William the Conqueror( The King of England)
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Biography William the Conqueror
William I of England (1027.28 - 1087), future king of England was born in 1027 or 1028. Was the illegitimate son of Robert the Devil, Duke of Normandy, and Arlette, the daughter of a tanner Faleysa. In 1034, Robert made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. Without a legitimate sons, he told Norman nobles recognize the legitimate heir of William. Upon learning of the death of Robert during this campaign (1035), they fulfilled his request, although the young prince was still a boy. Next twelve years were a period of rampant anarchy and headstrong barons. Three of William's guardians were killed, and long time family feared for him, believing that his life may suffer the same fate. After a hard school of life, William has found remarkable abilities in the conduct of war and governance. He was only twenty years old when he was with his overlord Henry I, King of France, quelled the revolt erupted in the provinces Bessin and Kotangen. The rebels wanted to overthrow the Duke, and put in his place the ruler of his cousin Guy Brioni. By strengthening its army troops of King Henry, William met with the rebels and defeated them at Val-es-Dune, near Kaena Point (1047). The conspirators were not stopped, but the victory of the young Duke of highly strengthened its position.
Flag of William the Conqueror
A year later he joined the army of Henry, to fight against their common enemy of Geoffrey Martel, Count of Anjou. With the agreement of local residents Jeffrey conquered the fortified frontier town in the province of Alencon. Duke besieged fortress, took her revenge on the townspeople, and assault, mocked by Wilhelm for his ignoble origin. In 1049 he captured the castle Domfron. belonged to the Anjou.
In 1051 the Duke visited England, and, according to many historians, during this visit, the English King Edward the Confessor, which consisted of kinship with William, promised him the throne of England. Two years later, Wilhelm again signaled his intention to occupy the English throne. Being married to Matilda, daughter of Baldwin V of Flanders. Matilda ancestor through the maternal line was the English King Alfred the Great. The wedding took place despite the ban of the Catholic Church to enter into marriages between relatives, which was imposed by the Pontifical Council of Rheims in 1049. Ultimately, however, Pope Nicholas II allowed to marry (1059). Performing penance, William and his wife founded the Abbey of St. Stephen and St. Toritsy in Caen. But this marriage has complicated the political situation. Alarmed by the close proximity of Normandy with Flanders, Henry I, joined forces with the troops of Geoffrey Martel and started a war with William. In Normandy, the Allies invaded twice. And each time the outcome of the campaign was the decisive Norman victory. The invasion in 1054 ended with a victory at Mortemere. In 1058 the French rearguard was cut to pieces with Varaville River Dive. In the interwar period, William has strengthened its position by annexing Mayen to offset their costs of the war with Angevins. Shortly after the defeat at Varaville Henry I and Geoffrey Martel died. William immediately finally conquered Mayen belonging Angevin dynasty, making it the ostensible purpose of Count Herbert II, after whose death in 1062 Mayen was added to Normandy through official channels.
Unplanned visit to Normandy in 1064 de facto ruler, Harold II, toppled from power by Edward the Confessor, William the increased claims to the English throne. Obviously, Harold promised to support the Duke in his intentions. Ability to invade England in 1066 had the. After the death of Edward and the coronation of Harold II (then William Harold accused of perjury and used it as a pretext for the invasion and conquest of the corona, the Confessor promised if he would not be heirs). However, William was faced with great difficulties, trying to enlist the support of the Norman nobility to this campaign. He used some persuasion, the threat. In the rest of the obstacles to an invasion was not. William secured the neutrality germanskogo Emperor Henry IV and the approval of Pope Alexander II. Duke concluded a profitable alliance with Tostig, Harold's brother, expelled from England several years earlier. Thanks invasion Tostig in northern England William and his men landed smoothly in Pevensi.
Reconstruction of the ship of William the Conqueror
This happened on Sept. 28, 1066, and October 14 at the Battle of Hastings, Harold's army was defeated. At Christmas time William was crowned at Westminster.
But it was another five years before Duke took over the west and the north of England. In early 1067 he went around the south, collecting fees, taking away land from those who fought against him, and building castles. His success has decided to celebrate William of Normandy. However, as soon as he crossed the English Channel, in Northumbria, Wales and Kent rebellion broke out, and in December the Duke had to go back. Throughout 1068 William sent troops against the people of Exeter and York, who rose in rebellion under the leadership of the supporters of Harold. In 1069, in Durham, was killed by the British Norman Robert Kamins, who gave William County Northumbria. At the same time in the north of England, heir to the English king proclaimed Edgar Atelinga, the last of the dynasty zapadnosakskoy. Danish king, also had its own views on the English throne, he sent his fleet to the aid of the insurgents. By joining forces, the Danes and the British took New York, despite the enhanced protection of his two Norman garrisons. Hurried to New York, William forced the Danes to return to the ships and besieged. At the same time the king has subjected the land to the north of Durham such devastation that the traces of destruction were visible even after sixty years. However, to the English aristocracy, he reacted with a visionary mercy. Commander of the Danish fleet jarl (Earl of the Scandinavians) Osburn was bribed and took their ships. In early 1070 the accession of the northern lands of England was completed campaign army of William of Cheterskie swamps, where the ruler of this county, he put his own man.
. Measures that William took to shore up his power, his contemporaries were writing in great detail, but in the chronological order they are difficult to recover
. Section provinces took place between supporters of William, obviously, along with the conquest of the country. At each stage of the gains of one of the followers of the Duke received his award. Thus, formed extensive, but scattered throughout the country fiefdoms, listed (in 1086) in "Land inventory" of England (cadastre). County during the reign of kings zapadnosaksonskih have declined. New graphs associated with William the ties of blood and friendship, owned by individual estates. Outside the royal domain was much smaller vassals sworn to the King and subordinate to the royal jurisdiction. Former system of governance through the sheriffs and county courts and district Wilhelm left unchanged, but the people who were awarded the William lands owned by them on Norman law and were in a close personal relationship with the king. However, the Duke made the most influential members of the Norman nobles recognize and decisions of local courts. Thus, the old tax system is supported royal power and brings order in the feudal life of the country. And the king, having vast personal possessions, almost did not depend on their own tax vassals. Despite the dissatisfaction expressed about William issued laws on the use of the forest and the imposition of excessive taxes, Duke managed to win the respect of his English subjects. Over time, they recognized its legitimate heir of Edward the Confessor and began to treat him as a defender of the feudal oppression. This attitude can be attributed to the British that the Duke in the first place he respected the law, as well as the fact that in his time, confirming the laws of Edward, he has received support from the church. Entries in the land book suggests that virtually all representatives of the English nobility were deprived of their lands, although so William had to do only with those who raised arms against him. The British were largely excluded from all important positions both in church and in the State. Data on the policies of William after 1071 are scarce and contradictory. Probably, the main attention he paid to govern the country, dispensing with the legal and financial institutions. Refined in subsequent kings - Henry I, youngest son of William, and Henry II of the new dynasty of Plantagenet. Very few of his assistants became really famous people. William Fitz-Hereford, Earl of Hereford, the right hand of the Duke of Normandy, died during the civil war in Flanders (1071). Odo, bishop of Bayeux, half brother of William, Duke lost favor and was in prison for treason (1082). Another half-brother of William, Robert Mortensky, Earl of Cornwall, has shown ability to govern the country. The eldest son of Duke Robert, although he had the title of Count Mayen, has only his father's orders. And another son, the future King William II, Red, always helped the duke, has never held an official post. Conqueror distrusted the two prelates: Lanfranc of Canterbury and Geoffrey Koutenskomu. In affairs of the state they attended no less than in the affairs of the church. But the king himself worked hard: participated in the meetings of the court, led councils and ceremonies, and, finally, conducting military operations.
White Tower is most associated with the Tower of London London. Its construction began in 1066. William the Conqueror, but he did not live up to its completion. Since then she served as a fortress and as the residence of the kings (Henry VIII and his descendants), as a warehouse, as the mint, a weapons cache and as prison
In 1072 William made a campaign against Malcolm, King of Scotland. He married the sister of Edgar Atelinga Margaret, and began to incite rebellion the British. Seeing the army of the Duke, the enemy immediately surrendered, took vassalage and agreed to issue Atelinga Edgar, who immediately gave the land and allowed the court of William. From Scotland the king returned to Mayen, whose residents, taking advantage of riots in 1069, was forced to leave their land Norman garrisons. William was not difficult to conquer the county, although the rebels and helped the Count Fulk of Anjou (1073). Conspiracy Earl of Hereford and Norfolk, which participated Count Northampton, was discovered by Lanfranc in the absence of the King. But William found it necessary to return to resolve the issue of punishment and to stop the unrest and dissatisfaction with the British. The decision on the penalty count Northemptonskogo was taken by Duke after much hesitation, though, and fully complies with English law. Such ill-treatment of a person, it is believed that many believe to be innocent, was one of the dark spots in the career of William. In 1076, Duke went to Brittany, to catch the fugitive Dukes of Norfolk, but Philip, King of France, came to the aid of the Bretons. And William had to retreat before the suzerain. Several years were marred by a quarrel between the king and his eldest son Robert. In 1083-1085 years in Mayen rose the second uprising, in 1085 before England came to that Knut the Holy, King of Denmark, is going to lay claim to their possessions in England. His idea was not successful, but gave occasion for the convening of a famous collection of free citizens in Salisbury. It William swore an oath to all landowners of England to respect their rights while receiving in response to the feudal oath, not only from their immediate vassals, but all arervassalov, obliging them to undertake military service in favor of the King (1085).
. Seeing that the danger has not passed, the Duke took up the compilation of "Land Inventory, England (1086), clarifying the responsibilities of the feudal lords to the King
. In 1087 he crossed the French province Veksin to strike back at the garrison for the Manta raids, carried them on the territory of the Duke. Wilhelm's troops invaded, looted and set fire to the city. But when he drove into the city to ruins, his horse stumbled, fell and threw the rider on the coals. With severe pain and was brought to Rouen, where he died September 9, 1087. William was buried in the monastery of St. Stephen in Caen. Board installed on his tomb before the high altar, preserved until now, but his bones were scattered by the Huguenots in 1562.
. In an age of licentiousness Wilhelm different fidelity in marriage, abstinence, and sincere piety
. Pursuing a policy of conquest, the Duke quite consciously made use of the most violent measures, but at the same time was a stranger to senseless bloodshed and cruelty. The only case of the devastation of the city without a valid reason for a grossly exaggerated. William was not devoid of greed, but his attitude toward the church speaks of selflessness and generosity. It was a tall, stout man with a stately bearing and incredible physical strength. Despite the frontal receding hairline, he is always his hair cut short and wore a short mustache.
. From Matilda (she died in 1083) from William had four sons: Robert, Duke of Normandy, Richard (killed during the hunt), and the future King William II and Henry I, - as well as five or six daughters
. On one of them, know that she married Stephen, Count of Blois.