"Old Fritz, dismount from his horse and
right to resubmit Prussia. "
The words of songs composed in the year of construction
monument to Frederick
in Berlin. Frederick
II looks like an upstart among the truly great
monarchs. At first glance, his identity has not had the set of qualities which are commonly identified with the grandeur of the Emperor. And yet, despite this, and perhaps because of this it is really attractive and interesting. Frederick
II was born on January 24, 1712 at Berlin's Royal Palace. While sitting on the throne of his grandfather born Frederick
I. This clever and enterprising leader compensated scarce resources of the state and its a very small military force that used to their advantage then the policy reversals.
Grand Master Albert of Hohenzollern (1511-1522)
In 1700, after the death of the childless King Charles II, war broke out the Spanish Succession between France and Austria. Frederick
I, Elector of Brandenburg then, joined the latter as an ally. For this he received in 1701 from the Austrian Emperor the title of King of Prussia on his possessions. Erection of Prussia to the rank of the kingdom was the most significant event of his reign. Frederick
I hastened to acquire a magnificent court, to build in Berlin, then still a poor provincial town, the palace and founded in the Academy of Arts. Huge sums from a wealthy Prussian treasury was spent on maintenance gloss royal title. Frederick
I died in 1713, and the Prussian king became his son - Frederick
William - father of Frederick
. The new reign began with rigid transformations, affecting almost all areas of life. Friedrich-Wilhelm proclaimed himself War Minister and Minister of Finance. Apparently frightened by the prodigality father, he sought only to multiply and accumulate. The salaries of civil servants has been reduced five times, but taxes have increased and distributed equally to all subjects of the King: the nobility and common people.
. Money regularly flocked to the royal treasury of the impoverished country and remained there in the form of a barrel of gold coins
. Have as many of these barrels, it seemed the surest guarantee of the King power of the state. Not limited to, Friedrich-Wilhelm acquired for his palace, the massive silver products, with "art was less important than the material value. Frederick
William I - King of Prussia, father of Frederick
His wife, he gave the study, in which all the furniture was gold, coal tongs to handle and blades and pots and including "(1). But in this rich palace reigned treated the same austerity as the entire country.
Second, except for gold, the passion was the army of King. Soldier, he also accumulated, bringing the strength of the Prussian army to 80 thousand. man. In military operations, the Army has not participated.
Which only insulting epithet did not deserve Friedrich Wilhelm I: miser, idiot, barbarian. Even the dignity of this man looked like defects. Honesty was transformed into a rude, savings - in stinginess. Still, he was not so stupid, and, strange as it may seem, he loved his eldest son. But here, Friedrich Wilhelm was as despotic, as in the governance. Attachment to his eldest son was expressed mainly in trying to turn the prince in his own likeness.
Friedrich-Wilhelm admired the army - at the earliest opportunity with the Friedrich shot baby clothes and dressed in the uniform. In five years he taught gun techniques. At fourteen years old Frederick
was granted a captain at fifteen - in the majors, at seventeen - a colonel.
Here are excerpts from the instructions given by the King of educators Little Prince: "Prince should inspire to be a good Christian. It should be a good and intelligent host and distaste to any laxity, . extravagance and gambling, in addition, . it should inspire, . it will be nothing more than a contemptible person, . if not able to work out of a valiant soldier. ",
. In accordance with this instruction was based daily routine of Frederick
. "Morning prayer, then marching and bookish teaching, in the resurrection of the Crown Prince at the head of his platoon walked into the church" (2).
. However, education of the prince was not so monotonous
. King was fond of music, preferring Handel. Cathedral organist was appointed to teach them the basic rules of Frederick
Organ games and music theory
. French Frederick
knew from the first years of life and possessed almost no better than the native because of its first nurse - Mrs Rokul, a Parisienne by birth of the Protestant religion.
. As a child, the character of Frederick
has not yet made itself felt
II the Great
The famous quarrel with his father Prince started on reaching the age of sixteen, Friedrich.
In 1728 the Prussian king and his son made a trip to Dresden. Yard August II, one of the most brilliant in Europe, not the slightest impression on Frederick
William, but his son was obedient body and soul. The luxury of court holidays, a lot of pretty women should have an effect on the impressionable dizzy Friedrich. Here he appeared the first passion, Countess Anna Orzelska, natural daughter of Augustus II. Beauty Countess reciprocated the young prince. Returning then to the dull Berlin, where he served as entertainment only parades and shows, and in the evening meeting in the Tobacco Board, the King must have seemed Frederick
He wanted at least a piece of Dresden carefree life moved to the northern capital. For this they needed money, and get them in Prussia was not possible. Friedrich rescued the Austrian imperial court. Buying the loyalty of the future King of Prussia, Emperor Charles willingly supplied the money of the Crown Prince.
in those years did not resemble the image of the soldier-king, appears before us in later times. He was handsome, he was well read, as absorbing all the literature in French, which is an occasion to fall in Berlin, his speech was witty. Voltaire then had every right to write in his memoirs: "I believe that the less similar to each other father and son, rather than the two monarch, it is difficult to find."
. Indeed, unlike his father, who toyed with bear baiting and speeches ropewalker, Friedrich found pleasure in reading, intelligent conversation, an exercise in playing the flute - his favorite musical instrument
. Surprising is the coexistence of two Friedrichs, seemingly completely incompatible personalities: King-soldier and a genuine connoisseur of the arts, cultural rights, intellectual. It was not an empty tribute to the Age of Enlightenment, the king really loved poetry and well versed in music. In the campaigns of the Seven Years War, he carried with him a book of Racine and Voltaire. Reading served the King holiday, allowing for a time to forget about a world full of worries.
Preferences son called his father's fierce irritation. For Frederick
installed this surveillance. On each step of his report to Frederick
William. The situation in the royal family is becoming more intense.
Family discord is compounded by political reasons. Frederick
's mother, Sophia Dorothea - the daughter of the Elector of Hanover, later King of England George I dreamed about strengthening ties between the English and Prussian ruling houses. She wanted to give his eldest daughter, Wilhelmina's son of then Crown Prince, her brother, Frederick
married his sister, his niece. Both sides were willing, but England did not hurry to give a final response, while Austria, while the opponent of Britain, did everything possible not only to thwart the marriage, but also to destroy the alliance between Berlin and London. Make it easy. Prussian recruiters came to the land in Hanover, owned by the King of England, and grabbed the young people there to send in the Prussian army. This fact has done little to a gentleman's agreement, in 1729 nearly started a war between Prussia and Britain. The Berlin yard divided into two parties: the Austrian and British. The first belonged to the King, the second - the Queen and her older children: Frederick
and Wilhelmina. King, nothing tolerated contradiction itself, this provision was irritated to the extreme. They are allowed to appear before the eyes of the king only at the table. Wilhelmina, the future margravine Beyreytskaya, has acquired a bad reputation due to its wing memoirs, whose sharp, unfriendly style produces a very negative impression in the first place the nature of memoirist. But for Friedrich, perhaps, the only man in her life, Wilhelmina has always been gentle, considerate friend. Even without being able to see my brother often, it is up to the death in 1758, was with him in close correspondence.
In 1730, Frederick
decided to flee the country. This episode of his biography is commonly known and described in detail in the historical literature. Escape was unsuccessful, because it was prepared in haste, two very young and inexperienced people: the Prince and his close friend, Lieutenant von Katti. This charming and frivolous playboy, to the same person well-read and intelligent, clearly patron Prince on the Rights of the elder.
. When you try to escape Frederick
was arrested and transported to Kyustrinskuyu fortress, where he was charged with treason, because he was going to run into a hostile Prussia, England
. However, though the king showed anger, and seemed even going to insist on the highest measure against the heir, Frederick
hardly in danger of parting with life. But Katte circumstances be lamentably. He was executed. Frederick
also had received only the freedom and material goods.
. "The regiment Prince, . crews and furnishings have been selected Frederick
, . state dissolved, . but part of being punished, . favorite books and 4000 volumes sold, the young daughter of the rector of the Potsdam, . propensity to which Frederick
expressed in some gifts, . has been publicly punished and done 3 years in the workhouse, . Prince and the valet was in Spandau. "(2),
continuously for almost a year spent under supervision in Kustrin and first reappeared at the court only in November 1731, the day of the wedding of his sister Wilhelmina with Margrave Beyreytskim
. King has put her marriage is a necessary condition for the liberation of Frederick
Having experienced the horror of disgrace, having been on trial, the prince looked recovered himself and submissive. King thought that was a suitable moment to reflect on the marriage of the heir. Apart dynastic considerations King believed marriage surest way to curb that temper the prince and put an end to his endless passion that continued even in Kustrin. The Austrian Party offered as a bride Princess of Brunswick-Bevern, Elizabeth, Christina, niece of the Austrian Empress. Frederick
fiercely opposed the idea of this marriage, probably because she did not promise the possibility to leave the Prussian court and freed at last from the father's authority. He probably wanted to marry Anne Leopoldovna niece Anna Ioannovna adopted her daughter, or a princess of the English royal house. He wrote: "I want to hammer in love with sticks, unfortunately, I do not have an ass by nature, and therefore, I am afraid that this will not. But I'll be gallant and allow to marry you, then, let the madam does what he wants, but I, for its part also retain freedom of action.
June 12, 1733 accomplished marriage of Frederick
and Elizabeth-Christine. The marriage proved to be fruitless and unfortunate for both spouses, which, by the way, fed each other very few locations and the end of life were hardly acquaintances.
described his wife as: "She's tall, but badly composed and poorly kept. The whiteness of her dazzling, but the glow is too bright: her eyes pale blue, with no expression and do not promise special mind. Her mouth is small, cute features, although wrong, all face so innocent innocently, that one might think at first glance, that the head belongs to its twelve-year-child. Blond hair curled by nature, but all the beauty it disfigures clumsy, blackened teeth. Her movements awkward, conversation lethargic, it was difficult in terms, often used the momentum, which have to guess what she wants to say ". Description, of course, ruthless, but hardly has nothing to do with reality.
In the same year, an event far more important for the future of Frederick
and largely determine the direction of his character.
Louis XV - the French king, at first an ally, then enemy Frederick
He participated in his first real military campaign, having gone along with the Prussian corps of 10,000 men to the army Eugene of Savoy. Seventy-Austrian commander acted against France in the war, . due to claims of Polish royal throne of the son of the late Polish king Augustus II, . supported by Austria, . Russia and Prussia, . and father in law of Louis XV Stanislaw Leszczynski,
. No real power over the Prussian army of Frederick
was not. As commander in chief acted Frederick
William and Prince Is it possible to attend the councils. But life in the military camp acted on Frederick
opyanyayusche. He seemed to have got in their native element. Toasts for dinner in a tent commander, . instead of music that sounds the guns, . dizzy rapture own courage, . in fact crashed in the vicinity of nuclei does not cause a prince is not the slightest tremor - the romantic side of war, then completely captured the imagination of Frederick
. Imagination, quick, easily ignited, was one of the main features of the future king
. It always fascinated by Friedrich in the enterprise, the ridiculous, the risky, dozens of times lets him down, gambling with ghosts, but in the end, immortalized. Who knows, maybe if not for him, Frederick
, despite his tumultuous state, military and political activities, personality appeared quite commonplace and boring.
Campaign 1733 leaked badly for Austria and its allies, but they are not tangible damage caused and even completed the reconciliation of the warring parties. Returning to Prussia, Friedrich lived in the castle Reynsberg. Significantly restructured and re-decorated, it remained the residence of the Prince to the death of King Frederick
During these years, began regular correspondence with Voltaire, Friedrich. Jordaens - a personal librarian of twenty-Crown advised him to first write the most famous of French writers.
Voltaire - French Enlightenment
Jordaens deserves special mention as one of the few real friends Frederick
. Perhaps only to him, King allowed himself to write anything that comes into your head, and these letters give the knowledge of the nature of Friedrich more than whole volumes of his writings.
Voltaire willingly participated in correspondence with the heir to the Prussian throne, though not forgotten to mention in his memoirs that Frederick
started it from nothing to do, and he has supported only in deference to the title of his correspondent.
Prince and he tries his hand at literature. In 1739, he wrote a book, even before its publication as he came loud glory. It's called "Antimakiavelli or testing of the Prince" and contains a refutation of the postulates put forward in the work of N. Machiavelli's "The Emperor". Even the enlightened people of the eighteenth century "Antimakiavelli" struck humanism and generosity of ideas depicted.
Voltaire, even while Friedrich was the crown prince, he worked on the publication (of course, anonymous) manuscript. He succeeded, not uttering the name of Frederick
aloud, make it clear to everyone, whose pen belongs to "Antimakiavelli". This predetermined the success of his undertaking. Publishers literally tore up the manuscript from the hands. Even more popular book Add the fact that in 1740 its author became king. It has withstood three reprints and sold almost all over Europe: in England, France, Spain. Frederick
can not be satisfied. And yet, in a letter to Voltaire, dated summer 1740, they made a desperate postscript: "For God's sake, buy the entire edition" Antimakiavelli.
is often accused of hypocrisy because of the fact that his actions always differed from the words
. So wrote a treatise against Machiavelli, King, as if mocking him, he began to follow the policy advice of his opponent.
. Silhouette of Frederick
of the artist F. Sido (second half of XVIII century)
. In the character of the king, indeed, there was a tendency not to disassemble means to achieve goals, but it has become apparent only in later years, when Frederick
was forced to confront all the European courts
. Speaking about his youth, the more likely to be true to the words of Voltaire: "... in the nature of it was inclined to do the opposite of what he said and wrote. He did this not out of malice, but because he wrote and spoke at one atmosphere, and operated under the other. "
. A Friedrich, freed at last from the authorities his father, finds himself in the mood, the emergence of which could not have anticipated, as the Crown Prince
. One day, he was the master of the whole country, great
for those times, the treasury and well-trained army. Youthful idealism, largely caused and nourished by the spirit of contradiction with respect to crude practicality father dies in it. Although initially Frederick
is consistent with his own ideal of the sovereign. His decree abolished judicial torture, and some taxes, continue to hold office, ministers and generals of Frederick
William, who was predicted to retire from her ascension to the throne of the king-philosopher. Friends of the Crown Prince, hoping for the generosity of Frederick
, whom they knew in frivolous reynsbergskie years, were disappointed in their hopes. Dengi financial king administered only sparingly. Frederick
served with enthusiasm for the new role of an enlightened monarch, the author of acclaimed books in Europe, the philosopher on the throne. But any peaceful occupation, be it music, literature or the administration of the country was for Frederick
is not more than hobby. His true vocation, King was looking for a military career. Education of Frederick
William, against which so fiercely rebellious prince, still had on him and a strong undercurrent of influence. King must be a soldier, that's what Frederick
had learned from his father's. Moreover, for such a vulnerable and sensitive person, as he could not be that attractive aura of masculinity and power, which have always been surrounded by troops. Among the soldiers of Frederick
trying to find a cure for his own weaknesses, failures and disappointments. The army was his birthplace, the army was his family. Europe hates the King of Prussia, and cursed the name of who was the sole cause of the terrible Seven Years voynyN Voltaire finds poetry king bezdarnymiN Nonsense. Frederick
horseback, accompanied by a retinue of generals, gallops down the line of his guards regiments. Soldiers greet him shouting. Throughout the King sees the slender ranks, ready to go in motion at his command. Here it will be any, all will be forgiven him: and cruelty cane discipline, and the hardships of campaigns, which no end in sight. After their old Fritz can do wonders, making a resounding victory, even the dust under the feet of his troops. Frederick
called the soldiers: Children. His army belonged not so much of Prussia, as the King of Prussia. Serve Frederick
Maria Theresa of Austria - Austrian Empress, a constant opponent of Frederick
The Army was imposed cane discipline, there have deserted. King sometimes abandoning their wounded for the sake of speed of movement. Yet, the soldiers treated him as in his time legionnaires to Caesar: to enjoy the right to easily contact the person on whose will depend on the fate of Europe, and were proud to fight under his banner.
. Once at the head of the army, Frederick
can not wait to test himself rather as a military leader
. Any desire gives birth to a thousand possibilities. October 26, 1740 died on the Austrian Emperor of the Habsburg dynasty Charles VI, ascended the throne and his daughter Maria Theresa. Starogermansky body of laws prohibiting the transfer of the imperial crown in the female line, but Charles VI, issued its own law, called the Pragmatic Sanction. He established the continuity of the Habsburg lands, and allowed their daughters to inherit the monarch in the absence of his sons. Most of the rulers of Germany and the European monarchs had expressed willingness to recognize the pragmatic sanction. But the agreement, expressed in the paper during the life of the late emperor, was transient. Maria Theresa from the very beginning of his reign, had the force of arms to prove rights to the Austrian throne, and Germany's imperial crown.
The change of government in Austria seemed to Frederick
convenient excuse for war, whose purpose was rich Silesia. Prussia's claim to the province could be described as unfounded. Although the ancestors of Frederick
acquired at different times in succession in Silesia several principalities, it is unlikely to be regarded as a pretext to seize the whole country. But the remarkable excerpt from a letter by Friedrich to Voltaire "lifting the true causes of what is happening:" Ambition, greed, my desire to become famous triumph, and the war has been resolved ".
December 14, 1740 Frederick
arrived in the border town Crossen, and his army, excellent equipment and training, although still not involved in hostilities, entered the territory of Austria. Her progress was done almost without hindrance, because the Vienna office until the last moment did not believe in the possibility of war and failed to take measures to protect Silesia. By the end of January the whole country (except the fortresses Brig, Glogau and Neisse) was already in the hands of Frederick
, who was such a bloodless, easy and victorious war resulted in the intoxication.
Attack troops of Frederick
Here's an excerpt from his letter: "My dear Mr. Jordan, Jordan, my sweet lord, my gentle lord Jordan!" My dear, my dear, my gentle, my sweet lord Jordan. I tell your hilarity that almost conquered Silesia. Prepare you for the great
enterprises and presage happiness, a willful lap of fortune never bred. Be my Cicero in defending my case - in committing it, I'll be yours Caesar.
Austria, could not, of course, without a fight to give one of the richest provinces of their. Hostilities resumed in the spring of 1741. At this time the king was opposed, instead of separate units regular Austrian army led by Field Marshal Earl Neyperga. The first big battle of this campaign (Battle of Mollwitz April 10, 1741) proved unsuccessful for Frederick
and added nothing to the personal glory of the King as commander. Friedrich summed up his inexperience and emotional. Right flank, . he commanded, . confused under the pressure of the Austrians, . Prussian cavalry, . disadvantageous set, . began to trample on their own infantry regiments, . and King, . unable to stop the rout of their soldiers, . himself in despair, fled from the battlefield,
. It is not known what drove him away stronger, the horror of death, with whom he had first come face to face, or dishonor of the vanquished, which his imagination had painted in all colors. He did not even bothered to find out how things are going in the other flank. And there his troops, led by experienced generals, Schwerin and Leopold Dessauskim, stoically withstand the attack of the Austrians. Generals in the absence of King Frederick
brought the battle to the end. They rightfully belongs to all the honor of victory.
The first major success of the Prussian troops drew the attention of European countries. It became clear that the campaign in 1741 turns into this big war. Prussia suddenly appears as an independent and powerful country, ready to shake the balance of forces in Europe. At the sight of her successes, France, long a rival of Austria, considered advantageous to engage in military action. Between Frederick
and Louis XV was concluded Union Nymphenburg. Frederick
II the Great
Later he was joined by claiming Austrian Succession Polish King August III, Elector of Bavaria Karl-Albrecht and Spain's Queen Elizabeth.
Actions Nymphenburg Union were successful. Frederick
mastered Breslau - the main city of Silesia. The troops of Charles Alberhta rushed to Vienna itself, so that the Empress with the entire court was forced to retire in Presburg. On the resistance once all fortunate allies could be no question. Maria Theresa decided to enter into separate negotiations with the most dangerous of them - the King of Prussia. In accordance with a secret Klein Shtellendorfkim agreement, Frederick
received the whole of Lower Silesia, with the condition to suspend hostilities. Agreement the efforts of Austria, it soon became known to the participants Nymphenburg Union. This made a split in their ranks, thanks to which the Austrian troops were able to strike his opponent a number of sensitive strikes. In retaliation, Frederick
November 7, 1741 took a solemn oath of the inhabitants of Silesia, and went up to her throne.
But the war was not yet completed. Frederick
still has not received written assurances that Vienna will leave Silesia in its possession. Only defeated by the Prussian troops in the battle shotuzitskoy, Viennese cabinet decided to join with the Prussian king in peace talks. As a mediator spoke English ambassador, Lord Gindfort, initiator Klein Shtellendorfkogo Agreement. Under the terms of peace Friedrich received Upper and Lower Silesia and the county Glats. Prussia took over the Austrian debt 1700000 reyhstalerov employed in England bail Silesia. At the grand dinner, given by Frederick
to his officers on the occasion of the conclusion of peace, he proposed a toast for the health and happiness of Maria Theresa.
A letter from Frederick
to Jordan: "In eight days I have done more cases than commissioners home" Austria "have done them in eight years. And almost everything I could quite happily. I have done all that was required by the honor of my people, now get down to what he calls his happiness. While in my brain some bills so the numbers, but on return I will throw all this nonsense out of your head to fill it with something better ". The tone of this letter, compared with those that Friedrich wrote a year ago, far less enthusiastic and more smug. The war was good, the king was convinced of his military vocation, the victory at Shotuzitse bring shame Mollwitz. In the business and cheerful frame of mind the King returns to his Prussia.
Two successive years of peace Friedrich busy training and reorganization of the Army. Particular attention he drew to the cavalry, whose actions in the future of his victories, has the primary role. Clumsy cavalry of Frederick
William was completely reorganized. This activity helps Tsitten Friedrich, chief of the Prussian hussars, one of the closest associates of the King. The focus of training instead of firing the trooper, now given to the riding and fencing with horse. In continuous maneuvers cavalrymen trained rapid attack in close formation, instant rebuild, everything that led to the complete superiority of the Prussian cavalry on the fields of the Seven Years' War.
. In addition, Frederick
, apparently realizing that, despite a written agreement with Austria, on her part would have made attempts to regain Silesia, built in a conquered country, the new fortress and reinforces the old
. Breslau - the main city of Silesia, declared the third, along with Berlin and Konigsberg, the capital of Prussia - this demonstration Friedrich wants to reassure Vienna that intends to leave for a new province.
Cathedral in Berlin, built under Frederick
By changing the order of management, Frederick
received from a rich Silesia significant revenue, which could serve as the economic base of a new war. Prussia at that time was experiencing a recovery in all areas of life. King personally encouraged the development of manufacture, for the revival of trade at his command, connect the channel of the river Elbe and Oder. In the Berlin Palace under the chairmanship of the King opens first meeting after a long break, the Academy of Sciences. Architect Knobelsdorff building in Berlin, the new opera house, then one of the most beautiful in Europe. On its stage were the best artists in the world: Farinella and Pinto, as well as the famous dancer Barbarina. King for some reason vouchsafed to her, seemed to have been in love with her. Its location is stretched to the point Barbarina received an invitation to the royal dinner, where the king usually surrounded exclusively by men.
Luminosity reached unprecedented luxury of the court holidays. "It was a magnificent spectacle for the people of vain, . ie almost all, . who saw him at the table, . surrounded by thirty princes, . dinner at the finest in Europe, the golden pot, . while thirty beautiful of Pages and the same run before in luxurious costumes were great
dishes of solid gold. "(1),
. Yet some details discord with the appearance of advanced and prosperous nation
. For example, the prohibition of the inhabitants of Prussia travel abroad other than for trade or for treatment. This measure explains the reluctance of Frederick
prevent the outflow of money. Even then it was noticeable how despotic intends to exercise its will on this king-philosopher. Frederick
arranged things so that nobody but him was not involved in government. Perhaps this desire to dispose of power solely attributable solely to the uncertainty of Frederick
himself, the fear of a fantasy more worthy of the ruler, the wisdom of which vskroyutsya his own mistakes and blunders. Thus, apparently, made itself felt complex, embedded in Frederick
's father, who once spent a lot of time, suggesting the Prince that he did not able slacker.
. While Prussia enjoy peace, war in Europe did not cease
. Austria one by one cause injury to their opponents who formed part of Nymphenburg Union. Frederick
followed closely the unfolding events.
Franz I - Emperor of Austria, husband of Maria Theresa
Even then he managed to acquire spies in the strongest European courts and to obtain reliable information about the political intentions of their adversaries and allies
. Realizing, . that further advancement Austria threatens him loss of Silesia, . he enters into a new alliance with France and the Bavarian Elector Karl-Albrecht, . who managed to get useless for him the crown Germanskogo emperor and lose their own possessions in Bavaria, . occupied by Austrian troops,
In 1744 the army of Frederick
to march again, but this year's campaign was his unsuccessful. He opposed the experienced Austrian general Thrawn. He was in no hurry to give the king a decisive battle, but skillfully maneuvered around it, cutting it off from the Allies for as long as the single decisive blow, not rejected for Elbe. Frederick
wrote in the second part of "Stories of his time, somewhat exaggerating loyalty to his fortunate adversary:" Thrawn's actions should serve as a model for every commander, who loves the art of war. A good captain is obliged to imitate him, unless it is necessary to power. "
1745 begins for Austria's best. Died Jan. 20, Carl-Albrecht, while France renounced military action against Austria. Maria Theresa for the complete victory now could only cause the final defeat of the King of Prussia and Silesia back. Frederick
seriously preparing for a new military campaign, realizing that it would place him in a decisive. "From the Treasury had taken out six million dollars, from all over the state made on land exaction and a half million. All silverware, decorate the palace: chandeliers, tables, chandeliers, fireplaces ... were converted into money. "(3)
. Biography (Part 2)
. Literary sources