedition Karl resettled in Saxony francs, and many of the Saxons led to an in Francia. He decided not to leave the country, even in winter. Taking a whole yard, Carl situated on the Weser, ordered to build barracks for the soldiers and called the parking Gerstel. All winter the king of the Franks spent here, doing Saxon affairs. In the spring of 798, Karl has undergone a complete devastation of the land between the Weser and Elbe. At the same time the allied Franks obodrity smashed nordalbingov have Sventany, interrupting to 4000 Saxons. After this king of the Franks was able to return home, leading to a one and a half thousand prisoners. In the summer of 799, the King with his sons went to the last campaign against the Saxons. He himself remained in Paderborn. Meanwhile, Karl Young completed subdue Nordalbingii. As usual, Carl returned home, leading to a lot of the Saxons, with their wives and children to settle them in the inner regions of the state.
. Charlemagne - Emperor.
. Carolina Power stretched from Frisia in the North Sea to the area of the Lombards and the north-eastern Adriatic
. In the west, the kingdom by the Atlantic Ocean and the south-west is subject to Charles was a large part of northern Spain. In addition, Charles owned the greater part of Italy and collected tribute from many areas in the east. In order to ensure border security in the border areas has been formed a system of so-called marks, areas which were headed by margraves. Natural outcome of such a large territorial growth was the idea of reviving the Western Roman Empire, and the end of the 8 century courtiers and dignitaries Karl increasingly called for such a recovery.
In autumn 800, Karl went to Rome and spent almost six months, going feud between Pope Leo III and the local nobility.
The coronation of Charlemagne crowned emperor by Pope Leo III
25 December 800, on Christmas Charlemagne heard celebratory Mass at the Cathedral of St. Peter. Suddenly my father went up to his guest, and put on his head the imperial crown. All were in the Cathedral of the Franks and Romans in unison shouted: "Long live the victorious Carl August, crowned by God the great and mirotvoryaschy Roman Emperor". While all this was not a surprise to Charles, he said, according to Eyngarda, at first pretended that he was dissatisfied with "willful" act of Pope. Charles even claimed that, had he known in advance about the intentions of the pope, he would be in that day did not go to church, regardless of the Nativity. He did this, apparently, in order to reassure the court of Constantinople. Hatred of the Byzantine emperors, once emerged, Carl, however, moved with great patience. Finally, the Emperor of Byzantium come to recognize the new title of lord francs. Charles took the title of Emperor, but the creation of a new Western Roman Empire did not change the image of the board and brought no territorial gains.
The coronation in the Basilica of St. Peter's was one of the fruits of the close alliance between church and state, which Carl diligently planted. Deeply devout (he attended church four times a day) and well versed in theology, . Karl was concerned about how the material, . and the spiritual needs of his subjects, and therefore considered himself as the defender of the Church of God-given, . as well as its ruler and lawgiver,
. With Pope Adrian I (772-795) Charles ties of close friendship, and to Leo III (795-816), he chose patronizing, and sometimes admonitory tone. Many advisors and officials of the clergy were Charles, and he rewarded loyal servants, giving them the rich abbeys and bishoprics. Carl took a direct part in the formulation of arguments against the heresy adoptsianskoy, conceived and distributed the bishop and the bishop of Toledo Elipand urgelsky Felix. He led the fight against the iconoclasts of the church and insisted that the pope had included filioque (the position on the procession of the Holy Spirit not only from the Father but from the Son) in the creed.
. Emperor Charlemagne
. Karl generously handed out to churches and monasteries in cash and land grants, undertaking reforms in the rites and liturgies, and issued numerous decrees had to force priests, monks and lay people to observe religious rules in life
. He cared about the education of priests, and tried to eliminate many of the abuses in ecclesiastical matters arising during his predecessors. At the same time start to teach Charles conquered peoples to the Church, in the campaigns of his army was accompanied by missionaries, and he accepted the assurances of submission of the Saxons, Slavs and Avars only when they accepted Christianity.
In 804 he was brought to an end an exhausting Saxon war. Karl arrived in Gollenshtedt and carried out Nordalbingii 10 thousand Saxon families in the inner regions of the state. Deserted Nordalbingiya was transferred obodritam. In 808 the Danish king Gottfried, in alliance with the Slavs attacked Polabian obodritov and overlaid them with tribute. Before leaving, he destroyed Rerik. The emperor sent against the Danes, son of Charles. In Nordalbingii, again selected by obodritov, built several forts, thus was the beginning of the Danish border stamp. To reflect the Norman invasions Karl told to build ships on the rivers, which flow from Gaul and Northern Germany. In all the seaports and the mouths of navigable rivers, on his orders were arranged parking for ships and patrol boats on display, in order to prevent the invasion of the enemy. This was the last great war when the life of Charlemagne. For forty years since the adoption of its power, it is almost twice extended the limits of power francs.
. The cultural achievements under Charlemagne.
. Charlemagne purposefully encouraged secular culture, inviting to his capital, Aachen philologists, architects, musicians, and astronomers from all the lands of the empire, as well as from Ireland and England
. Under the leadership of the great Anglo-Saxon scholar Alcuin, . which was actually Carl "Minister of Education" the empire (in 796 year, . retiring from the court, . He became Abbot of Tours), . and with the participation of such famous figures, . as Theodulf of OrlцLans, . Paul Deacon, . Eyngard and many others (all of them were in the informal "Palace Academy") has been actively revived education, . received the name of the Carolingian Renaissance,
Charlemagne takes scholar Alcuin, in fact the Minister of Education of the empire
When it revived study of classical Latin, encouraged annalistika, but from the pen of talented courtiers poured out a flood of imitative poetry. Charles himself had borrowed from Alcuin grammar lessons and began to compile a grammar Germanic languages. He has also worked on rectifying the texts of the Gospels and is already well advanced in years, trying to learn the difficult art of calligraphy (mention this fact to belong Eyngardu biography of Charles was the basis for a false representation, . that he allegedly did not know how to write),
. Ordered collection of traditional German short of heroic poems, unfortunately, not preserved. Everywhere in the monasteries and churches, new schools, it was envisaged that the education received and the children of the poor. Under the leadership of Alcuin in the monasteries revived or establish scriptorium (facilities for storage of correspondence and manuscripts), . where the correspondence was used a great font, . referred to as the "Carolingian minuscule", . with a copy is performed so rapidly, . that the lion's share of the heritage of antiquity come down to us is the efforts of the era,
. The momentum of learning Charlemagne, remained in force for a century after his death.
. Development of the state under Charlemagne.
. Rehabilitation and construction of roads and bridges, abandoned land settlement and development of new, construction of palaces and churches, the introduction of rational methods of agriculture - this is not a complete list of achievements of Charlemagne
Inside interior of the palace chapel in Aachen, built under Charlemagne
He built a bridge across the Rhine at Mainz and made an unsuccessful attempt to connect the Rhine to the Danube Canal. The palace chapel in Aachen (the latter was built on the model of the Church of San Vitale in Ravenna and decorated with mosaics and marble exported from Italy) contemporaries considered one of the wonders of the world. Carl entered the order and uniformity in the chaos prevailed everywhere weights and measures, carried out the reform of financial system. Often moving its officials, when the Lombards were sent to Aquitaine, the Franks in Bavaria, and so on, Karl tried to stop the abuse of graphs and bishops of power and centralize power in the state. Power was divided into missatica (District), who periodically visited missi dominici, ie. royal emissaries. The Commission, composed of one clergy and one lay person, studied court decisions and financial documents, listened to complaints about the local rulers, eradicate falsehood, corruption and greed in the administration and society. In general, Karl published 65 articles of the laws, which included more than 1000 individual orders. All these decisions were taught people how to fight, how to cultivate the land, how to trade, how to sue, and so. For the time article - the chapter house of Charlemagne had great significance.
Recent years, Charlemagne.
In recent years, the life of Charlemagne were marred by a number of tragedies and setbacks. Here and the resumption of attacks by the Normans on the northern outskirts of the empire, and happened in a very short time leaving the life of his wife and sister of Charles and his sons, Pepin and Charlemagne. As a result, the end of the year 813 Charlemagne had to call for a very flabby son of Louis of Aquitaine, later known as Louis the Pious. The emperor, called together a solemn assembly of noble Franks of the kingdom, appointed him by common consent his co-ruler and heir, and then put a crown on his head and ordered to name him Emperor and Augustus.
Louis I the Pious - the third son of Charlemagne and his heir
Shortly thereafter, struck a strong fever, Karl took to his bed. In early January to a fever joined pleurisy.
Charlemagne died in Aachen on Jan. 28 814. His body with deep sorrow that has engulfed all the nations subordinate to Charles, was moved to Aachen cathedral built them, and placed in a copper plated sarcophagus. Above hung a gold sarcophagus plaque with the inscription: "Here lies the body of Charles, the great and orthodox Emperor, who gloriously expanded the borders of the state of the Franks and drove them happily for forty-seven years. He died 70 years in the winter of the Lord's 814-e ". In 1165, at the urging of Frederick Barbarossa, antipope Paschal III ranked him a saint. German poet in a brief quatrain described the famous king of the Franks as follows:
. Countless ratey leader,
. Tribes of the lord and father,
. Science friend and protector,
. Legislator and sage:
. Results conquests and reforms of Charlemagne.
. Empire, founded by Charlemagne, already split over the next century
. When weak sovereign, who turned out to be his son and grandsons, the centrifugal forces of feudalism tore it apart.
This monogram, including consonants of the Latin name Karolus, Charlemagne subscribed to important documents
However, the implementation of union of church and state has predetermined the nature of European society for centuries to come. Educational and ecclesiastical reform Karl retained value for a long time after his death. An extensive body of tales and legends turned into a cycle of novels about Charlemagne. In the early Middle Ages the name became synonymous with the mighty Carl ruler: on behalf of the Latin form of Charles - Carolus - the rulers of individual states began in Central and Eastern Europe, called "The King". Few powerful rulers who ascended to the thrones of Europe, considered the historical Charlemagne as the supreme example of sovereignty. Holy Roman Empire of the German nation, . that tracing their origins to the coronation of Charlemagne in Rome, . existed for a thousand years, . until it was destroyed by another great conqueror - Napoleon (who, . the word, . also referred to himself as the successor of Charlemagne).,