Genghis Khan( Mongolian emperor)
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Biography Genghis Khan
Genghis Khan (about 1155 - 1227 gg.) - The Mongolian emperor, was born in the tract on the river Onon. His father, the leader Yesugei, at this time led military campaign against the Tartar leader named Temujin. The war ended in victory Esugeya. After defeating the enemy, he returned home, where he was met by the news that his wife gave birth to a son Oelun. After examining the child, Yesugei saw a small palm, clenched, specks of dried blood. Superstitious Mongol linked it with his victory over the Tatar leader and a baby named Temujin.
Having lost his father at the age of thirteen years, Temujin was to become the supreme leader of the Mongols. However, death Esugeya served as a catalyst for the separation of some tribes, before forced to stick together, in obedience to the leader of the powerful. At admonitions Temujin tribal chiefs responded: "Even the deepest wells dry up, the hardest stones are crumbling. Why should we remain faithful to tebeN "
His mother Oelun could not look at it as weakening the power of her son. She sent those who had remained loyal to him, against deposited tribes. As a result, about half of the once great hordes of vassals Esugeya albeit with fluctuations, but remained faithful to Temujin, forcing however, to constantly question their reliability.
But even with such unreliable associates Temujin managed to fight and resist the charms of open hostility of neighboring tribes, especially Naiman Kerait and Merkit. With one of these tribes Temujin led almost permanent state of war until 1206, when he gathered enough strength to declare himself the supreme ruler of all the tribes of the Mongolian steppe. He called Kurultai (Congress leaders) on the banks of the Onon, where he was proclaimed Great Khan of all the tribes with the new name Genghis Khan (Chinese. Cheng-sze - the true ruler). At this time, Genghis Khan is only one public enemy in the Mongolian steppe - Naiman Khan. Against him, Genghis Khan and sends troops. In one battle he had so skillfully defeated the forces Naiman, that Kiichliig, their leader, fled to the Irtysh. Together with him escaped his ally, Merkit Khan Tokhta-backs.
The conquest of China.
Genghis Khan conceived the invasion of the Chinese empire of the Tartars (Khitan), previously conquered North China in Song Dynasty Chinese emperors, ancient enemies of the nomads, and created their own state. The first step was the conquest of the western part of the state Tangut Hsi-Hsia. Having captured several fortified cities, summer 1208 "A true ruler" went to the Longjing, waiting unbearable heat that fell on the year. In the meantime, reach him news that his old enemies Tokhta-backs and Kiichliig preparing for another war with. Anticipating their invasion and carefully prepared, Genghis Khan defeated them decisively in battle on the banks of the Irtysh. Tokhta-backs was among the dead, and Kiichliig fled and found refuge with kidanskih Tatars (Kara-Khitan). Pleased with the victory, Temujin again sends his troops against the Hsi-Hsia. After defeating the army of the Chinese Tartars, led by the son of the ruler, he captured the fortress and the passage of the Great Wall of China and entered directly into the Chinese Empire itself, the state of Jin, and went to Nyansi in the Han. With growing insistence, Genghis Khan led his troops, paving the way dead bodies into the interior of the continent and established his authority even over the Liaodong province, central to the empire. Some Chinese military leaders, seeing that the Mongolian conqueror comes constant victory, ran to his side. Garrisons surrendered without a fight.
Adopting this way its position along the Great Wall of China, in autumn 1213 Temujin sent three armies to every corner of the Chinese Empire. One of them, under the command of the three sons of Genghis Khan - Juchi, Chagatai and Ogedei headed south. Another, led by brothers and generals Temujin, moved east to the sea. Genghis Khan himself and his son, Tule, led the main forces were in the south-easterly direction. First Army moved up to the Hon, and, taking twenty-eight cities, joined Genghis Khan at the Great Western Road. Army under the command of the brothers and generals Temujin conquered province of Liao-hsi, and Genghis Khan himself had finished his triumphal march only after it reached a rocky promontory in the sea in Shandong Province. But if fear of strife, whether due to other reasons, he decided in the spring of 1214 to return to Mongolia. But before you send the following message from an ultimatum to the Chinese emperor: "All your possessions in Shandong and other provinces to the north of the Yellow River now belongs to me. The only exception - your capital Yenpin (modern Beijing). By the will of heaven, you are now as weak as I am strong. However, I want to leave the conquered lands, but to appease my soldiers that are configured to extremely hostile to you, you have to endow them with valuable gifts ". The Chinese emperor gladly accepted these conditions of its security. Concluding such a welcome for him the world, he gave the daughter of the late emperor Genghis Khan, the other princesses of the imperial house, five hundred boys and girls, and three thousand horses. However, the leader of the Mongols did not have time to go beyond the Great Wall of China, as Chinese emperor moved his court away in Kaifeng. This move was perceived by Temujin as a manifestation of hostility, and he again sent troops to the empire, now on the skids. The war continued, and while Genghis Khan conquered more and more cities and provinces of China, the fugitive Naiman Khan Kiichliig not sit idly. With his perfidy, he asked who gave him refuge Tatar khan help collect the remains of the army, defeated in the Irtysh.
Genghis Khan (Chinese miniature)
Having obtained under his arm rather strong army, Kiichliig entered against his suzerain alliance with Mohammed Khorezm Shah, who paid tribute to this karakidanyam. After a short but decisive military campaign, the Allies were in a big win, and the Tatar Khan was forced to give up power in favor of the intruder. After winning power, and thus enhancing its diminished credibility, Kiichliig thought again to measure swords with the ruler of the Mongols. Learning about the preparations Naiman, Genghis Khan once made a campaign. In the first battle defeated the army of the Naiman and captured Kuchliig, and its ownership (Khanate) became only the specific principality vast Mongol Empire. Then Temujin rushed to the borders of Khorezm. He did not intend to cross the border and sent ambassadors to the Shah Muhammad with gifts and a message read: "Greetings, I know how great your power, and how extensive your empire. I treat you like a favorite son. However, you should know that I have conquered all the territory of China and the Turkic peoples to the north of it. You know that my country - the native land of warriors, the land rich in silver, and I do not need to capture other lands. Our interests are equal and are to maintain good-neighborly relations between our commercial subjects ". This is a peaceful message was well received shah, and, in all likelihood, the Mongol army would never have appeared in Europe, if not for one incident. Shortly after the embassy of Genghis Khan returned from Khorezm, he sent his first merchants in Transoxiana. But they were caught and killed, accused of spying Inelyukom GAID Khan, ruler of Otrar. In anger Temujin asked to give the governor violated the contract. However, rather than to fulfill this requirement, Mohammed beheaded one of the ambassadors of the Mongol ruler, and let the rest of pre-cut off their beards. This insult made war inevitable, and the spring of 1219, Genghis Khan made from Karakorum. Launched its campaign carried the far-reaching goals and the first day was to bring the most unexpected results.
. The looting of Bukhara.
. From the outset, the army of the conqueror was divided into two parts: one commanded by the second son of Genghis Khan - Chagatai, directing his attack against the defenders of the Khorezm Empire to the north, headed the second eldest son - Jochi
. His main goal was to win Sygnak and Gendi. Against Warriors Juchi Muhammad sent an army of four hundred thousand people. And this huge army was defeated. According to witnesses, the battlefield remains one hundred and sixty thousand dead Khorezmians. The remnants of his army, Mohammed fled to Samarkand. Meanwhile Chagatai down to the mouth of the Syr Darya (at the time - Yaksart), went Otrar and besieged Tarsus, a city where human rights, offend the dignity of Genghis Khan. After a five-month siege of the fortress was taken by storm. All the ruler and his entourage of the executed, and after looting the town razed. At this time, Genghis Khan's Third Army surrounded and stormed the Khujand, also located on Yaksart. Fourth Army, led by the ruler of the Mongols and his youngest son, Tule, approached Bukhara. Tashkent and Nur surrendered without a fight. After a brief siege and Bukhara fell into the hands of the Mongols. Upon entering the captured city, Genghis Khan, ascended the stairs of the main minaret and shouted out to his warriors: "The hay mowed, let the horses eat". Twice did not have to repeat. The city was plundered and the inhabitants were subjected to great violence or fled, those who succeeded. The thirst for revenge, sweeping Temujin was quenched only when the city destroyed and burned to ashes. After the departure of the last Mongol only tall minaret of the palace but only testified that once there was a "center of all the sciences".
Joining in the ruins of Bukhara, Genghis Khan, the valley toward the Sogdian Samarkand. Traitors Gate was opened to him and passed the city without a fight. Just arrived in the city of Balkh. But neither that, nor any other case, the voluntary surrender did not save the inhabitants from the violence and looting. Next Samarkand Temujin did not go, but sent to the Tule seventy thousandth army to take Horosan. And the two flying squad headed by Jebe and Subedeem Bahadar persecuted Muhammad who disappeared in Nishapur. Lost the war and has no support Mohammad fled to the Caspian Sea, where the coastal village of Astara and died from an attack of pneumonia, handing power to his son, Jalal-ad-Din. Meanwhile, Tooley, together with his troops entered the province Horosan and stormed Ness, then appeared before the walls of Merv. Using a betrayal of city dwellers, the Mongols captured it and in their usual manner, looted and burned the town. From Merv Tooley went to Nishapur, where he encountered a very stubborn resistance.
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Four days residents desperately fought on the walls and streets of the city, but the forces were unequal. The town was taken, and, except for four craftsmen left in the living and sent to Mongolia, the remaining men, women and children were brutally murdered. Herat escaped the fate of Merv and Nishapur, opened its gates to the Mongols. At this stage of its progress in the cities of Asia Tooley received orders from his father to join his army in Badakhshan. Genghis Khan was going after a short break, during which he captured Ghazni, to resume prosecution of Jalal ad-Din. After receiving reinforcements, the leader of the Mongols overtook Jalal ad-Din, who with the Turks strengthened by the river Indus. While Genghis Khan's army greatly outnumbered the army of Muhammad son of strength, Turks fanatically defended. Only when the Mongols defeated them decisively, effectively destroying almost all the survivors fled in disarray. Jalal ad-Din, seeing that the battle is lost, jumped to a fresh horse, drove him to the river not far from the field and jumped into the water. Admired Genghis Khan in this desperate act of his enemy, and without regret, saw vynyrnuvshy rider got on the opposite shore. Some time later, Temujin went up again in the wake of Jalal ad-Din, who fled, this time in Delhi. But, realizing that he is elusive, the Mongols returned to Ghazni province on the road emptying Lahore, Peshawar and Melikpur. Here, Genghis Khan reported that the deposed ruler of Herat, residents, appointed by Tooley, and in its place put their man. To suppress the uprising, the leader of the Mongols sent an army of eighty thousand. After a six-month siege of Herat was taken. Whole week did not stop murders, fires and looting. According to eyewitnesses, 1600000 people (N) were interred in the walls of the city. Revenge, Genghis Khan returned to Mongolia through Balkh, Bukhara and Samarkand.
Emergence in Europe.
While these events, Jeb and Subedei Bahadar with his troops passed through Azerbaijan and in the spring of 1222 moved into Georgia. Here, they smashed the combined forces of Lezghins, Circassians and Kipchaks and went to Astrakhan, pursuing the remnants kipchaks along the Don. The Mongols destroyed and Polovtsy who fled to Russia. Russian princes were alarmed by the appearance of a mysterious enemy. However, Mstislav, Prince Galitsky, managed to persuade them to gather on the banks of the Dnieper united army. Here he met envoys from the Mongol camp. Even without listening to them, Mstislav executed messengers. Mongols responded to this event in these words: "You want war, you will get it. We did not cause this to you no harm. God is impartial, he will judge us ". In the first battle at the river Kalka Slavs were completely smashed, . and the remnants of the army fled from the winners, . and those, . drain the Volga-Kama Bulgaria, . satisfied extraction, . returned to the river Akhtuba in Central Asia, . where and joined the main army of the Mongols,
Genghis Khan (Chinese drawing)
Remain in China, the Mongol troops accompanied the same success as the armies in Western Asia. Mongol Empire was expanded by several new conquered provinces lying to the north of the Yellow River, except for one or two cities. After the death of the Emperor Syuin-tsung in 1223, North Chinese empire virtually ceased to exist, and the boundaries of the Mongol empire almost coincided with the boundaries of the Central and Southern China, ruled by the imperial Song Dynasty.
. On return from Central Asia, Genghis Khan once again held its army on the West China
. During this campaign, astrologers told the leader of the Mongols, that the five planets are at a disadvantage under. Superstitious Mongol thought that he was in danger. Under the rule of foreboding dread conqueror went home, but along the way fell ill and soon died (1227). In his will, Genghis Khan appointed his heir his third son Ogedei, but until then, until he will be proclaimed the Great Khan (emperor), the death of the great ruler should be kept secret. The funeral procession moved from the camp of the Great Horde in the north to the river Kerulen. Will the Mongol ruler was carried out with such thoroughness that people come across to meet the procession, killing. A native encampment his body carried his wife, and eventually he was buried in the valley Kerulen.
Thus ended the way one of the greatest conquerors that ever lived on earth. Born in a small Mongolian tribe, the son of an ordinary leader, made sure that his victorious army from the borders of China to the shores of the Dnieper. Although he created the empire would eventually collapse as a result of the incompetent administration of the Mongolian rulers, . and as a result of objective historical, . She left ample evidence of their victories over other nations,
. One such evidence is the presence of Turks in Europe, expelled from Central Asia, the Mongol conquerors.
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