Philip IV the Fair( The King of France from 1285 to 1314)
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Biography Philip IV the Fair
Philippe IV (Philippe IV le Bel) remains for historians somewhat mysterious figure. On the one hand, all of its policy suggests that he was a man of iron will and a rare energy, accustomed to the unwavering persistence to go to the goal. Meanwhile, evidence of people who knew the King, are in strange contrast with this view. The chronicler William Scotsman, wrote about Philip, that the king had a beautiful and noble appearance, his refined manners and behaved very impressive. For all this he was distinguished by extraordinary meekness and humility, in disgust Do not use foul calls, carefully attended a church service, performed with precision posts and wore a hair shirt. He was kind, forgiving, and willingly placed his full trust in these people who do not deserve. They are something, according to William, and were the perpetrators of all those ills and abuses that marked his reign, the imposition of oppressive taxes, contingency fees, and the systematic deterioration of the coin. Another chronicler, Giovanni Vilanija, wrote that Philip was very handsome, gifted with a serious mind, but many engaged in hunting and liked to impose on other concerns about the governance. Geoffrey also said that the King is easy to obey the bad advice. Thus, we must recognize that a major role in the policy of Philip played his entourage: Chancellor Pierre Flotta, curator of print Guillaume Nogaret and Coadjutor kingdom Angerran Marigny. They were all obscure, ascended to the pinnacle of power by the king.
Philip IV the Fair was born in Fontainebleau in 1268, Philip III and Isabella of Aragon. Philip came to the throne of seventeen years of age and primarily engaged in resolution of the Sicilian and Aragonese questions, get to him by inheritance from his father.
Coronation of Philip III - father of Philip IV the Fair
He immediately stopped fighting and did nothing to support the claims of his brother Charles of Valois, who dreamed to become Aragon (or, at worst case, Sicilian) King. Negotiations, however, dragged on for another ten years and culminated in the fact that Sicily has remained for the Aragonese dynasty. In relations with the English King Edward I policy of Philip was more vigorous. Between subjects of the two states often had clashes. Using one of them, Philip in 1295, Mr.. called the King of England as his vassal, the Paris Court of Parliament. Edward refused to obey, and he was declared a war. Both opponents were looking for allies. Proponents of Edward became Emperor Adolf, graphs Dutch, Geldernsky, Brabant and the Count of Savoy, as well as the King of Castile. Philip's allies were the Count of Burgundy, Duke of Lorraine, Count of Luxembourg and the Scots. However, of these only the Scots and Guy Dampierre Count of Flanders had a real impact on events. Sam Edward, busy with heavy war in Scotland, concluded in 1297, Mr.. with Philip truce, and in 1303, Mr.. - A world in which Guyenne was left for the English King. The entire burden of the war fell on the shoulders of the Flemish. In 1297, Mr.. French army invaded Flanders. Philip himself besieged Lille, and Count Robert of Artois won at Fournet (largely due to changes of the nobility, among whom were many adherents of the French party). After that, Lille surrendered. In 1299, Mr.. Charles of Valois conquered Douai, passed through Bruges and in May 1300 g. joined Ghent.
Battle of the Golden Spurs
He has never met with resistance. Count Guy surrendered along with his two sons and 51 knight. King stripped of his possessions as. Mutineer and annexed Flanders to his kingdom. In 1301, Mr.. Philip toured their new ownership and was greeted everywhere marks of obedience. But he immediately tried to extract from his new acquisition maximum benefits and high taxes overlaid country. This caused dissatisfaction and stern control Jacques Shatilonskogo further aggravated the hatred of the French. When in 1301 Mr.. riots broke out in Bruges, Jacques awarded the perpetrators to huge fines, ordered to break the city wall and build a stronghold in the city. Then in May 1302, Mr.. broke out a second, much more powerful revolt. Within one day, people broke in 1200 French knights and 2000 soldiers. Then the whole of Flanders up in arms. In June came the French army led by Robert of Artois. But the stubborn battle of Courtrai, she was utterly destroyed. Along with his military commander had fallen to 6000 French knights. Thousands of spurs removed from the dead, were piled in mastrihtskoy church as trophies of victory. Philip could not leave not avenge the disgrace. In 1304, Mr.. led the 60 thousandth army, King stepped up to the borders of Flanders. In August, the stubborn battle of Mons-en-Nyulle Flemings were defeated, but retreated in good order in Lille. After several bouts of Philip made peace with her son Robert Betyunskim Guy Dampierre, who was with him in captivity. Philip agreed to return him to the country, while the Flemish have kept all of its rights and privileges.
Battle of Mons-en-Nyulle
However, for the release of his graph and the other prisoners of the city were ordered to pay a large indemnity. In a pledge to pay a ransom king took to land on the right bank of the Fox with the cities of Lille, Douai, Bethune and Orsha. He had to return them after receiving the money, but treacherously violated the contract and I left them for France.
These events unfolded against the backdrop of worsening with each passing year conflict with the Pope. At first, it seemed, there were no signs of the conflict. None of the European kings were not so loved by Pope Boniface VIII, as Philip the Fair. Back in 1290, when the Pope was only the Cardinal Benedetto Gaetani, and as a papal legate arrived in France, he admired the piety of the young King. Having ascended to the throne in 1294, Boniface diligently maintained the policy of the French king in Spain and Italy. The first signs of mutual distrust surfaced in 1296, Mr.. In August the pope issued a bull, which forbade the laity to demand and receive subsidies from the clergy. By a strange coincidence, . maybe, . and in response to a bull, . Philip at the same time prohibited the export of French gold and silver: that he destroyed one of the main sources of papal revenue, . because the French church was no longer able to send any money to Rome,
. Even then, could be a quarrel, but the situation on the papal throne, Boniface was still fragile, cardinals implored him to stop the scandals caused by the bull, and he gave them.
Boniface VIII - Pope
In 1297, Mr.. Bull was promulgated, effectively repealing the previous. As you can see, my father expected the king also made concessions. Philip allowed to export earnings in Rome the pope, which he received from the French clergy, but he continued to harass the church, and soon there were new clashes with the Pope. Archbishop Boniface Narbonnsky complained that the royal dignitaries took away his fief power over certain vassals of his department and generally causing him various offenses. Pope sent the case legate in Paris, whom the bishop Pamers Bernard Sesay. Concurrently, he was instructed to demand the release from captivity of Count of Flanders and the performance of the first promises of participation in the crusade. Bernard, known for his arrogance and hot temper, was absolutely not the man who could be entrusted with such delicate missions. Failing to get concessions, it began to threaten Philip interdict and generally speaking so abruptly that he derived usually from a cold-blooded Philip. King sent a Pamiers in the county of Toulouse, and two members of its board to gather evidence for the prosecution of Bernard in the unruly. During the investigation it became clear that the bishop during his sermons often used inappropriate expression and inciting their followers against the royal government. Philip ordered the arrest of the legate and detain in Sanli. He also demanded from the pope that he deposed Bernard and allowed to bring him to the secular court. Dad answered the king angry letter, . demanded the immediate release of his legate, . Philip threatened excommunication, and commanded him to appear at his court order, . to justify himself against the charges of tyranny, . bad management Philip told solemnly burn this bull on the porch of Notre Dame,
Clement V - Pope
In April 1302, Mr.. he convened in Paris in the early history of the States-General. They were attended by representatives of the clergy, the barons and prosecutors are the main northern and southern cities. In order to arouse the indignation of the deputies, they read out a fraudulent papal bull, in which the Pope claims have been strengthened and sharpened. After this, the Chancellor of Flotta turned to him with the question: can the king count on the support classes, . if you take steps to protect the honor and independence of the State, . as well as getting rid of the French church from breach of its pravN nobles and deputies of the cities meet, . that are ready to support the King,
. The clergy, after a moment's hesitation also acceded to the opinion of two other classes. After this year opponents slow to stronger measures, but the hostility between them was growing. Finally, in April 1303, Mr.. Boniface excommunicated the king of the church and freed seven ecclesiastical provinces in the basin of the Rhone from the vassalage and the oath of allegiance to the King. This measure, however, had no effect. Philip declared Boniface lzhepapoy (indeed, there were some doubts about the legality of his election), a heretic and even Warlocks. He demanded to convene an ecumenical council to listen to these accusations, but said that the pope should be on this council as a prisoner and accused. From words, he got down to business. In the summer it sure Nogaret with a large sum of money went to Italy. Soon he entered into relations with the enemies of Boniface and made a vast conspiracy against him. The Pope at that time was in Anagni, where the Sept. 8 would betray the public execration Philip.
Burning of the Templars
The day before the conspirators burst into the papal palace, surrounded by Boniface, showered him with all sorts of insults and demanded his resignation. Nogaret threatened to zakuet him in the chain and how the offender shall carry on the church in Lyon to make a sentence on him. Papa bear these attacks with dignity. For three days he was in the hands of his enemies. Finally, the inhabitants of Anagni released him. But from the transferred humiliation Boniface fell into such disorder that had gone mad and died on October 11. His humiliation and death had serious consequences for the papacy. New Pope Benedict XI excommunicated from the church Nogaret, but stopped prosecution of the Philip. In the summer of 1304, Mr.. died. In his place was elected archbishop of Bordeaux, Bertrand du Gotha, who took the name Clement V. He did not go to Italy and was ordained in Lyon. In 1309, Mr.. he settled at Avignon, and transformed this city into the papal residence. Until his death he remained an obedient executor of the will of the French king. In addition to many other concessions to Philip, Clement agreed in 1307, Mr.. charges against the Knights Templar. In October, 140 French knights of the Order were arrested, and over them has begun trial on charges of heresy. In 1312, Mr.. Pope announced the Order destroyed. Philippe, who owed the Templars enormous sums taken away all their wealth. In March 1313, Mr.. burnt grandmaster of the Order of Jacques Molay. Before his death, he cursed the whole race of Capet and predicted his close degeneration.
In 1314 Philip conceived a new campaign to Flanders, where the intensified anti-French forces. Aug. 1, he called the States General, who gave consent to the imposition of emergency war tax act first in the history of taxation with the approval of the people's representatives. Shortly after the executions Philip began to suffer a debilitating illness which could not recognize physicians.
Grandmaster of the Knights Templar, Jacques de Molay
And the campaign has not taken place since 29 November 1314, Mr.. the 46-th year of life in Fontainebleau King died, apparently of a stroke, although the rumor attributed his death curse of Jacques de Molay, or poisoning of the Templars.
. His contemporaries did not like Philip the Fair, close to him people were afraid of rational cruelty of this extraordinarily beautiful and surprisingly dispassionate man
. Violence against the Pope has caused outrage throughout the Christian world. Feudal lords were dissatisfied with the denial of their rights and strengthening the central administration, which consisted of people rootless. Tax-paying class resented increase taxes, so-called 'damage' coins, t. e. decrease in its gold content of the forced saving its face value, which led to inflation. Heirs of Philip have been forced to soften his ongoing policy of centralization.
. Board of Philip IV the Fair, . ascended to the French throne at the age of seventeen years, . after the death of his father, Philip III, . 5 th October 1285, . considered by historians not only as one of the most important periods in the history of France, . but also as one of the most controversial,
. Reconciliation of Philip IV the Fair with the English King Edward I
. Important that reign is because the kingdom of France reaches the peak of its power: the most populous state in the Christian western world (13-15 million
. or a third of the Catholic world), this economic prosperity (rather cite the expansion of arable land or the flowering of trade fairs in Champagne). Besides, . power of the monarch as amplified, . Philip saw that the first in Europe, the ruler of a new type: the state than ever powerful and centralized, . entourage King - Legist - trained and educated people, . real experts in the field of jurisprudence.,
. However, this rosy picture is not consistent with other facts
. Thus, the apparent economic prosperity, only mask the sluggish crisis, as evidenced by the numerous upheavals in the financial market (with Philippe monetary policy was highly, as they say, voluntaristic). And at the end of his reign, trade fairs in the Champagne region in general could not compete with the maritime trade of the Italians, and in addition, the very next day after the death of King breaks devastating famine 1315-1317. Moreover, . if you look closely, . we can see, . that the King knew little about his kingdom: he had no idea, . how far-reaching its limits, . he was unable to establish direct taxes, . and effective and accurate control of the State and remains elusive,
. It is unlikely that the King added the popularity of the chain of questionable, . polupoliticheskih, . polusvetskih scandals, . particularly, . process of the bishop of the city of Troyes, . Guichard, . who was accused of killing the queen through witchcraft or process bishop Pamerskogo, . Bernard Sesay, . process, . which complicate the already difficult relations between the king and the Pope,
. A process tamplierovN A conclusion to the fortress daughters of the king and executed them lyubovnikovN In general, the personality of King Philip the Fair remains a mystery. Where is he bylN core of French politics, or a mere instrument in the hands of their sovetnikovN Authors chronicles - contemporaries of King - lean, . mostly, . the second option - they, . particularly, . criticized the king in the inept monetary and fiscal policy, . explanation being, . that the King gave worthless advice incompetent advisers,
. But, despite this uncertainty in the estimates, the king sees all the same "non-classical" monarch of the Middle Ages. Although the chroniclers and insisted that France had treated him with respect, which, though it is allegedly supposed to authority of his grandfather, Philip Augustus, introduce economic and political reforms aimed at strengthening the central government.
Beautiful Philip IV - King of France from 1285 g. to 1314 g.
. The leitmotif of historians, contemporary Philip the Fair, is a disappointment about the era of "His Majesty of St. Louis, which is regarded almost as a golden age that, while Philip IV is characterized not only as" the antithesis of St. Louis "
. But despite all this, historians agree on one thing: with the king began a new era. However, hardly be exaggerated "modernity" Philip the Fair of France and his time.
. And still reign of Philip IV the Fair was a pivotal era in the history of medieval France: he expanded the kingdom of the accession of new land (shortly before his death, he joined France Lyon with its districts), . forced the church and the feudal lords to obey the commandment of the king and suppressed in their own state independent of any power themselves,
. Royal administration under him to cover all aspects of society: cities, feudal nobility, the clergy - all fell under its control. His reign seemed to contemporaries time cruel oppression and despotism. But behind all this was already visible to a new era. With the help of a large corporation lawyers king enjoyed each occasion for institutions around the royal courts and the introduction of Roman law. By the end of his life the entire judiciary in the country shifted exclusively to the crown, and the public life was completely different character than his predecessors.