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TAMERLAN (Timur)

( The famous conqueror of eastern lands)

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Biography TAMERLAN (Timur)
photo TAMERLAN (Timur)
famous conqueror of eastern lands, . whose name sounded on the lips of Europeans as Tamerlane (1336 - 1405), . was born in Kesh (modern Shahrisabz, . "Green City"), . fifty miles south of Samarkand in Transoxiana (area of modern Uzbekistan between the Amu Darya and Syr Darya),
. Some speculate, . Timur Taragay father was the leader of the Mongol-Turkic Barlas tribe (many species in the tribe of the Mongol-Chaghatays) and a descendant of a Karacharov Noyon (large feudal-landowner in Mongolia in the Middle Ages), . powerful assistant Chagatai, . son of Genghis Khan and a distant relative of the last,
. Credible "Memoirs" Timur said that he led numerous expeditions during the riots that followed the death of the Emir Kazgan, the ruler of Mesopotamia. In 1357, after the invasion Tughluq Timur, Khan of Kashgar (1361), and the appointment of governor of Mesopotamia his son Ilyas Khoja, Timur became his assistant and the ruler of Kesh. But very soon escaped and joined the Emir Hussein, the grandson Kazgan, becoming his son -. After many raids and adventures they defeated the forces, Ilyas Khoja (1364) and went to the conquest of Mesopotamia. Around 1370 Timur led the revolt against its ally Hussein, has captivated him in Balkh and announced that he is the heir of Chagatai and is going to revive the Mongol empire.
. The following ten years of dedicated Tamerlane against hanami Genti (East Turkistan) and Khorezm, and in 1380 conquered Kashgar
. He then intervened in the conflict between the khans of the Golden Horde in Russia and helped to take the throne Tokhtamysh. Those with Timur defeated the ruling Khan Mamaia, took his place and to avenge the Prince of Moscow for the defeat of their mother in 1380, in 1382 conquered Moscow.
The conquest of Persia by Timur in 1381 began with the capture of Herat. The unstable political and economic situation at that time in Persia contributed to the conqueror. The revival of the country, which began in the reign of Ilkhans again slowed down with the death of the last of the family of Abu Said (1335). The situation was aggravated by the collision between the dynasties of Mongol Jalayir, . ruling in Baghdad and Tabriz, Persian-born Arabic Muzafaridov, . ruling in Fars and Isfahan; Harid-Kurt in the Herat, local religious and tribal alliances, . such, . as Serbedars (revolted against the Mongol yoke) in Khorasan and Afghanistan in Kerman, . and petty princes in the border areas,
. All of these warring principalities together, and could not effectively oppose Timur. Khorasan and all eastern Persia fell under his onslaught in 1382 - 1385, respectively; Fars, Iraq, Azerbaijan and Armenia were conquered in 1386-1387 and 1393 - 1394, respectively; Mesopotamia and Georgia came under his rule in 1394. In between conquests of Timur fought Tokhtamysh, now khan of the Golden Horde, whose forces invaded Azerbaijan in 1385 and in Mesopotamia in 1388, defeated the army of Timur. In 1391, Timur, pursuing Tokhtamish, came to the steppes of southern Russia, defeated the enemy and overthrew him from the throne. In 1395 Orda Khan again invaded the Caucasus, but was finally defeated on the river Kura. On top Timur ravaged Astrakhan and Saray, but he came to Moscow. Rebellion, broke out all over Persia during this campaign, demanded his immediate return. Timur crushed them with extraordinary brutality. Entire cities were destroyed, the inhabitants massacred, and their heads immured in the walls of towers.
. In 1399, when Timur was already over sixty, he invaded India, incensed by the fact that the sultans of Delhi are showing too much tolerance towards his subjects
. September 24 Tamerlane's troops crossed the Indus and, leaving behind a trail of blood, entered in Delhi.
Tamerlane (Indian figure)
Mahmoud Tughluq army was defeated at Panipat (17 December), from Delhi were the ruins from which the city was reborn a century. By April 1399 Timur returned to the capital, burdened with a huge booty. One of his contemporaries, Ruy Gonzalez de Clavijo, wrote that ninety captured elephants were carrying stones from the quarries to the construction of a mosque in Samarkand.
. Having laid the foundation stone mosque, . at the end of that year, Timur made his last great expedition, . whose purpose was to punish the Mameluke sultan of Egypt for, . he supported Ahmad Jalayir and the Turkish sultan Bayezid II, . captured eastern Anatolia,
. After the restoration of his power in Azerbaijan Tamerlane moved to Syria. Aleppo was stormed and looted, Mameluke army defeated, and Damascus captured (1400). A crushing blow to the welfare of Egypt was that Timur sent to Samarkand all the masters for the construction of mosques and palaces. In 1401 the storm was captured Baghdad, twenty thousand of its inhabitants were killed, and all the monuments destroyed. Tamerlane wintered in Georgia, and in the spring crossed Anatolia, defeated Bayezid near Ankara (July 20, 1402) and captured Smyrna, which owned the Knights of Rhodes. Bayazet died in captivity, and the story of his imprisonment in an iron cage forever became a legend.
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As soon as discontinued resistance Egyptian Sultan and John VII (then co-ruler Manuel II Palaeologus). Timur returned to Samarkand, and immediately began preparations for the expedition to China. He came in late December, but in Otrar on the Syr Darya River ill and January 19, 1405 died. Tamerlane's body was embalmed in an ebony coffin and sent to Samarkand, where he was buried in a magnificent mausoleum, called the Gur-Emir. Before his death, Timur divided their territory between the two surviving sons and grandsons. After years of war and hostility on the left wills descendants of Tamerlane were combined youngest son of Khan Shahrukom.
In the life of Timur's contemporaries were thorough chronicle of what is happening. She was supposed to provide for writing the official biography of Khan. In 1937 in Prague, Nizam al-Din Shami published these works. The processed version record has been prepared by Sharaf al-Din Yazdi earlier and in 1723 published a translation of Petit de la Croix.
Reconstruction of the head of Tamerlane
Opposing view was reflected by another contemporary of Tamerlane, Ibn Arabshahom configured extremely hostile to the Khan. His book was published in 1936 in the translation Sanders entitled "Tamerlane, or Timur the Great Amir". The so-called "Memoirs of Timur, who saw the light in 1830 in the translation of Stewart, are fake, but the circumstances of their discovery and presentation of Shah Jahan in 1637 are still being questioned.
. To have survived the portraits of the Persian Timur Masters
. However, they reflect an idealized view of it. They are not in any way fit the description of Khan one of his contemporaries as a very tall man with a big head, cheeks and blond hair from birth.


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