Saladin (Salah ad-Din).( first Sultan of Egypt Ayyubid dynasty)
Comments for Saladin (Salah ad-Din).
Biography Saladin (Salah ad-Din).
Formation of Saladin.
Saladin, Salah al-Din Yusuf ibn Ayyub (in Arabic Salah ad-Din means "Honor the Faith"), (1138 - 1193), the first Sultan of Egypt Ayyubid dynasty. Born in Tekro (modern Iraq). The success of his career became possible only thanks to the conditions prevailing in the East in the XII century. Authorities belonging to the orthodox Caliph of Baghdad, or heretics Fatimid dynasty in Cairo, constantly tested for strength, viziers. Seljuk power after 1104 and again divided between the Turkish Atabek.
The Kingdom of Jerusalem Christians, arose in 1098, there were only because he remained the focus of internal unity in the middle of the general collapse. On the other hand, the enthusiasm engendered antagonism Christians from Muslims. Zengi, Atabek of Mosul, declared "holy war" and began his campaign in Syria (1135 - 1146). Nur al-Din, his son, continued an aggressive policy in Syria, strengthened the government agency in its territory and widely proclaimed jihad. "
. Life of Saladin had it at a time when there was a conscious need for political unity and the protection of Islam
. By origin Saladin was a Kurd Armenian. His father, Ayub (Job) and uncle Shirko, sons Shadi Adzhdanakanskogo were captains in the army Zengi. In 1139 Ayub received from Zengi in the management of Baalbek, and in 1146, after his death, became one of the courtiers, and began to live in Damascus. In 1154 his influence Damascus has remained at the mercy of Nur al-Din, and he began to manage the city Ayub. Thus, Saladin received his education in one of the famous centers of Islamic science and was able to perceive the best traditions of Muslim culture.
. His career can be divided into three periods: the conquest of Egypt (1164 - 1174), the annexation of Syria and Mesopotamia (1174 - 1186), the conquest of the Kingdom of Jerusalem and other campaigns against the Christians (1187 - 1192).
. The conquest of Egypt
The conquest of Egypt had to Nur al-Din. Egypt threatened his power from the south, sometimes as an ally of the Crusaders, as well as being a stronghold of the caliphs, the heretics. The reason for the invasion served as a request ousted Shevara vizier Ibn Mujiri in 1193. At this time the Crusaders attacked the city of the Nile delta. And Shirko was sent to Egypt in 1164, together with Saladin, a junior officer in his army. Finding that Shirko plans not so much to help him, how to capture Egypt for Nur al-Din ibn Shevar Mujiri appealed for help to the Christian King of Jerusalem Amalrik I. The Crusaders helped Shevaru defeat Shirko near Cairo 11 April 1167 and forcing it to retreat (in this battle Shirko distinguished nephew, the young Saladin). The Crusaders settled down in Cairo, to which several times approached returned with reinforcements Shirko. They also tried, albeit unsuccessfully, to besiege Saladin in Alexandria. After the talks, both sides agreed to withdraw from Egypt. However, in Cairo, under the terms of the peace treaty, was to remain a Christian garrison. The riots that had started shortly Muslims in Cairo, made Amalrik I go back to Egypt in 1168. He concluded an alliance with the Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus, who in early 1169 sent by sea to Egypt and a small fleet of an expeditionary force. Skillful maneuvering (both political and military) Shirko and Saladin, to pursue the enemy bad luck, as well as the mutual distrust between the crusaders and the Byzantines - all interfere with the successful coordination of. And because both the army, the Crusaders and the Byzantines retreated from Egypt. Shirko became vizier in the Fatimid Caliph, while remaining subordinate to Nur al-Din, but soon died in May 1169. He was succeeded by Saladin, the de facto ruler of Egypt with the title "al-Malik al-Nasir (Peerless ruler).
Saladin - the ruler of Egypt. The conquest of Syria and Mesopotamia.
. In relations with the Fatimid Caliph Saladin showed extraordinary tact, . and after the death of al-Adid, . followed in 1171, . by Saladin was already enough power, . that all Egyptian mosques to replace his name on the name of orthodox Caliph of Baghdad,
The famous citadel in Cairo, built by Saladin
Saladin founded his own Ayyubid dynasty. He has revived in Egypt, Sunni faith in 1171. In 1172 the Egyptian sultan conquered from the Almohad Tripolitania. Saladin has continually demonstrated its submission Nur al-Din, . but his concern about the fortification of Cairo and is the haste, . he showed, . removing the siege of the fortresses Montreal (1171), and the Kerak (1173), . suggest, . that he was afraid of jealousy on the part of his master,
. Before his death Mosul ruler Nur al-Din between them arose a marked coldness. In 1174 Nur ad-Din died and a period of Syrian conquest of Saladin. Vassals Nur al-Din began to rebel against his younger al-Salih, and Saladin marched north, officially to support it. In 1174, he joined in Damascus, took Hams and Ham, in 1175 captured the city of Baalbek and the surrounding Aleppo (Aleppo). The success of Saladin was obliged, first of all, its well-trained regular army of the Turkish slaves (Mamluk), comprised of mostly horse archers, as well as the shock troops of mounted lancers.
. The next step was the achievement of political independence
Saladin in battle
In 1175, he banned the mention the name of al-Salih in prayers and beat him on the coins and received formal recognition from the Caliph of Baghdad. In 1176 he defeated the invading army of Sayf al-Din Mosul and concluded an agreement with Al-Salih, as well as with the Assassins. In 1177 he returned from Damascus to Cairo, where they built a new citadel, an aqueduct and some madrassas. From 1177 to 1180 years, Saladin was waging war against the Christians of Egypt, and in 1180 signed a peace treaty with the Sultan of Konya (Rum). In 1181 - 1183 years it was mainly concerned about the situation in Syria. In 1183 Saladin forced Atabek Imad al-Din of Aleppo exchange insignificant Sinjar, and in 1186 made bringing homage by Atabek of Mosul. The last independent ruler was finally subordinated, and the Kingdom of Jerusalem was one on one with an evil empire.
. The conquest of the Kingdom of Jerusalem by Saladin.
. Disease of the childless King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem leprosy led to the struggle for the throne
. This will benefit Saladin: he completed the conquest of Syria, while continuing attacks on Christian territory, although it was defeated in the Battle of Ram Allah in 1177.
. Battle of Hattin
. The most capable ruler among the Crusaders were Raymond, Count Tripolitanian, but the king was married to the sister of Baldwin IV, his enemy Guido Lusignan.
. In 1187 a four-year truce was violated by a famous bandit Reinaldo de Chatillon of the castle Krak des Chevaliers, prompting the announcement of holy war, and then began the third period of conquests of Saladin.
. With approximately dvadtsatityschnoy army of Saladin laid siege to Tiberias on the western shore of Lake Genisaretskogo
. Guido Lusignan gathered under its banner all whom they could (about 20000 people) and went to Saladin. King of Jerusalem prenabreg Board Raymond Tripolitanian and started the army in the barren desert, where they were attacked and surrounded the Muslims. Many of the Crusaders near Tiberias were destroyed.
July 4 at the Battle of Hattin Saladin inflicted a crushing defeat of the united Christian army. Egyptian sultan was able to separate the cavalry from the infantry and the Crusaders broke it. Only Raymond Tripolitanian and commanded the rear guard Baron of Ibelin with a small detachment of cavalry were able to break through the environment (according to one version, with the tacit approval of Saladin, sincerely respected old warrior). Other Crusaders were killed or captured, including those taken prisoner by the king of Jerusalem, Grand Master of the Knights Templar, Reynald Shatilonsky and other. Reynaldo Shatilonskogo Saladin personally executed.
And Guido Lusignan subsequently released, taking some of the promise that he would no longer fight. Meanwhile, returning to Tripoli, Raymond died of his wounds.
Saladin conquered Tiberias, Acre (now - Akko in Israel), Askelon (Ashkelon), and other cities (the soldiers of their garrisons, almost without exception, were captured or killed at Hattin). Saladin was already Tire when a time arrived by sea Margrave Conrad, Marquess of Montferrat with a detachment of the Crusaders, thus ensuring reliable garrison town. In the absence of hiding in Acre King's defense of the city led by the Baron of Ibelin. But defenders lacked. Food too. Initially rejecting the relatively generous offers Saladin. In the end, the garrison was forced to surrender. On Friday, October 2 Saladin entered the holy city, which is almost a hundred years remained in the hands of Christians, and held a ritual to cleanse, showing generosity to the Christians of Jerusalem. Townspeople Saladin sent to all four sides, provided that they pay for themselves the appropriate redemption. Many failed to redeem, and they were enslaved. All of Palestine was captured by Saladin.
In the kingdom of Tir only remained in the hands of Christians. Perhaps the fact that Saladin ignored the capture of the fortress before the onset of winter, it was very tough strategic miscalculation. Christians retained the powerful stronghold, when in June 1189 the remaining army of the crusaders headed by Guido Lusignan and Conrad, Marquess of Montferrat attacked Acre. They managed to drive off Saladin's army marching to the rescue of the besieged. Saladin had no navy, which allowed Christians to wait for reinforcements and recover from injuries they sustained on the ground. From the land surrounded by Saladin's army of crusaders dense ring. During the siege took place on 9 major battles and countless smaller conflicts.
Saladin and Richard the Lionheart.
June 8, 1191, arrived at Acre, Richard I of England (later the Lionheart). Basically, all the Crusaders tacitly acknowledged his leadership. Richard drove Saladin's army marching to the rescue of the besieged, after which he led the siege so vigorously that the Muslim garrison of Acre surrendered on July 12 without permission from Saladin.
. Richard I of England (the Lionheart)
. Richard secured a successful and well-organized march to Askelon (modern-day Ashkelon in Israel), . that was conducted along the coast, . to Jaffa, . and a great victory at Arsuf, . where Saladin's troops lost 7 thousand people, . the rest fled,
. Loss of the crusaders in the battle amounted to about 700 people. After this battle, Saladin had never dared to join with Richard in open battle.
. During 1191 - 1192 period there were four small campaigns in the south of Palestine, in which Richard showed himself a valiant knight and a talented tactician, although as a strategist Saladin it surpassed
. The English king constantly moved between Beytnubom and Askelonom, with the ultimate aim of the capture of Jerusalem. Richard I constantly pursued Saladin, who, stepping back, applied the scorched earth tactics - destroying crops, pastures and poisoned wells. Water shortage, lack of feed for horses and growing discontent in the ranks of his multi-national army forced Richard to come to the conclusion that the siege of Jerusalem he was not in a position, if you do not want to risk the almost inevitable loss of the entire army. In January 1192 Richard apparent impotence in the fact that he refused to Jerusalem and began to strengthen Askelon. Negotiations on the world, happening at the same time, showed that Saladin was master of the situation. While in July 1192, Richard won two magnificent victories in Jaffa, the peace treaty was signed on September 2 and he was the triumph of Saladin. From the Kingdom of Jerusalem, leaving only the coastline and free way to Jerusalem, to which Christian pilgrims could easily get to the Holy Places. Askelon Destroyed. There is no doubt that the cause of death was the unity of the Islamic kingdom of the East. Richard returned to Europe as Saladin - in Damascus, where he died after a short illness, March 4, 1193. He was buried in Damascus, and was mourned throughout the East.
Characteristics of Saladin.
Saladin had a vivid character. Saladin was famous among Christians and Muslims as a true knight. Saladin was a very diligent in prayer and fasting. He was proud of his birth, saying that "Ayyubids were the first to whom God gave victory. His generosity was manifested in the concessions provided to Richard, and his attitude toward prisoners. Saladin was unusually good, the crystal is honest, loved children, never lost heart and was truly noble in relation to women and all the weak. Moreover, he showed true dedication to the Muslim holy purpose. The source of his success lies in his personality. He was able to unite the Islamic countries to fight the invaders, crusaders, although not left his country a code of laws. Being able strategist, Saladin, however, could not be compared with Richard in tactics and, moreover, had an army of slaves. "My army no matter what can not - admit it - if I'm not going to lead him along and not going at every moment to look after him". In the history of the East remained conqueror Saladin, . who stopped the invasion of the West and drew the forces of Islam in the West, . hero, . overnight combining these unbridled force, . and, . Finally, . saint, . which is embodied in his person the highest ideals and virtues of Islam.,