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Oliver Cromwell

( commander)

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Biography Oliver Cromwell
photo Oliver Cromwell

Childhood and youth of Oliver Cromwell.
Cromwell was born April 25, 1599 in Huntingdon (the center of the county of the same name) in the typical British family of noblemen - Robert Cromwell and Elizabeth Steward. Huntingdon was then a provincial town with a population of 1000-1200 people, monotonous life is revived only events in the market square and large weekly fairs. Rhode Cromwell entrenched as representatives of the local elite since the Reformation, and followed her, closing monasteries and the confiscation of their property to the Crown. Oliver's great-grandfather, Richard Williams, prefer the generic name the name of his uncle, Thomas Cromwell, of a powerful powerful when King Henry VIII, nicknamed "the hammer of the monks."
. Oliver's father, Robert Cromwell, was the youngest son in the family of Sir Henry, and, as required by applicable law, inherited only a fraction of his father's possessions
. His
. Thomas Cromwell - the founder of the names
. annual income was about 300 pounds, which for a gentleman with a known position in the county (as evidenced engaged them at different times post magistrate, bailiff of the city of Huntingdon), it was quite a bit
. These circumstances were, . probably, . due to two features in the character of Oliver Cromwell: first, . unswerving commitment to the Reformation, . which genus it owed its prosperity, . and hatred of the Catholic papist, . this threatening the well-being, and secondly, . belief in its "poverty", . far from the true state of affairs in the years of his youth, and certainly caricatured during his maturity.,
. This consciousness, which infringes his pride at the time of his childhood, becomes particularly acute when he compared the luxury that reigned in the palace of his uncle in Hinchinbruke, and the life of his home, which in addition to himself grew six of his sisters
. Does this not explained consciousness, . one hand, . "sharpness" and "temper" his nature, . which read rumor, . on the other - a definite dislike for the snobby elite, . manifested in cases of obvious injustice and arbitrariness, . chinivshihsya it in relation to the weak and defenseless,
.
In general, little is known about his childhood and early years of Oliver. Only later recalled that his parents' house in Cromwell reigned an atmosphere of puritanical piety, with its ethical ideal of "abstinence", "secular vocation", t. e. Business empiricism, the belief that "every act in the sight of the Lord", and attitude, as in prayer.
. Elizabeth Cromwell (Steward) - Oliver's mother
. The tone of the family asked the mother of Oliver - Elizabeth Steward.
. In 1616 Cromwell was a student of the most puritanical among the colleges of Cambridge - Sidney Sussex College, where he studied for only a year
. Because it taught him more than other subjects attracted mathematics and history. However, the surviving evidence, he sat behind the books are not very diligently, and with an immeasurably great enthusiasm worked horseback riding, swimming, hunting, archery and fencing.
. The news of the death of his father in the summer of 1617 forced Oliver to leave university and return home to help her mother keep house, because he was the only male in the family, which consisted of seven women.
. From the University of Cromwell ruled preserved for a lifetime admiration for the secular sciences and, in particular, a special interest in history
. In your own home this time he lived for two years, proved himself, surprisingly neighbors, a very zealous and capable farmer.
In 1619 Oliver went to London to study law. In this step, it was not surprising: rural squire, with its economic affairs and public responsibilities as likely magistrate or member of Parliament from his native county needs to know even the basics of so-called common law. However, in what legal farmstead, he studied and mastered how this science, it remains forever a mystery. We know only that the 20-year-old Oliver, in August 1620 he married the eldest daughter of a wealthy London merchant furs Elizabeth Burshir and soon returned to her home in Huntingdon. Thus began the 20 th anniversary in the life of Cromwell, . during which the concerns of rural squire and the father of many children of the family (over 11 years, his wife Elizabeth gave birth to seven children, . six of them - 4 sons and 2 daughters - survived) is almost entirely absorbed seething and looking out the energy of Cromwell.,

. Getting political career of Oliver Cromwell
.
Over the next 20 years, Cromwell led the ordinary life of the rural gentry and the landlord, however, filled with intense spiritual quest, in addition, he took an active part in local politics
. In 1628 Cromwell was elected Member of Parliament for Huntingdon, the same parliament, which adopted the famous "Petition of Right" and was soon fluff Charles I.
. Attention is drawn to the fact, . that the first fixed speech Cromwell as a member of Parliament was devoted to the protection of puritanical views of his teacher, Thomas Beard, . disavowed by the prelates of the Anglican Church of exposure warmed at the court papist,
. And another characteristic detail: when the 2 March 1629 the King ordered to suspend parliamentary sessions, among the royal will was disobedient, and Oliver Cromwell.
Charles I - King of England
After the first, more than his occasional appearance on the stage of national history, he returned to his ordinary pursuits squire again and disappeared for a long time with her, that had never seemed more at her not to return. And there is no doubt that this is exactly what would happen if the rule of King without Parliament approved a long time.
From 1630 to 1636 - the most difficult period in the life of Cromwell. After being defeated in a clash with the oligarchy of Huntingdon, Oliver takes a difficult decision. In May 1630 he sold all, . What possessed in his hometown, . and moved with his family in St Ives, . the neighboring Cambridgeshire, . which was in a clearly disadvantaged position: instead of the previous status freeholder him there had to be content with only the position of tenants foreign land,
. At the same time badly affected and financial difficulties (rumor says their extravagances of his youth). Rumor, . this time Cromwell seriously thinking about emigration to the North American colonies of New England, . a haven for many istyh puritans, . persecuted at home or simply do not priemlevshih dominant in strange order,
. In addition to everything he found himself in conflict with the royal will on this occasion - for refusing to purchase, for a fee of course, a knighthood, which entailed a fine of бё 10. Obviously, it was not about the money side of this requirement, but the principle. Cromwell remembered Parliament 1628-1629 school years - to resist all attempts by the Crown to replenish coffers, bypassing the parliament.
There was a band of heavy spiritual crisis Cromwell. At night he is plagued by premonitions hell, in a cold sweat, he jumped out of bed, screaming, falling ... Consciousness of sin Sears Cromwell inside and change its behavior. It becomes more serious, concentrated. His house is gradually becoming a haven for the persecuted Puritans. In the garden, in a large barn, he arranges the oratory - where they are going, preach, argue, sing psalms. For thirty three years in Cromwell ends charted Calvin process treatment. Merciless trial itself, the grief and torment of his own sinfulness, repentance, hope, and, finally, the assurance of salvation led Cromwell to the realization of his holiness, his chosen by God for great things. The meaning of his life, he now understands how the ministry of justice.

The beginning of the Civil War.
Besparlamentskogo During the reign of Charles I amassed many enemies, surrounding exorbitant extortions all segments of society. Using the royal prerogatives, still remains from the Middle Ages, he demanded payment of "tribute ship" (1635), fined noblemen (including Cromwell), if they refused to take the title of a knight, to levy a so-called. "freewill offerings, and increased taxes. Carl did all this because, without the consent of Parliament, he had no right to impose new taxes on the population. Distant its purpose was to ensure the financial independence of the royal government and bring the whole country "ecclesiastical uniformity". Last alienated from Karl as reformers of the Puritans, and many of the nobility and townspeople. In 1638 Karl started a war against his Scottish subjects (on the right of succession, he was the king of both Britain and Scotland), failing in an attempt to impose on them a prayer similar to those used in the Anglican Church. Presbyterians, the Scots, seeing it as a threat to their religion, rose, and the king was forced to convene the parliament to ask him for money for the war.
Parliament met in the spring of 1640, Cromwell's re-elected to the House of Commons (from Cambridge). A large number of claims to the king, accumulated over 11 years besparlamentnogo government, the leaders of the House of Commons tuned to the aggressive and stroppy mood. Cromwell immediately established itself as a militant Puritan, consistently supporting the critics of the church and the state government.
This so-called "Short Parliament" (13 April - 5 May 1640) was soon dissolved, but in the summer of 1640 the Scots once again defeated Carl and that the humiliating of all, occupied the northern regions of England.
Graf Strafford - associate of Charles I, the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland
Charles appealed for help to the new parliament assembled in autumn 1640, and Cromwell was again elected to it from Cambridge. "Long Parliament" (November 3, 1640 - April 20, 1653) rejected the policy of the king and ordered him to give up many prerogatives. Parliament insisted on taking custody of Archbishop of Lod, he was sentenced to death and sent to the block graph Strafforda, one of the closest people to Charles I in 1633-1639 years the Lord Lieutenant of Ireland. Cromwell was also elected to the Long Parliament, he moved to London. The first performance of his in the House of Commons - a requirement of freedom arrested for distributing literature of Puritan John Lilbernu. His speech had an effect, and Lilberna with other prisoners were released soon on the freedom. On another occasion, Cromwell opposed the privileges of the bishops are so passionately and strongly, that he was forced to apologize for unparliamentary language. House of Commons adopted consisted of 204 items "Grand Remonstrance", which were expressed opposition to government policy and distrust the king. Cromwell voted for the "Grand Remonstrance" with great enthusiasm, saying that if she had not passed, he went to England forever. When in 1641 in Ireland began a rebellion against the British parliament decided on the unprecedented step of demanding for itself the right to appoint all the royal ministers and senior army command. Derived from the king himself personally attempted to arrest five leaders of the parliament on charges of treason. When he failed, Charles I left London (10 January 1642), to gather their supporters in the north of England. House of Commons, in turn, introduced martial law and sent members of parliament in their constituencies to establish control over local stockpiles and the host. Upon arrival in Cambridge Cromwell captured the castle, arrested the captain of the detachment and prevented the county colleges to send the King of the silver utensils as gifts.
Since that time, Cromwell, who passed for 40 years and no military experience he had, moved to the forefront - and as a military organizer, and as a leader of the Puritan movement. He became famous for his radical Puritan views in "The Long Parliament", . advocating the complete abolition of the episcopate, . and throughout the East of England was known as a fighter for the right church communities to elect as their priests, . and those forms of religious life, . which suits this community.,

. Cromwell commander.
. With the onset of civil war between Parliament and King Cromwell comes to the parliamentary army captain begins to collect detachment cavalrymen among their fellow countrymen in Huntingdon and Cambridge
. In September 1642 in his squad for 60 volunteers. This unit participates in the first battle, and Cromwell saw that the victory over the king needed a completely different army, workable, cohesive, inspired by the lofty ideal. It recruits in his squad honest Puritans, who hated the royal tyranny and ready to lay down his life for a just cause. Oliver himself teaches recruits to quickly charge the musket properly maintain peak, to rebuild the ranks, to obey commands. He teaches them the unconditional subordination of the word of command, and ruthlessness in battle. By January 1643 the Parliament Cromwell bestow the rank of colonel. His regiment, he breaks on teams and led everyone puts commander - a cab, a shoemaker, boiler, ship skipper. This is unheard of for those times: the commanders always appointed people from the upper classes. But Cromwell is adamant. By March 1643 the regiment has been about two thousand horsemen.
The most terrifying impression on the royalists produce what Cromwell's troops before the battle in full combat readiness sang psalms. The beginning of 1644 Cromwell received the rank of Lieutenant-General.
Oliver Cromwell victorious march of the country
Second July 1644 at the Heath Marston Moor, five miles south of York, he scored a brilliant victory over the forces of Charles I. Cromwell commanded the cavalry, fighting side by side with the Scots and the northern army, headed by the Lord Fairfax, Ferdinand and his son Thomas (1612-1671). The numerical advantage was then on the side of Parliament, . and the royal army, . commanded by a nephew of Charles I, Prince Rupert, . was divided over three thousand royalists fell dead, . half - captured, . captured a hundred banners, . the artillery, . carts and equipment,
. A few days later surrendered to York.
But the victory of Cromwell did not seem pleased with the command of the army, which delays the war, afraid to act decisively. And the parliament is infected with cowardice and indifference, Cromwell convinces insists, requires a decisive battle. He is confident in the rightness of their cause. In late November, he went to London and serves in Parliament, where he openly accused the army chief Earl of Manchester, cowardice and betrayal. It requires a reorganization of the army and the change of command. And to ensure that the House of Commons accepts Act of self-denial, the members of Parliament are prohibited from exercising the highest military post. This means that all those who have prolonged the war, automatically lose their posts in the army. All except the Cromwell. For him, given his military achievements, the Parliament makes an exception. I decided to create a regular parliamentary army - the Army of the new model.
June 14, 1645, the army under the command of Cromwell inflicts a crushing defeat last troops of King. Cromwell, wrote in a report from the Speaker of the lower house: "Sir, after three hours of stubborn fighting, walking, with varying success, we have scattered the enemy, killed and captured about five thousand, among them many officers. Was also captured two hundred carts, that is all the baggage and the artillery. We pursued the enemy for almost to the Harborough Leicester, when he fled the King ... "
After the Civil War, the victorious Cromwell became the country's immense prestige, and his army became a formidable force. This scares the Presbyterian Parliament. He prefers to negotiate with the captive king, and to disband the army or sent to subdue the rebellious Irish. In response, the army begins a movement of the Levellers - political egalitarians. In the summer of 1647 a detachment Cornet Joyce captures and transports in the army bet captive king. A little more - and the army just come out of obedience. Cromwell left London and went to the location of the Army. And when he sees that there is discontent reached its highest pitch, that the army is ready to go to London and take power into their own hands, he turns on her side, and six in August 1647 at its head comes to London.

Conflict of parliament and the army.
All this time, Cromwell retained the seat in Parliament and appeared there as soon as the opportunity presented. In 1644, he played a key role in the adoption of the Bill of self-denial, according to which members of Parliament who held command positions in the army, had to leave with them, so that the army could join the new blood. This opened the way for the appointment of an apolitical chief Thomas Fairfax. Cromwell was willing to lay down their commanders authority, however, yielded to the insistence of Fairfax, stayed to take part in the Battle of Neyzbi. Cromwell did not minimize his talent, but throughout life attributed the victory of the Almighty.
Thomas Fairfax - Chief of the army of Cromwell
It is characteristic of Cromwell highly individual, deeply personal Puritan faith prompted him to take up arms against the king and inspired the battles. When an alliance with the Scots, which in exchange for help in the fight against the royalists Presbyterianism spread throughout England, Cromwell slandered guarantees freedom of religion to himself and his fellow Independents. But at first he gave the right to determine the future form of government civilian leaders of the parliament, the majority of Presbyterians
. However revealed, . that the House of Commons (the supporters of the king abandoned at the beginning of the war) and the pathetic remnant of the House of Lords seeking to impose a rigid structure of the whole Presbyterian Church of England and to dissolve in the houses of soldiers Fairfax, . the majority of Independents, . not paying them any satisfactory remuneration for service,
. Initially, Cromwell, as a member of parliament and people, enjoyed enormous prestige in the army, tried to mediate between parliament and the soldiers, but eventually was forced to make a choice, by linking their future with the army. He has made considerable effort in order to reach an agreement with the king, which gave the Scots a prisoner to Parliament in February 1647, before their troops left England. Cromwell did not object to the announcement Presbyterian national church, but insisted that the outside was allowed to exist puritanical sects (Independents). Leading on behalf of the Army talks with the parliament and the king on the postwar, Cromwell consistently showed intransigence on this issue. At the same time, he acted as a mediator within the army itself, trying to convince the radicals who wanted to introduce a democratic republic that is so revolutionary change was not ripe. His own program involved the establishment of a constitutional monarchy with a parliament, expressing the interests of the middle classes, and the church, to show tolerance towards other faiths.
But to end the monarchy, as required by some hotheads, Cromwell was not yet ready. He began negotiations with Charles, for which the Levellers declare him a traitor. October 28 - November 11 Petni, a suburb of London, Cromwell preside at meetings of the army during the discussion of the draft new constitution. The disputes are becoming fiercer, Cromwell then proposed a time to turn together to God and ask him for help, it shows that it means the disintegration of the republic, the death of a nation, chaos and ruin. And when the debate finally come to a standstill, he dissolves the Council of the army and ordered the participants to immediately return to the shelves of his duties. Nov. 15 at an army look in Huere, where Levellers tried again to put forward their demands, he is in a rage raises horses on their hind legs and a naked sword cuts into the ranks of the rebellious soldiers. Four ringleaders at his command grab, they were sentenced to death. Cooling down, Cromwell agrees to shoot only one - on whom the lot falls.
Oliver Cromwell.





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